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Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space

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Information about Art Appreciation, Elements of Art: Value & Space
Education

Published on January 30, 2014

Author: PaigePrater

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A brief overview of the elements of value and space, including isometric and linear perspective, within art. Based on Gateways to Art (2012).
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ART APPRECIATION: VALUE & SPACE PROFESSOR PAIGE PRATER T, R, 9:30-10:50AM

10 ELEMENTS OF ART: 1. COLOR 2. FORM 3. LINE 4. MASS 5. SHAPE 6. SPACE 7. TEXTURE 8. TIME/MOTION 9. VALUE 10.VOLUME

VALUE & SPACE INTRO • 2D = ILLUSION • TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING ILLUSION OF DEPTH: • VALUE: LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS • SPACE: DISTANCE BETWEEN POINTS OR PLANES • PERSPECTIVE: USES MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES

René Magritte, The Treachery of Images (“This is not a pipe”), 1929. Oil on canvas, 23¾ x 32”. LACMA

BUCKMINSTER FULLER, GEODESIC DOME (ART DOME), 1963–79, REED COLLEGE, PORTLAND, OREGON

BUCKMINSTER FULLER‟S GEODESIC DOME (1963-79) • DEMONSTRATES THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON PLANES • EACH OF THESE PLANES HAS A DIFFERENT RELATIVE DEGREE OF LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS • VALUE CHANGES OCCUR GRADUALLY • THE RELATIVE DARK VALUES INCREASE AS THE PLANES GET FURTHER AWAY AND FACE AWAY FROM THE LIGHT • THERE IS A VALUE RANGE OF BLACK, WHITE, AND EIGHT VALUES OF GRAY • FORMERLY USED AS A SCULPTURE STUDIO AT REED COLLEGE IN PORTLAND, OREGON • HTTP://YOUTU.BE/JN3FMX1TYT8

VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS

CHIAROSCURO  ITALIAN FOR “LIGHT DARK”  A METHOD OF APPLYING VALUE TO A TWODIMENSIONAL PIECE OF ARTWORK TO CREATE THE ILLUSION OF THREE DIMENSIONS  RENAISSANCE ARTISTS IDENTIFIED FIVE DISTINCT AREAS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW  HIGHLIGHT, LIGHT, CORE SHADOW, REFLECTED LIGHT, AND CAST SHADOW

VALUE: LIGHTS & DARKS Pierre Paul Prud‟hon, Stu dy for La Source, c. 1801. Black and white chalk on blue paper, 21¾ x 15¼”. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Willi amstown, Ma

CARAVAGGIO, TH E CONVERSION ON THE WAY TO DAMASCUS (1601).

HATCHING & CROSS-HATCHING • HATCHING CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF LINES, CLOSE TO AND PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER • CROSS-HATCHING (LINES OVERLAP) IS USED TO SUGGEST VALUES; GREATER SENSE OF FORM AND DEPTH

HATCHING

CROSS-HATCHING

PUT „EM TOGETHER AND WHAT‟VE YOU GOT? Michelangelo, Head of a Satyr, c. 1520– 30. Pen and ink on paper, 10⅝ x 7⅞”. Musée du Louvre, Paris, Franc e

SPACE • SIZE • OVERLAPPING • POSITION • ALTERNATING VALUE AND TEXTURE • CHANGING BRIGHTNESS AND COLOR • ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE

SPACE: SIZE/OVERLAPPING/POSITION Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa,” from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, 1826–33 (printed later). Print, color woodcut. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

FUNNY!

