Aquatic Insects As Water Quality Indecators

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Information about Aquatic Insects As Water Quality Indecators

Published on December 17, 2008

Author: bwvh001

Source: slideshare.net

The Use of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera In the Bioassessment of Water Quality. Bill Hickman Fall 2005

History 1848: Scientists identify the absence of caddisfly larva as the result of a city located upstream 1909: European Scientists provided the first comprehensive system of biological water assessment 1928: Study of the Illinois River reveals that most members of the three orders (EPT) are highly sensitive to a variety of pollutants 1970s North Carolina researchers had compiled enough information on the state’s water ways to develop a base line data set. 1981: Annual monitoring of North Carolina’s waterways was initiated by the NCDENR in 1981. Within a year, this practice became standardized.

1848: Scientists identify the absence of caddisfly larva

as the result of a city located upstream

1909: European Scientists provided the first

comprehensive system of biological water

assessment

1928: Study of the Illinois River reveals that most

members of the three orders (EPT) are highly

sensitive to a variety of pollutants

1970s North Carolina researchers had compiled enough

information on the state’s water ways to develop a base line data set.

1981: Annual monitoring of North Carolina’s waterways was

initiated by the NCDENR in 1981. Within a year, this

practice became standardized.

Physical Characteristics Temperature Turbidity Habitat Buffers Bank slope Land use

Temperature

Turbidity

Habitat

Buffers

Bank slope

Land use

Chemical Analysis TEST Ph Dissolved O 2 Nitrogen Phosphorus Toxicity

TEST

Ph

Dissolved O 2

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Toxicity

Chemical DISADVANTAGES Requires expensive lab equipment Wide variation in concentrations of pollutants from one time to another Can only show substances that are in the sample "Chemical measurements are like taking snapshots of the ecosystem, whereas biological measurements are like making a videotape" (Prof. David M. Rosenberg PhD, Univ. of Manitoba and the Freshwater Institute , DFO, Winnipeg. cf.  Bull. Entomol. Soc. Can. 1998.  30(4):144-152).

DISADVANTAGES

Requires expensive lab equipment

Wide variation in concentrations of pollutants from one time to another

Can only show substances that are in the sample

"Chemical measurements are like taking snapshots of the ecosystem, whereas biological measurements are like making a videotape" (Prof. David M. Rosenberg PhD, Univ. of Manitoba and the Freshwater Institute , DFO, Winnipeg. cf.  Bull. Entomol. Soc. Can. 1998.  30(4):144-152).

Biotic Indices Total Taxa Richness Simplest measure of diversity Decreases with decrease in water quality As less tolerant spp. die out NC Biotic Index (NCBI) NCDEHNR Reflects general level of pollution regardless of source

Total Taxa Richness

Simplest measure of diversity

Decreases with decrease in water quality

As less tolerant spp. die out

NC Biotic Index (NCBI) NCDEHNR

Reflects general level of pollution regardless of source

Biotic Indices Ratio of EPT/chironomidae abundance Even distribution=good water quality Dominance of chironomidea=poor water quality >50% suggest eutrophic conditions Percent contribution of dominant species >35% poor 35-25% fair <25% good

Ratio of EPT/chironomidae abundance

Even distribution=good water quality

Dominance of chironomidea=poor water quality

>50% suggest eutrophic conditions

Percent contribution of dominant species

>35% poor

35-25% fair

<25% good

Biological Assessment Bio Recon Identify locations in need of further study Show effects of long term exposure Many spp. Live a year or more Most can not escape the effects of pollution

Bio Recon

Identify locations in need of further study

Show effects of long term exposure

Many spp. Live a year or more

Most can not escape the effects of pollution

Biological Assessment Ease of collection Volunteers can be quickly trained to collect samples, with supervision Aquatic insects generally abundant Inexpensive Requires no high tech tools Only simple tools, man power, and taxonomic expertise required

Ease of collection

Volunteers can be quickly trained to collect samples, with supervision

Aquatic insects generally abundant

Inexpensive

Requires no high tech tools

Only simple tools, man power, and taxonomic expertise required

Sampling: Field Equipment/Supplies Needed for Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling: Multi-habitat Approach standard D-frame dip net, 500 opening mesh, 0.3 m width (~ 1.0 ft frame width) sieve bucket, with 500 opening mesh 95% ethanol sample containers, sample container labels forceps pencils, clipboard Benthic Macroinvertebrate Field Data Sheet* first aid kit waders (chest-high or hip boots) rubber gloves (arm-length) camera Global Positioning System (GPS) Unit * It is helpful to copy fieldsheets onto water-resistant paper for use in wet weather conditions

Field Equipment/Supplies Needed for Benthic Macroinvertebrate Sampling: Multi-habitat Approach

standard D-frame dip net, 500 opening mesh, 0.3 m width (~ 1.0 ft frame width)

sieve bucket, with 500 opening mesh

95% ethanol

sample containers, sample container labels

forceps

pencils, clipboard

Benthic Macroinvertebrate Field Data Sheet*

first aid kit

waders (chest-high or hip boots)

rubber gloves (arm-length)

camera

Global Positioning System (GPS) Unit

* It is helpful to copy fieldsheets onto

water-resistant paper for use in wet weather

conditions

Benefits of the EPT Taxa Metric Saves…..lab time, field time, & money Bio-Recon Emergency Environmental Assessments Early Alert- time to take action

Saves…..lab time, field time, & money

Bio-Recon

Emergency Environmental Assessments

Early Alert- time to take action

Indicators of clean water Ephemeroptera : Baetidae Caenidae SIPHLONURIDAE HEPTAGENIIDAE Baetiscidae EPHEMERIADE ISONYCHIIDAE POLYMITARCYIDAE Mayflies

Indicators of clean water Plecoptera : Stoneflies Perlidae Taeniopterygidae Nemouridae Pteronarcyidae

Indicators of clean water Trichoptera : Caddisflies HYDROPSYCHIDAE LEPTOCERIDAE LEPIDOSTOMATIDAE GOERIDAE PHILOPOTAMIDAE RHYACOPHILIDAE

Indicators of bad water quality Chironomidae

Works Cited Lenat David and David Penrose. “History of the EPT Taxa Richness Metric.” Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society . Vol 13. 1996. “ Standard Operating Procedures for Benthic Macroinvertebrates- Biological Assessment Unit.” North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. NC:Division of Water Quality, 2003. “ Why Study the Stream-Bottom Macroinvertebrates?” <retrieved on 15 November from www.people.virginia.edu/~sos - iwla/Stream-StudyHomePage/WhyStu ...” Williams Dudley and Blair Feltmate. Aquatic Insects. UK: Cab International, 1992. Yandora Kimberly. “Rapid Bioassessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Illustrates Water Quality in Small Oder Urban Streams in a North Carolina Piedmont City” Greensboro: City of Greensboro, 1997. <retrieved on 15 November from www.nwqmc.org/98proceedings/Papers/40-YAnd.html >

Lenat David and David Penrose. “History of the EPT Taxa Richness Metric.” Bulletin of the North American Benthological Society . Vol 13. 1996.

“ Standard Operating Procedures for Benthic Macroinvertebrates- Biological Assessment Unit.” North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. NC:Division of Water Quality, 2003.

“ Why Study the Stream-Bottom Macroinvertebrates?” <retrieved on 15 November from www.people.virginia.edu/~sos - iwla/Stream-StudyHomePage/WhyStu ...”

Williams Dudley and Blair Feltmate. Aquatic Insects. UK: Cab International, 1992.

Yandora Kimberly. “Rapid Bioassessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Illustrates Water Quality in Small Oder Urban Streams in a North Carolina Piedmont City” Greensboro: City of Greensboro, 1997. <retrieved on 15 November from

www.nwqmc.org/98proceedings/Papers/40-YAnd.html >

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