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Published on November 13, 2007

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THz/submm astronomy at Dome C with CEA filled bolometer array :  THz/submm astronomy at Dome C with CEA filled bolometer array Vincent Minier, Gilles Durand Pierre-Olivier Lagage, Michel Talvard and the CAMISTIC team (Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, France) Gino Tosti, Maurizio Busso (Perugia, Italy) and the IRAIT team and Tony Travouillon (TMT, CALTECH, USA) Outline:  Outline THz/submm (200-450 µm) astronomy at Dome C Which science ? Embedded phases of star formation throughout the Universe. Required telescope aperture and performances. Which sites ? Space Earth: Chajnantor or/and Dome C ? Which instruments ? Need for site testing around 200 µm. CAMISTIC/IRAIT: exploring the THz windows at Dome C. Toward a large submm telescope ? 1. Which science ?:  1. Which science ? Embedded phases of star formation throughout the Universe Giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way CIB: IR emission from high redshift galaxies Starburst galaxies 3’ 3’ 2’ 20’’ Common requirement: High Angular Resolution (< 4 arcsec) Which science ?:  Which science ? Star formation is probed through thermal dust grain emission at 10 µm (300 K)… Antennae galaxies Visible - HST SPITZER -IRAC ISOCAM - 15 µm Vigroux et al. 1996 Wang et al. 2004 « Starburst » regions with Av > 30 Which science ?:  Which science ? Star formation is probed through thermal dust grain emission at 10 µm (300 K)… Antennae galaxies Visible - HST SPITZER -IRAC ISOCAM - 15 µm Vigroux et al. 1996 Wang et al. 2004 Super Star Clusters missed by HST, but peak in the far-IR 850 µm Which science ?:  Which science ? Earliest phases of star formation are probed through COLD dust grain emission at 100-1200 µm (10 K). NGC7538 - a high-mass star-forming region Optical image - DSS Contours: 1.2 mm continuum emission HII region with O and B stars OB star-forming cores with: 1000 M and 104 L Pestalozzi, Minier, Motte, Conway 2006 Which science ?:  Which science ? Earliest phases of star formation are probed through COLD dust grain emission at 100-1200 µm (10 K). Mm - Mambo2/IRAM Near-IR - 2MASS High-mass protostellar sites bright in submm but not seen in IR ! Which science ?:    200-450 µm   20 K Tdust=40 K Spectral Energy Distribution of dust emission toward protostellar cores throughout the Milky Way. Minier et al. 2005 Which science ? Luminosity Temperature Mass IMF Class 0-like high-mass protostar Minier et al. 2005 Which science ?:    200-450 µm with a large Telescope on Earth   20 K Tdust=40 K Spectral Energy Distribution of dust emission toward protostellar cores throughout the Milky Way. Minier et al. 2005 Herschel Space Observatory ALMA Which science ? Submm/mm interferometer with 64 antennas in Chile. 3.5-m Space telescope at 60-500 µm. Which science ?:  Spectral Energy Distribution of dust emission toward high-redshift galaxies. Minier et al. 2005 Which science ? z=5 z=3 Which science ?:  Required telescope aperture and performances Galactic star formation (Tdust=15 K) Core diameter of 0.1 pc  4’’ at 5 kpc 15’x15’ map in 1 hour. 50 mJy  0.5 M (1) at 5 kpc. Needs: 12 m telescope  4’’ beam at 200 µm Bolometer array camera with ~4000 elements/pixels High redshift galaxies (confusion ~4 mJy at 350 µm) detect ULIRGs up to z=3-5. could resolve 55% of Cosmic Infrared Background. up to 80% of star formation history. Minier et al. 2005 Which science ? Slide12:  450 µm 350 µm 200 µm 870 µm PWV 0.1 mm 0.2 mm 0.5 mm 1 mm 2. Which sites ? ATM model + Lawrence 2004 Which instruments ? Which instruments ? Which sites ?:  Which sites ?   Chajnantor – APEX ALMA site What is a good THz/submm site: Dry (PWV) Stable (low sky noise) High altitude plateau or Space For a large (30 m) telescope: low wind speed !!  Radome (costly) Which sites ?:  Which sites ? Chajnantor vs. Dome C: 25% winter time Juan Pardo’s ATM modelisation for Chajnantor vs. Lawrence 2004 for Dome C PWV=0.5 mm PWV=0.17 mm Which sites ?:  Which sites ? Chajnantor vs. Dome C: 25% winter time Juan Pardo’s ATM modelisation for Chajnantor vs. Lawrence 2004 for Dome C Gain Which sites ?:  Which sites ? Extrapolated from ATM modelisation for Chajnantor, South Pole site testing (Peterson et al. 2003), and Lawrence 2004 Modelled transmission / % of winter time Which sites ?:  Which sites ? Extrapolated from ATM modelisation for Chajnantor, South Pole site testing (Peterson et al. 2003), and Lawrence 2004 Modelled transmission / % of winter time Gain at Dome C. But opening the 200 µm windows requires exceptional conditions. Which sites ?:  Which sites ? Expected Stability for a given PWV over 2 hours Chajnantor Dome C Again: 200 µm requires exceptional conditions 3. Which instruments ?:  Site testing and qualification for THz/submm astronomy Need to do some observational tests specifically for THz/200 µm Optical depth of the atmosphere ()  Transmission  Standard deviation ()  Stability Balloons: wind speed, temperature, humidity profiles with altitudes (LUAN/Nice). 