Published on January 7, 2014
CASE STUDIES A2 AQA Geography
LOCATION: Iceland TOPIC: Plate Tectonics DATE: 20 March 2010 MAGNITUDE: 1-2, VEI: 4 (Cataclysmic) EXAMPLE OF: MEDC Volcanic Eruption (Eyjafjallajokull) 200 year dormancy North Atlantic and Eurasian Divergence South coast of Iceland Entirely covered by ice cap (100km2) Part of the MAR (Mid Atlantic Ridge) Conical Stratovolcano General Facts Fed by magma chamber filled from divergence of MAR Pop: 330,000 Density: 3/km2 Av: 1 eruption / 5 yrs Closest Neighbour Katla (NE) Comp UK: 247/km2 500 farmers evacuated overnight Roads closed in preparation for flooding S (-) 100,000 travellers displaced by disruption Management & Response Flights stopped to prevent damage to aircraft (engine failure) Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (MET Office) 2.3cm/yr Westerly Safe zones 3h to evacuate GPS Monitoring of deformation Seismic monitoring E (+) Reduced noise pollution from aircraft Hazards Ash E (+) Economic boost for New Zealand as Norway unable to export Salmon E (-) $150m/day lost in Zambia in Flower and Veg E (-) 250mil m3 tephra released to height of 30,000ft (9km) E (-) Loss of £130m/day to air travel industry/day Linked eruption history Geologically similar E (-) £1.2b cost to airlines Effusive Lava Melt water Steam from contact with glacial ice E (-) Kenya: 400T of flowers destroyed/day ($3.8m loss) E (-) Shortage of imported goods Impacts (S,E,P,E) E (+) No air travel meant 1.3-2.8m of CO2 E (-) 0.15m tonnes of emissions saved/day CO2 released per day E (-) 13 travel firms in UK collapsed S (+) Very few deaths/injuries S (-) Farm workers laid off in Kenya, little to do when goods couldn’t be exported
TOPIC: Plate Tectonics LOCATION: Montserrat DATE: July 1995 MAGNITUDE: EXAMPLE OF: LEDC Volcanic Eruption (Soufriere Hills) Caribbean/North American Plates 350 year dormancy 2/3 of the island has been left uninhabitable Destructive plate boundary General Facts British Overseas Territory Subduction zone 24/7 Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) Close monitoring of volcano Ground Deformation (GPS) Volcanic Gas Monitoring Seismic Activity Monitoring Management & Response Ash fall Avalanches and debris Hazards Lava flows Southern Half of the island is exclusion zone 11,000 people live in areas at risk from pyroclastic flows and ash fall British International Development Department funding new city & tourist trade Early warning Pyroclastic flows Small island arc S (-) 80% loss of population since 1990s 11,000 to 6,500 E (-) Tourism Industry destroyed with capital S (-) 19 deaths E (-) All businesses in S (-) Waves of capital destroyed emigration workers left S (-) 2/3 evacuated, exclusion illegal to enter E (-) Large areas of vegetation lost Impacts (S,E,P,E) E (-) Critically endangered species habitat destroyed High level of New capital city vulnerability – very Exclusion/Evacuati planned to increase small island on Zoning tourism E (+) Coastline extended by 300m E (-) Poisonous gases and acid rain E (-) Most productive farmland inside exclusion zone cannot be worked E (-) Corals destroyed E (-) Domestic animals let free, competition with native animals
TOPIC: Plate Tectonics LOCATION: Sichuan, China DATE: May 12 2008 MAGNITUDE: 7.9 EXAMPLE OF: LEDC Earthquake - Vulnerability 315T of water Local convergence between basins Instability from collision between Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates 19km deep focus point Steel and Concrete reinforcement Infringement of building codes increased vulnerability Management & Response Hazards E (-) Price of pork and grain increased sharply as yields reduced due to quake Violations – inferior People silenced with concrete and lack of financial pay offs steel reinforcements Lax enforcement Mandatory 1976 building code (Rating 7/12 on risk scale) Landslides 92nd on the human development index Heavy dependency on aid – majority of funds spent on Beijing Olympics that year Rushed economic growth Slope Failure Weakening of fault by Zipingpu Dam (comp 2006) General Facts Government ignored human causes E (-) Stalled economic growth – tourism stopped E (-) $150b reconstruction bill 60/900 survived collapse of 3 story school building 7000 classrooms destroyed, 10,000 students killed S (-) 90,000 deaths, 375,000 Impacts injuries, 5,000,000 (S,E,P,E) homeless E (-) 34 temporary barrier lakes created by blocked river valleys S (-) 1.4m driven to Welfare programmes to poverty as a result help people affected $1.3b committed to strengthening 2600 schools Severe Ground Shaking 5.4m buildings collapsed, 21m damaged
TOPIC: Plate Tectonics LOCATION: Haiti DATE: January 12 2010 MAGNITUDE: 7.0 EXAMPLE OF: LEDC Earthquake Strike/Slip fault North American / Caribbean plate boundary Epicentre 15mi from city centre ‘Earthquake cycle’ e.g. 1770 quake followed by 1751 – area still at risk Initial shock duration less than 1 minute Development Indicators Shallow focus 13km deep Pop: 9.8m Poorest nation in western hemisphere Sheeting provided to construct temporary acc. Poor infrastructure and building Breakdown of control e.g. Oxfam Human Dev: 0.4 Hygiene kits, water supplies org by NGO’s AgriQuake culture Disaster management from around the world (NGOs) Local skills used for rebuilding Delayed construction of NGO camps Primary route in and out – cut off from world E (-) Port au Prince (Capital) destroyed E (-) 1 in 3 buildings collapsed in capital NGO Training S (-) Port destroyed – unable to bring in aid Impacts (S,E,P,E) Severe soil erosion & landslides Rapid pop growth left people living on steep slopes S (-) 1.5m left homeless E (-) Small businesses S (-) Reinforcement collapsed with no money of social inequalities to restart Coordination of emergency services Micro-loan schemes S (-) Rapid spread of disease like Cholera Earthquake simulation exercises Hazards Deforestation S (-) 300,000 people killed (estimate) Proof Management & Response Release of tectonic pressure has increased it somewhere else along fault Urban: 48% Less than 5% of land in Haiti registered Violent Ground Shaking Lateral spreading Life Ex: 62y General Facts Shoreline moving back and forth
TOPIC: Plate Tectonics LOCATION: Sendai, Japan MAGNITUDE: 9.0 (IX – Violent) DATE: March 2011 EXAMPLE OF: MEDC Tsunami Duration: 5m Movement on fault line on Pacific-North American Plate Boundary 100km off the coast, 6km deep Low lying and densely populated coastal regions increased exposure Global reassessment of nuclear energy Escape routes planned and on street signs Coastal Subsidence Soil Liquefaction General Facts E (-) Industrial production halted because of shortage of parts (Sony, Toyota, