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Education

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Valentina

Source: authorstream.com

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- Index:  - Index What are physical education, leisure & recreation and sport? 3 Physical Education – What’s it for?! 4 The Physical Aspects of P.E. 5 The Intellectual Aspects of P.E. 6 The Social Aspects of P.E. 7 What values are invested in PE? 8 Cultural 9 Social 10 Educational (Personal) & (Preparation for Life) 11 Leisure 12 Which comes first – work or leisure? 13 Who has the most amount of leisure time? 14 So, why bother with leisure? What’s the point of it? 15 What do we actually do in our leisure time? 16 Do we have more leisure time than our grandparents? - Yes! 17 Is ‘Play Time’ different from ‘Leisure Time’? 18 What are the characteristics of play? 19 Are there any limits to ‘play’? 20 Do adults play as well as children? 21 Adult Play 22 Child Play 23 Do we ‘play’ when we are learning? 24 Recreation – what is it? 25 Why do we need active leisure? 26 What is purposeful leisure? 27 Why bother with physical recreation? 28 Outdoor & Adventurous Activities 29 What is it? 30 What’s the point of OAA? 31 What characteristics does OAA possess? 32 Risk & Safety in OAA 33 Challenge & Adventure 34 Why do we like adventure? 35 Are there any other reasons as to why we participate in adventurous activities? 36 When do we participate in OAA? 37 Can OAA be competitive? 38 Sport 39 What are the characteristics of sport? 40 Could I make a living from sport? 41 What’s the point of ‘sport’? 42 What different categories of sport exist? 43 What different categories of sport exist? 44 The ‘sport problem’… 45 How do we define ‘athletic’ activities? 46 What other characteristics does athletics possess? 47 How do we define ‘gymnastic’ activities? 48 What other characteristics does gymnastics possess? 49 How do we define ‘games’ activities? 50 What other characteristics do games possess? 51 Slide3:  What are physical education, leisure & recreation and sport? Physical Education Physical Education – What’s it for?!:  Physical Education – What’s it for?! P.E. aims to increase the knowledge and values of an individual through physical activity. There are 3 main dimensions of learning which P.E. specifically aims to develop: Physical Intellectual Social Physical Education The Physical Aspects of P.E.:  The Physical Aspects of P.E. Physical Increased Physical mobility Develop Flexibility Increased Strength Increased Stamina Develop Psychomotor Skills Physical Education The Intellectual Aspects of P.E.:  The Intellectual Aspects of P.E. Intellectual Experience Competition and Co-operation Experience a Wide range Of activities Teach benefits Of health & Fitness for everyday Life Increase knowledge & Understanding of Activities Improved Physical Health Increased Physical Mobility Physical Education The Social Aspects of P.E.:  The Social Aspects of P.E. Social Provides the learner With communicative Skills in more than just A vocal manner Good “starting point” to Develop Friendships Provides a basis for Social relationships Off the field Working with Others as part Of a Team or Group Physical Education What values are invested in Physical Education?:  What values are invested in Physical Education? P.E. encompasses many things: Health & Fitness Skills Tactics Personal development It also provides individuals with a set of values which we carry throughout our lives. These fit into 3 categories: Cultural Social Educational Physical Education Cultural:  Cultural Cultural Acceptance of other cultures and races The difference between winning & taking part Appreciation of movement Personal creativity Commitment (to a team or activity) Physical Education Social:  Social ‘Belonging’ to a group/team and working constructively as a part of this team Communicating with individuals outside own peer groups Developing friendships with diverse groups Learning how to socialise in a positive manner – Both on and off the field Physical Education Educational (Personal) & (Preparation for Life):  Educational (Personal) & (Preparation for Life) Emotional experiences (winning/losing) ‘Career opportunities – turning a ‘hobby’ into a paid career Decision-making skills Sporting opportunities – i.e. playing football outside school Self-discovery of personal strengths/abilities The importance of active leisure Social skills Physical Education Leisure:  Leisure What is it?! Time without obligation/commitment Basis for self-enjoyment/discovery Done through choice – no-one makes you do it Leisure Which comes first – work or leisure?:  Which comes first – work or leisure? Work is considered more important than leisure. Leisure is seen as a ‘reviver’ for work. Leisure is viewed as non-serious as it is not productive. This is a protestant ethic whereby work is considered to be ‘good’ and leisure to be ‘lazy’. Leisure Who has the most amount of leisure time?:  Who has the most amount of leisure time? Traditional values & beliefs, free time and money all influence our attitudes to leisure time… The middle/upper class are considered to have the right to leisure. The lower/working class must earn the right to leisure time. Leisure So, why bother with leisure? What’s the point of it?:  So, why bother with leisure? What’s the point of it? Can be relaxing Has personal importance Is attractive to the media, and therefore sponsorship – therefore money. Creates a pleasant social atmosphere There are many reasons why leisure is a positive past-time… Provides entertainment Can be used to promote health & fitness Provides a chance for self-expression Relieves boredom/stress Freely chosen activity Can develop friendships Leisure What do we actually do in our leisure time?:  What do we actually do in our leisure time? Sport Sight-seeing Watching DVD’s Playing computer games Going to the cinema Reading Hobbies Leisure Do we have more leisure time than our grandparents? - Yes!:  Do we have more leisure time than our grandparents? - Yes! Today’s society is very different from society 50 years ago. We have: More unemployment Early retirement options Fewer working hours Better leisure facilities Increase in public transport Increased disposable income Increased life expectancy (although this could be argued to be a result of most of the above) Leisure Is ‘Play Time’ different from ‘Leisure Time’?:  Is ‘Play Time’ different from ‘Leisure Time’? Play is different from leisure in the sense that it is spontaneous. We usually plan our leisure time around our commitments. Play What are the characteristics of play?:  What are the characteristics of play? The most important characteristic is ENJOYMENT Others include: Intrinsic value (no medals/trophies etc) No determined rules - freedom from rules No officials – players make the decisions Natural boundaries/fixed number of players Time and nature of game can be freely decided as a spontaneous choice Used as an escape from reality Play Are there any limits to ‘play’?:  Are there any limits to ‘play’? TIME School bell Lesson time Play cut short due to players falling out/becoming bored SPACE Limited available space Other groups at play in the surrounding area Play Do adults play as well as children?:  Do adults play as well as children? Yes. But there are differences between the types and characteristics of play of the two groups… Play Adult Play:  Adult Play Relieves stress Relaxation Doesn’t have to be serious or productive (compared to work) Enjoyment Non-committal Escape from reality Play Child Play:  Child Play Learn social skills Learn to experience winning/losing Emotional learning Learn cognitive skills Learn physical skills Learn about and experience the environment Learn to master reality Play Do we ‘play’ when we are learning?:  Do we ‘play’ when we are learning? Teachers use ‘play’ within P.E. lessons for several reasons: ‘Fun’ aspect to make the lesson more enjoyable. Emphasises participation over competition. Reduced significance of rules – this is beneficial for beginners as they learn basic skills with reduced limits on what they can do. Child led discovery. Play Recreation – what is it?:  Recreation – what is it? Active leisure is also known as recreation. It is a voluntary activity which we undertake during our free time. We also have a choice as to which type of recreation we would like to participate in. Active Leisure / Recreation Why do we need active leisure?:  Why do we need active leisure? ? Psychological- Relieve stress/ boredom Emotional – Satisfaction/ enjoyment Personal – Development Of self-control & ability Social – Friendship & communication Physiological- Health & Fitness Active Leisure / Recreation What is purposeful leisure?:  What is purposeful leisure? Leisure which seen to have social and personal benefits. Purposeful leisure occurs in a society where social equality is very important. However, deviance from socially acceptable patterns of behaviour is not accepted. This form of leisure was very common in the former Soviet Union and other ‘socialist’ countries, as leisure activities had considerable social status in these areas. This was because it was believed leisure would have desirable consequences to the population. Active Leisure / Recreation Why bother with physical recreation?:  Why bother with physical recreation? It provides us with an opportunity to socialise with other people. Acts as a ‘refresher’ from everyday stresses and strains. Allows us to escape from reality. It has intrinsic value – enjoyment/satisfaction/moral enhancement. It has educative functions: Skills Health benefits Sportsmanship Active Leisure / Recreation Outdoor & Adventurous Activities:  Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Outdoor & Adventurous Activities What is it?:  What is it? Activity undertaken in a natural (outdoor) environment which is not entirely predictable. Types of activity include: Rock climbing Canoeing Orienteering Hill walking Caving Sailing Winter acts Outdoor & Adventurous Activities What’s the point of OAA?:  What’s the point of OAA? Outdoor & Adventurous Activities It develops… What characteristics does OAA possess?:  What characteristics does OAA possess? Risk Excitement Challenge Competition – against yourself/the environment Codes of behaviour for safety reasons Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Risk & Safety in OAA:  Risk & Safety in OAA Due to the nature of the activity, OAA has both real risks and perceived risks. Real risks originate from the environment. E.g. falling rocks, whitewater etc. Perceived risks are risks thought to be there by the individual, they are not real. Sometimes these are at too high a level, and anxiety occurs. E.g. irrational fear of heights on a rock face, even when the individual is securely roped. As a result of these risks, schools must appoint an educational visits co-ordinator for any OAA trips. The co-ordinator will carry out risk assessments for the planned activities. This is done to take the utmost measures to avoid any accidents, and examine any safety issues. Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Challenge & Adventure:  Challenge & Adventure How does OAA provide individuals with a unique experience? Individuals from city areas are able to experience a more natural environment Respect for nature & the environment is developed Survival techniques can be mastered in stressful situations Enhancement of leadership skills/co-operative skills/ decision-making skills Provides challenge & adventure – as opposed to competition Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Why do we like adventure?:  Why do we like adventure? Mortlock (1984) identified 4 stages of adventure: Adventure First experience in an exciting environment Challenge of skill/confidence in a difficult environment Test of oneself and others Performing in a dangerous environment Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Are there any other reasons as to why we participate in adventurous activities?:  Are there any other reasons as to why we participate in adventurous activities? More people now participate in both traditional (e.g. climbing / sailing / canoeing) and modern (e.g. snowboarding / mountain biking) adventurous activities. This is due to: Need for excitement away from a sedentary lifestyle. Escape from urban lifestyle. More free time & disposable income. Adventure activities more accessible. Increased appreciation of natural environment. Outdoor & Adventurous Activities When do we participate in OAA?:  When do we participate in OAA? Outdoor & Adventurous Activities are taught within schools, but are also undertaken in individuals’ free time. The former is referred to as outdoor education and the latter is referred to as outdoor recreation. Outdoor education is formally taught to students, whereas outdoor recreation is freely chosen and is done in the participant’s free time. Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Can OAA be competitive?:  Can OAA be competitive? Whilst many people undertake adventurous activities as part of their recreational lifestyle, some individuals choose to participate on a competitive level. Examples of this are seen in the numerous canoeing, skiing, climbing, sailing and snowboarding contests and competitions. Competitive adventurous activities have even reached Olympic standards and are included in the Olympic Games’ events. Outdoor & Adventurous Activities Sport:  Sport Sport What are the characteristics of sport?:  What are the characteristics of sport? It is competitive and involves the will to win but fairly. It is serious – especially at elite levels. It requires high levels of skill and effort. Extrinsic rewards are offered to winners (i.e. trophies, money etc). There are set time and space restrictions. Commitment is needed to improve skill and fitness levels. National Governing Bodies (NGB’s) and officials enforce rules and structures to each activity. Sport Could I make a living from sport?:  Could I make a living from sport? Whilst some individuals chose to participate in sport in their leisure time – i.e. for a local team or club – others choose to play sport professionally – i.e. soccer players play football for a living. Sport What’s the point of ‘sport’?:  What’s the point of ‘sport’? Sport What different categories of sport exist?:  What different categories of sport exist? Sport can be classified into different sections. Whilst at school, sport is divided into 6 main groups: Games OAA Dance Gymnastics Swimming Athletics Sport What different categories of sport exist?:  What different categories of sport exist? These 6 groups can be clustered together into 3 main units: Games Athletics Gymnastics The difference between these 3 groups is demonstrated in how the winners are decided. Sport The ‘sport problem’…:  The ‘sport problem’… In each different type of sport, the winner is decided in a different way… Games Athletics Gymnastics The territorial dominators win. The highest, fastest and strongest win. The performer of the most complex moves wins. Sport How do we define ‘athletic’ activities?:  How do we define ‘athletic’ activities? Little tactical demand. Performance is individual. Performance has few technical movements. Performance is measured in quantitative terms – i.e. the height/speed/strength/distance. Sport What other characteristics does athletics possess?:  What other characteristics does athletics possess? Nature of sport problem Technical Structure Psycho-logical Physio-logical Strategic Winner decided by fastest/ furthest/ highest/ strongest. High need for physical fitness. Large amounts of stamina/ speed/ strength required. Must be mentally calm – large use of relaxation techniques to reduce stress. Psyching out of opponents. No direct contact with other competitors in most events. Some long distance running events have interaction between opponents. Few technical movements. However, good technique aids success. Errors do not lead to a loss in points. Little tactical demand. Technique is well rehearsed. Winner decided by fastest/ furthest/ highest/ strongest. Sport How do we define ‘gymnastic’ activities?:  How do we define ‘gymnastic’ activities? Individual performances. Errors result in a loss of points. Scoring system used to reflect difficulty of moves. Closed skills. Little decision-making used during performance. Large number of techniques to master. Judged in qualitative terms – i.e. “the aesthetic quality of performance” Sport What other characteristics does gymnastics possess?:  What other characteristics does gymnastics possess? Nature of sport problem Physio-logical Psycho-logical Structure Technical Strategic Winner decided against a pre-determined set of criteria The most aesthetically pleasing and technically difficult performance is deemed to be the best. Massive demand for strength & flexibility. Stamina also required. Must be mentally prepared. Large use of imagery & relaxation techniques. No real psyching out of opponents. No direct interference from other performers. Large demand for technical ability. Many techniques to master – errors in these result in a loss of points. Precision & accuracy required. Few decisions to make during performance – most of this is done during rehearsal of routines. Alternative decisions made if performance is needed to be altered. Sport How do we define ‘games’ activities?:  How do we define ‘games’ activities? Participant competes directly with the opposition. Instantaneous decisions made during the game. Performer required to ‘read’ the game. Individual mistakes usually relatively unimportant (unless a person misses the chance of the only goal of the game!). Winner determined by team who achieves territorial domination/scores the most goals/points. Sport What other characteristics do games possess?:  What other characteristics do games possess? Nature of sport problem Physio-logical Psycho-logical Structure Technical Strategic Winner determined by team who achieves territorial domination/ scores the most goals/points. High demand for physical fitness, strength, speed and stamina. Co-operation with team mates. Direct competition against opponents. Use of mental rehearsal & imagery. Psyching out of opponents occurs. Skills learnt must be adaptable to constantly changing situations. Technical errors not massively influential to the game. Good technique aids success. High level of strategy. Players must read the game and make instantaneous decisions. Use of pre-planned team tactics & set plays. Sport

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