Art Appreciation- Principles & Elements of Art: Balance-Scale-Proportion-Time/Motion-Emphasis-Contrast-Rhythm

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Published on February 6, 2014

Author: PaigePrater

Source: slideshare.net

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A brief introduction to the principles and elements of art, specifically balance, scale, proportion, time and motion, emphasis, contrast, rhythm and pattern. Based on Part One of "Gateways to Art" (2012).

ART APPRECIATION: BALANCE, SCALE, PROPORTION, TIME/MOTION, EMPHASIS, CONTRAST & RHYTHM T, R, 9:30AM-10:50AM Professor Paige Prater

Symmetrical Asymmetrical Radial BALANCE: DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS (UNIFIED OR VARIED) WITHIN A WORK

BALANCE: SYMMETRICAL Ritual container from Gui, China, Shang Dynasty, 1600–1100 BCE. Bronze, 6¼ x 10¾”. University of Hong Kong Museum

• Uneven distribution of value and shape • Visual“heaviness” of the right side counteracted by placing one shape lower on the left Muqi, Six Persimmons, Southern Song Dynasty, c. 1250. Ryoko-in, Dailoxu-ji, Kyoto, Japan BALANCE: ASYMMETRICAL

 Equidistance from a single point BALANCE: RADIAL Amitayas mandala created by the monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery, Tibet

 Unity, variety, and balance are central principles that artists use to create visual impact  Unity gives a work a certain oneness or cohesion  Variety is expressed in contrast and difference  Created by the use of different kinds of lines, shapes, patterns, colors, or textures  Balance is imposed on a work when the artist achieves an appropriate combination of unity and variety REHASH

Bernini. Apollo and Daphne, 1622-24. Giacomo Balla. Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. TIME/MOTION

 relative to our own size  MONUMENTAL  HUMAN SCALE  SMALL SIZE SCALE

SCALE: MONUMENTAL

SCALE: HUMAN SCALE Damien Hirst, Mother and Child (Divided), 1993

SCALE: SMALL SIZE http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/08/reveale d-a-book-the-size-of-a-ladybug/278427/

Dorothea Tanning, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, 1943. Oil on canvas, 16⅛ x 24”. Tate, London SCALE: UNEXPECTED…

PROPORTION:  Relationships between sizes of parts  Aids expression and description (and NATURALISM)  Egypt  Greece>Rome>Renaissance  Golden Section  Golden Mean  Fibonacci Sequence

PROPORTION: EGYPTIAN CUBIT

PROPORTION: GOLDEN SECTION, ETC. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tAZe6pP-FM

Poseidon (or Zeus), c. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, 6’10½” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece PROPORTION: GREECE

 Golden Rectangles is a technique based on nesting inside each other a succession of rectangles based on the 1:1.618 proportions of the Golden Section  The shorter side of the outer rectangle becomes the longer side of the smaller rectangle inside it, and so on  =elegant spiral shape PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE

PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE

PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE Henry Peach Robinson, Fading Away, 1858. Combination albumen print.

PROPORTION: GOLDEN RECTANGLE

PROPORTION: RENAISSANCE Raphael, School of Athens, 1510-1511. Fresco, 16’ 8” x 25’. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City.

 Raphael’s sensitivity to proportion reflects his pursuit of perfection  Magnificent scale = sense of importance  Parts of each figure are harmonious in relation to each other and portray an idealized form  Double emphasis on the center brings our attention to the opposing gestures of two famous Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle PROPORTION: SCHOOL OF ATHENS

 Drawing attention to particular content  VS SUBORDINATION (drawing attention away from particular content) EMPHASIS

Double-chambered vessel with mouse, Recuay, Peru, 4th–8th century. Ceramic, 6” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York EMPHASIS

EMPHASIS Jules Olitski, Tin Lizzie Green, 1964. Acrylic and oil/wax crayon on canvas, 10’10” x 6’10”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts

NO EMPHASIS Mark Tobey, Blue Interior, 1959. Tempera on card, 44 x 28”

 The particular part of emphasis to which the artist draws our eye FOCAL POINT

PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, LANDSCAPE WITH THE FALL OF ICARUS, C. 1555–8. OIL ON CANVAS, MOUNTED ON WOOD, 29 X 44⅛”. MUSÉES ROYAUX DES BEAUX-ARTS DE BELGIQUE, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM

EMPHASIS & FOCAL POINT • Directional Line • Contrasting Values Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas, 6’6⅜” x 5’3¾“. Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy

EMPHASIS & FOCAL POINT  water is the focal point conceptually as well as visually The Emperor Babur Overseeing his Gardeners, India, Mughal period, c. 1590. Tempera and gouache on paper, 8¾ x 5⅝”. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England

• 3 separate focal points • Position • Shape • Rhythm Ando Hiroshige, “Riverside Bamboo Market, Kyobashi,” from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo, 1857. 15 x 10⅜”. James A. Michener Collection, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Hawaii

CONTRAST  Very different elements right next to each other

Francisco de Zurbarán, The Funeral of St. Bonaventure, 1629. Oil on canvas, 8' 2” x 7' 4”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France CONTRAST

 ALL the elements and principles of art can serve to create EMPHASIS  Both actual and implied lines shape our examination of a work of art by directing the movement of our gaze  Contrasts between different values, colors, or textures can sometimes be so dramatic and distinct that we cannot help but feel drawn to that area of a work REHASH…

 Recurrence of an element   Motif – repeated design as a unit within a pattern Repetition creates UNITY comes from repetition! PATTERN

RHYTHM/PATTERN

Suzanne Valadon, The Blue Room, 1923. Oil on canvas,  35½ × 45⅝”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

GREAT MOSQUE OF CÓRDOBA, PRAYER HALL OF ABD AL-RAHMAN I, 784–6

Huqqa base, India, Deccan, last quarter of 17th century. Bidri ware (zinc alloy inlaid with brass), 6⅞ x 6½ in. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York MOTIF

Chuck Close, Self Portrait, 1997. Oil on canvas, 8’6” × 7’. MOMA, New York

MOTIF VS. RANDOMNESS • Dada movement • “chance” • Random arrangement Hans Arp, Trousse d’un Da,1920–21. Assemblage of driftwood nailed onto wood with painting remains, 15 x 10½ x 1¾”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

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