Aravindan Ravi Bharath Kaka

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Information about Aravindan Ravi Bharath Kaka

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: Sabatini


The march of progress :  The march of progress The Role of Defense Research in Science and Technology Ravi K Aravindan V Karthik K Bharath S Recent military expenditure trends:  Recent military expenditure trends World military expenditure in 2005 is estimated to have reached $1,118 billion, which is around 2.5 per cent of world GDP. This corresponds to a real-term increase of 3.4 per cent since 2004, and of 34 per cent over the 10-year period 1996–2005. U.S alone contributes nearly 40% of this amount. Research grants in India:  Research grants in India Effects of armed conflict on an economy:  Effects of armed conflict on an economy Disrupts economic activity, lowers the efficiency of tax administration, and affects the composition of public spending in a manner that hampers growth. Military expenses remain high during and after a conflict, thereby reducing outlays for education, health care, and other productive activities. Destruction of physical infrastructure, disruption of normal economic activity and negative effect on trade, tourism and business. Fall in GDP and rise in Inflation:  Fall in GDP and rise in Inflation Effect on government revenues:  Effect on government revenues Insecurity or violence triggers an economic downturn, tax revenues drop. Part of the tax base may also be physically destroyed. Effects on quality of life:  Effects on quality of life Socioeconomic indicators get worse. Improvement of infant mortality deteriorates a lot both during and after conflict years. Gross school enrollment rates also improve at the end of armed conflict. The Peace Dividend:  The Peace Dividend A political slogan that implies the economic benefit of a decrease in defense spending. Cliché at the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, when many Western nations significantly cut on military spending. Aims at the long-term benefits in terms of increased budgets for economic and social growth. A sizeable peace dividend has been achieved by most nations since 1985. Slide9:  Surveys show that countries that have made sharp cuts in military spending typically have also reduced non-military spending as well as their fiscal deficit, thereby potentially encouraging private investment by cutting down on taxing. Then why spend on defense??:  Then why spend on defense?? We are today witnessing an era of scattered conflicts where terrorist groups have become more sophisticated and destructive. Between 1989 and 2000, more than 4 million people are estimated to have died in violent conflicts. International terrorist attacks increased from about 342 a year in 1995-1999 to 387 in 2000 and 2001. Almost 70 percent of major conflicts between 1996-2001 took place in the developing nations of Asia and Africa. Guns or Butter? :  Guns or Butter? Countries that end conflicts and combat terrorism may realize sizable economic gains in terms of growth, macroeconomic stability and the generation of tax revenues. A government owes it to its citizens the protection of its territorial borders. A strong feeling of security can also result in a substantial peace dividend, freeing up fiscal resources for socioeconomic development of the nation. Research contributions of defense organisations:  Research contributions of defense organisations Not all military expenditure goes into research of armaments. More than half of the U.S DoD’s budgets is spent at universities. Several key technological breakthroughs in a variety of fields have been a result of military research. Communications:  Communications Some of the biggest positive contributions of the world wars to modern technology. The superheterodyne principle, the backbone of FM radios, was originally conceived by Edwin Armstrong during World War I. The concept of frequency hopping, fore-runner to CDMA technology, was developed and patented in 1942 by Hedy Lamarr and George Antheil of the U.S during World War II. Slide15:  The War also inspired the development of the first operational radars by several of the nations involved. Beamforming antenna techniques (Smart Antennas) which are extensively used in wireless communication today were first developed by the U.S navy. Cognitive radio technology was developed more recently by Joseph Mitola in a DARPA-sponsored project. Contributions to Optics:  Laser was invented and lot of subsequent work done by Charles Townes for DARPA and Fabrikant for the U.S.S.R. Finds applications in fiber optic comm., ophthalmology, laser printers, CDs etc. Night Vision developed at DARPA in the early 1960s. Instrumental in development of thermal imaging. Led to advances in Remote sensing, IR telescoping, cancer detection. Contributions to Optics Mathematics:  Mathematics Founded during World War II, as scientists in the U.K (Blackett, Gordon, Yates etc.) and in the U.S (George Dantzig) looked for ways to make better decisions in such areas as logistics and training schedules so as to reduce costs to the army and increase losses to the enemy Simplex algorithm invented by Dantzig and duality developed Von Neumann at Los Alamos. Von Neumann also developed Monte Carlo simulations and pseudo-random generators for solving problems using the ENIAC. The flip side:  The flip side Operations research was used extensively to maximise damage done to the enemy and resulted in significantly more devastation due to the war. Von Neumann used these sophisticated computing techniques to calculate the altitude for maximum damage in the Hiroshima-Nagasaki nuclear holocaust. His computing machinery was also used later on for the hydrodynamic computations used to develop the hydrogen bomb. Computers:  Computers ENIAC, the first computer, was built by the U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory. Initially built to calculate artillery firing tables and logistics for the hydrogen bomb. ARPAnet, the first packet-switching network and a precursor to the internet, was built in 1966 by ARPA. ARPA developed TCP/IP protocol and formed a nation-wide backbone network(NSFnet). Artificial Intelligence:  Artificial Intelligence Project MAC started in 1963 at