2007: GIVRE experiment: to measure frost that forms on instrument hardware and study protection (CEA/LUAN/IPEV). 2008: Tau-meter / Tipper / Radiometer at 200 µm: measure atmosphere optical depth and standard deviation (CEA/UNSW). (SUMMIT/UNSW Calisse et al. 2004; site testing at South Pole by Peterson, Radford, Chamberlin). 2009: CAMISTIC bolometer camera: to qualify the site for THz/submm imaging observations (CEA/IRAIT). 3. Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  16x16 pixels Which instruments ? « CCD »-like filled bolometer array built by CEA for the PACS instrument on the ESA Herschel Space Observatory CAMISTIC: imaging quality at 200 µm Objective: to test the 200-m atmospheric window for ground based observations at Dome C, Antarctica. Technology highlight: Use PACS/Herschel and ArTéMiS R&D for large bolometer arrays in the THz/submm (60-450 µm). Develop autonomous and automated cryogenic system. Which instruments ?:  16x16 pixels Export bolometer technology developed for the PACS instrument (60-200 µm) on the Herschel Space Observatory to submillimetre observations on ground-based single dish telescopes. Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2008. « CCD » like PACS filled bolometer array built by CEA. Illustration of a 12m submillimetre single dish telescope (ALMA type antenna). Which instruments ? Slide22:  Feed-horn bolometer array with 37 elements Filled bolometer array with 2048 to 4096 pixels: Full sampling of the focal plane Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  Which instruments ? Slide24:  Which instruments ? P-ArTeMiS 200-450 µm for APEX CAMISTIC on IRAIT/second Nasmyth port:  CAMISTIC on IRAIT/second Nasmyth port Which instruments ?:  CAMISTIC: Prototype 200-µm bolometer camera. IRAIT: 16x16 pixels (26’’ per pixel if Nyquist). FOV=6.8’ x 6.8’ and beam=63’’. Test 1: Opacity Sky dip at different elevations, i.e. airmass, to measure the atmosphere emission Tatm(1-exp(-/sinEl)  and Tatm . Ideally at a second wavelength (350 or 450 µm). Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  CAMISTIC: Prototype 200-µm bolometer camera. IRAIT: 16x16 pixels (26’’ per pixel if Nyquist). FOV=6.8’ x 6.8’ and beam=63’’. Test 1: Opacity Sky dip at different elevations, i.e. airmass, to measure the atmosphere emission Tatm(1-exp(-/sinEl)  and Tatm . Ideally at a second wavelength (350 or 450 µm). Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  CAMISTIC: Prototype 200-µm bolometer camera. IRAIT: 16x16 pixels (26’’ per pixel if Nyquist). FOV=6.8’ x 6.8’ and beam=63’’. Test 2: Sky noise Spatial fluctuations in the atmosphere emission due to small water vapour clouds in the lower atmosphere. Can measure the correlated noise on many pixels if fluctuation occurs at altitude lower than ~1.6 km. Near field Bolometer pixels Far field Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  CAMISTIC: Prototype 200-µm bolometer camera. IRAIT: 16x16 pixels (26’’ per pixel if Nyquist). FOV=6.8’ x 6.8’ and beam=63’’. Test 2: Sky noise Spatial fluctuations in the atmosphere emission due to small water vapour clouds in the lower atmosphere. Can measure the correlated or uncorrelated noise on many pixels depending on the altitude of the water vapour clouds and cells. Near field Bolometer pixels Far field Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  Fractional beam overlap Pixel angular separation Bolometer pixels IRAIT 1.6 km Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  Near field 1.6 km 10 pixels Far field Fractional beam overlap Pixel angular separation Which instruments ? Which instruments ?:  CAMISTIC: Prototype 200-µm bolometer camera. IRAIT: 16x16 pixels (26’’ per pixel if Nyquist). FOV=6.8’ x 6.8’ and beam=63’’. Test 3: Science qualification Planets but low in elevation. Eta Carinae. Bright HII regions. Star-forming regions. Near field Bolometer pixels Far field Which instruments ? Conclusions:  Conclusions Science: Galactic star formation. Starburst galaxies. CIB and the star formation history. (Proto-planetary disks, asteroids…). Dome C: probably a very good site for THz/submm: Better than Chajnantor (5000 m) in the 200-450 µm range, but need exceptional conditions at 200 µm (?) Not expected to be better beyond 500 µm to 1 mm. Site testing at Dome C and Chajnantor (>5500m) Which THz/submm telescope size: Telescope for 200-450 µm: IRAIT, PILOT, … , ELT ? 12 m at least (see Luca Olmi’s talk for design).

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