SPACE: ALTERNATING VALUE & TEXTURE • Each area of light and dark occupies different amounts of space, making the design more interesting • Note the change in visual texture from bottom to top • These visual layers create a sense of depth Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Sung Dynasty, 11th century. Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 81¼ x 40⅜”. National Palace

SPACE: CHANGING BRIGHTNESS & COLOR • LIGHTER AREAS SEEM TO BE CLOSER AS DARK AREAS APPEAR TO RECEDE • INTENSITY OF COLOR AFFECTS PERCEPTION

Thomas Hart Benton, The Wreck of the Ole ’97, 1943. Egg tempera and oil on canvas, 28½ x 44½”. Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, Tennessee

SPACE: ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE  DISTANT OBJECTS LACK CONTRAST, DETAIL, AND SHARPNESS OF FOCUS BECAUSE SURROUNDING AIR IS NOT COMPLETELY TRANSPARENT  THE ATMOSPHERE PROGRESSIVELY VEILS A SCENE AS THE DISTANCE INCREASES  CONTEMPORARY FILMMAKERS USE THIS ATMOSPHERIC EFFECT TO GIVE THE ILLUSION OF GREAT DEPTH

• ASHER BROWN DURAND, KINDR ED SPIRITS, 1849. OIL ON CANVAS, 44 X 36”. CRYSTAL BRIDGES MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, BENTONVI LLE, ARKANSAS

PERSPECTIVE • ISOMETRIC : PARALLELS COMMUNICATE DEPTH; USUALLY DIAGONAL PARALLEL LINES • LINEAR: LINES APPEAR TO CONVERGE AT POINTS IN SPACE

ISOMETRIC PERSPECTIVE

Graphic detailing isometric perspective: The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou and the

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE • USES MATH AND LINES TO CREATE THE ILLUSION OF DEPTH IN A 2D ARTWORK • BASED ON OBSERVATION OF SPACE IN THE WORLD • THE THEORY OF LINEAR PERSPECTIVE WAS DEVELOPED IN DETAIL BY THE FIFTEENTHCENTURY ARTIST LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI • THE ITALIAN FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI WAS THE FIRST ARTIST TO APPLY THE THEORIES OF

FILLIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, PERSPECTIVE DRAWING FOR CHURCH OF SANTO SPIRITO IN FLORENCE (1428).

1 POINT PERSPECTIVE • SINGLE VANISHING POINT • UNLESS THE VIEWER IS SITUATED IN DIRECT LINE OF SIGHT IT IS NOT AS EASY TO SEE HOW THE PERSPECTIVE CREATES THE ILLUSION OF A RECESSION OF SPACE

1 POINT PERSPECTI VE • EDITH HAYLLAR, A SUMMER SHOWER, 1883. OIL ON PANEL, 21 X 17⅜”. PRIVATE COLLECTION

Masaccio, Trinity, c. 1425–6. Fresco, 21‟10½” x 10‟4⅞”. Santa Maria Novella, Florence, It aly

2 POINT PERSPECTIVE • TWO VANISHING POINTS • RELIES ON HORIZON LINE

Raphael, The School of Athens, 1510–11. Fresco, 16‟8” x 25‟. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican City

2 POINT PERSPECTIVE

PERSPECTIVE: 3 POINT + • NEEDS POINTS AWAY FROM THE HORIZON LINE AND OTHER VARIATIONS ON PERSPECTIVE • MULTIPLE ANGLES THAT NEED EVEN MORE VANISHING POINTS • A VANISHING POINT IS PLACED ABOVE OR BELOW THE HORIZON LINE TO ACCOMMODATE A HIGH OR LOW ANGLE OF OBSERVATION • WORM‟S-EYE VIEW: LOOKING UP

HUMAN VIEW: CONE OF VISION

M. C. Escher, Ascending and Descending, March 1960. Woodcut, 14 x 11¼”. The M. C. Escher Company, Netherlands

Perspective: 3 POINT (Bird‟s Eye)

FORESHORTENING Albrecht Dürer, Draftsman Drawing a Recumbent Woman, 1525. Woodcut. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria

Andrea Mantegna, The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, c. 1480. Tempera on canvas, 26¾ x 31⅞”. Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, Italy

PRACTICE! WHICH TYPE OF PERSPECTIVE? Gustave Caillebotte, Paris Street; Rainy Day, 1877. Oil on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago.

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