MIT with funding from DARPA and NSF. It did groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. Aspen Movie Map, a hypermedia system developed in MIT with DARPA collaboration – first implementation of the concept of Virtual Reality. NLS (oNLine System):  NLS (oNLine System) A revolutionary computer system funded jointly by ARPA, NASA and U.S Air Force. Introduced a number of inventions like raster-scan video monitors, mouse, presentation programs, a very primitive collaborative server software and hypertext links. Cryptography:  Cryptography Most of cryptography has been developed as a result of military requirements. Substitution and transposition ciphers were used by Julius Caesar. Remarkable advancements in encryption techniques during World wars through invention of mechanical encryption devices. Classic example : Enigma used by Germany in WW II. Slide23:  U.S. Defence sponsored research led to discovery of Public-key cryptography. Twin concerns of reliability and secrecy addressed. Initially developed for solely military purposes. Used today in digital signatures, message authentication, ATM and mobile encryption, email privacy. Defense vs Civilian Research:  Defense vs Civilian Research + Efficiency (Manhattan project, Internet) + Easier access to resources because of higher priority. + Motivation and focus. May not be as free-format Secrecy in such research (eg. Bohm) Role of the Defence Department:  Role of the Defence Department Internet Development of Internet (packet switching) attributed to persistent research and exploration by DARPA. DARPA persisted inspite of all-round pessimism (especially AT&T) The research was entirely unclassified and engaged some of the most creative members of the computer science community without bias of traditional telephony groups. Slide26:  Computers Purely a need for better equipment in Ballistics prediction and studies and breaking codes. The Scientist’s view-point:  The Scientist’s view-point Robert Oppenheimer remarked that the physicists had "known sin" as a result of their development of the first atomic bombs A question of not having enough fore-sight ? Political leanings of scientists also influence their decisions. Sometimes a question of Greater good vs Worse evil (?) Submarines:  Submarines The first military submarine was Turtle a hand-powered egg-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell, to accommodate a single man. The turtle was first used in the American Civil War. Deep sea navigation improved with the development of submarines during the world wars. Though developed purely for military purposes, submarines and related technology are very useful today for enabling deep sea exploration. Aviation:  Aviation Advances in aviation, from the 1909 introduction of airplanes into the army signal corps to the stealth aircraft of today, have been almost solely due to military sponsored research. Reliance on aircraft grew enormously as their utility was demonstrated in military engagements. Engine development quickly evolved from the piston engine to turbines to jet propulsion. Advancements in aero dynamics, materials , fuels and communications/ navigation were passed almost immediately to commercial aviation. Practical use of the helicopter came only after defense research on rotorcraft let to solving aerodynamic stability and control problems. Today, Defense Basic Research’s contributions to composite materials, improved propulsion designs, communications, and safety continue to infuse innovation in support of the multi billion dollar aviation industry Materials:  Materials Better armor, lighter equipment, less maintenance and more durability are traditional goals of Defense Materials Research. Composite materials of glass, carbon and plastic have moved from battle field applications to artificial limbs, golf clubs and even to bridge construction. Conductive plastics and polymers are applicable in lightning strike protection, electromagnetic interference shielding, rechargeable batteries and “smart windows” that can darken to absorb sunlight. GPS:  GPS The first Global Positioning System was developed by DARPA for military purposes. GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. Today, the GPS is the only fully-functional satellite navigation system. GPS has become an indispensable aid to navigation around the world, and an important tool for map-making and land surveying. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks. Nuclear Arms:  Nuclear Arms The Manhattan Project refers to the project to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II by the United States. The nuclear arms race was triggered by the success of the Manhattan Project. Discovery of H-bomb. Contribution to Physics:  Contribution to Physics Otto Hahn and Leise Meitner discovered nuclear fission as a result of studies initiated for military purposes. The first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction was obtained at the University of Chicago by Enrico Fermi. Development of fusion technology. Contd…:  With the support of the U.S.S.R govt. after World War II, Landau came up with his theories of Superfluidity. Particle accelerators were built at Berkeley with the help of U.S. Defence funding. Currently, revival of interest in Cold fusion due to projects on Cold Fusion funded by the DoE. Contd… Nuclear Power:  Nuclear Power Today, Nuclear Power is used for propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity. Currently supplies 16% of world’s electricity Nuclear power has a promising future as far as replacement of renewables is concerned because of the very high potential for energy production. Space Research:  Space Research Space Research:  Space Research Launch of Sputnik-1 in 1957 led to the Sputnik Crisis. US decided to create a new federal agency for non-military space research. The Space Race became an important part of the cultural, technological, and ideological rivalry between the USSR and the United States during the Cold War. Space technology became a particularly important arena in this conflict, because of its potential military applications. Space research had a dual purpose: it could serve peaceful ends, but could also contribute to military goals. Beginning of the Space Race:  Beginning of the Space Race After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became locked in a bitter Cold War of espionage and propaganda. Space exploration and satellite technology could feed into the cold war on both fronts. Satellite-borne equipment could spy on other countries, while space-faring accomplishments could serve as propaganda to tout a country's scientific prowess and military potential. The same rockets that might send a human into orbit or hit a specific spot on the Moon could send an atom bomb to a specific enemy city. Much of the technological development required for space travel applied equally well to wartime rockets such as Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Along with other aspects of the arms race, progress in space appeared as an indicator of technological and economic prowess, demonstrating the superiority of the ideology of that country. Space research had a dual purpose it could serve peaceful ends, but could also contribute to military goals. The two superpowers each worked to gain an edge in space research, neither knowing who might make a breakthrough first. They had each laid the groundwork for a race to space, and awaited only the starter's gun. Contribution of the Space Race:  Contribution of the Space Race Sputnik helped to determine the density of the upper atmosphere and Explorer I flight data led to the discovery by James Van Allen of the Van Allen radiation belt. Technology, especially in aerospace engineering and electronic communication, advanced greatly during this period. "Space age technology" extended to fields as diverse as forest defoliation studies, and the push to win the race changed the very ways in which students learned science. The scientists fostered by these efforts helped develop for space exploration technologies which have seen adapted uses ranging from the kitchen to athletic fields. Dried watermelon and ready-to-eat foods, stay-dry clothing, and even no-fog ski goggles have their roots in space science. In addition, much of the micro-technology which fuels everyday activities from time-keeping to enjoying music derives from research initially driven by the Space Race. Key features of Space Race:  Key features of Space Race Development of Artificial satellites Satellite communications Sending living creatures into space Animals in space Humans in space Lunar Missions Unmanned probes Lunar landing Other successes Missions to other planets Launches and docking Militarization of Space – USA’s new pastime:  Militarization of Space – USA’s new pastime While various militaries around the world have used Space for years, it has largely been for surveillance satellites etc. However, the Bush Administration in the United States has long made it clear that the US wishes to expand its military capabilities and have weapons in space and therefore also be dominant in this fourth military arena (the other three being sea, land and air). This new “ultimate high ground” would provide further superior military capabilities. But because space-based weapons have been on the agenda long before September 11, and the War on Terror, the fight against terrorism is not the sole justification, though it may now add to the reasons. However, long before September 11, the concerns of the US’ motives for pursuing such policies have been questioned. The fear is that by seeking to create a dominant position in space, the US will become more powerful and others may be compelled to join an arms race in space. Space Treaty:  Space Treaty The United Nations (U.N.) Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, saying that space should be reserved for peaceful uses. It came into effect in October 1967. As summarized by the U.N. Office for Outer Space Affairs web site, the treaty includes the following principles: the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind; outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States; outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means; States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner; the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes; astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind; States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental activities; States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies. Towards the end of 2000, the United Nations General Assembly had a vote on a resolution called the “Prevention of Outer Space Arms Race.” It was adopted by a recorded vote of 163 in favor to none against, with 3 abstentions. The three that abstained were the Federated States of Micronesia, Israel and the United States of America. The Chinese Threat:  The Chinese Threat When China recently blew up one of its aging satellites with a medium-range ballistic missile, it caused mild panic and concern amongst US, UK and other circles. The immediate fear was that China was slowly flexing its muscles and that an arms race was now underway. It was one of the first such acts since the 1980s when the Soviet Union and the US did such things. China is feared to be developing better weapons to do such things, and there was also concern that China didn’t inform anyone that it was doing this. This lack of openness is certainly a worry and smacks of hypocrisy for wanting a global treaty to ban weapons in space on the one hand and then using a weapon to blow up a satellite in space later. It may indeed be that China is sincere in pursuing a global ban, but its lack of transparency has certainly diminished confidence in that idea. Militarization of Space – Post Cold-War:  Militarization of Space – Post Cold-War Post Cold War space militarization seems to revolve around three types of applications. The first application is the continuing development of spy or reconnaissance satellites from the Cold War era. Spy satellites perform a variety of missions such as high resolution photography, communications eavesdropping, and covert communications. These tasks are used on a regular basis both in military wartime operations, and during times of peace. Spy satellites are also used to alert national leaders to nuclear testing of other states. The second application of space militarization currently in use is GPS or Global Positioning System. This satellite navigation system is used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth or in Earth orbit. The third current application of militarization of space can be demonstrated by the emerging military doctrine of network-centric warfare. Network-centric warfare relies heavily on the use of high speed communications which allows all soldiers and branches of the military to view the battlefield in real-time. Real-time technology improves the situational awareness of all of the military’s assets and commanders in a given theatre. This can be used for a variety of other applications for betterment of society. Space Defense Initiative - SDI:  Space Defense Initiative - SDI The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), commonly called Star Wars after the popular science fiction movies of the time, was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the previous strategic offense doctrine of Mutual assured destruction (MAD). Soviet Union’s economy was plummeting in the later part of 1980’s. Numerous negotiations by Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to come to agreements on reducing nuclear stockpiles, but the most radical were rejected by Reagan as they would also prohibit his SDI program. Criticisms about the SDI:  Criticisms about the SDI Goes against Treaty Obligations A major criticism of SDI was that it would require the United States to modify, withdraw from, or violate previously ratified treaties. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which requires "States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner" would forbid the US from pre-positioning in earth orbit any devices powered by nuclear weapons, or any devices capable of "mass destruction". SDI and MAD SDI was criticized for potentially disrupting the strategic doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD postulated that intentional nuclear attack was inhibited by the certain ensuing mutual self-destruction. Even if a nuclear first strike destroyed many of the opponent's weapons, sufficient nuclear missiles would survive to render a devastating counter-strike at the attacker. The criticism was that SDI could have potentially allowed an attacker to survive the lighter counter-strike, thus encouraging a first strike by the side having SDI. Another destabilizing scenario was countries being tempted to strike first before SDI was deployed, thereby avoiding a disadvantaged nuclear posture. SDI - Positive Impact:  SDI - Positive Impact Ground-based programs Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) SDI's Theater Missile Defense Program and was an extension of the Flexible Lightweight Agile Guided Experiment (FLAGE), which included developing hit-to-kill technology and demonstrating the guidance accuracy of a small, agile, radar-homing vehicle. Directed-energy weapon (DEW) programs X-ray laser An early focus of the project was to be a curtain of X-ray lasers powered by nuclear explosions. The curtain was to be deployed, first by a series of missiles launched from submarines during the critical seconds following a Soviet attack, then later by satellites and powered by nuclear warheads built into the satellites - in theory the energy from the warhead detonation was to pump a series of laser emitters in the missiles or satellites and produce an impenetrable barrier to incoming warheads. Despite the apparent failure of the Cabra test, the long term legacy of the X-ray laser program is the knowledge gained while conducting the research. Several spin-offs include a laboratory x-ray laser for biological imaging and creation of 3D holograms of living organisms, creation of advanced materials like SEAgel and Aerogel, the Electron-Beam Ion Trap facility for physics research and enhanced techniques for early detection of breast cancer. SDI – Positive Impact (contd):  SDI – Positive Impact (contd) Neutral Particle Beam In July 1989, the Beam Experiments Aboard a Rocket (BEAR) program launched a sounding rocket containing a neutral particle beam (NPB) accelerator. The experiment successfully demonstrated that a particle beam would operate and propagate as predicted outside the atmosphere and that there are no unexpected side-effects to firing the beam in space. According to the research on neutral particle beam accelerators could eventually be used to reduce the half life of nuclear waste products using accelerator-driven transmutation technology. Laser and mirror experiments The Relay mirror experiment (RME), launched in February 1990, demonstrated critical technologies for space-based relay mirrors to be used with an SDI Directed-energy weapon system. The experiment validated stabilization, tracking and pointing concepts and proved that a laser could be relayed from the ground to a 60 cm mirror on an orbiting satellite and back to another ground station with a high degree of accuracy and for extended durations. Launched on the same rocket as the RME, the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite was built by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to explore atmospheric distortion of lasers and real-time adaptive compensation for that distortion. The LACE satellite also included several other experiments to help develop and improve SDI sensors, including target discrimination using background radiation and tracking ballistic missiles using Ultra-Violet Plume Imaging (UVPI). LACE was also used to evaluate ground based adaptive optics, a technique now used in civilian telescopes to remove atmospheric distortions. Space-based programs Sensor programs SDI - Consequences:  SDI - Consequences However shaky SDI's technological foundations, it may well have contributed to the ending of the Cold War. Yet its technology may come to be useful in ways unanticipated at its inception. The projected SDI armory of lasers and interceptors could one day be used to save not only the United States, but indeed the entire human race from the threat of comets and asteroids. Slide50:  “For more than a century science and its occasionally ugly sister technology have been the chief driving forces shaping our world. They decide the kinds of futures that are possible. Human wisdom must decide which are desirable.” - Arthur C. Clark

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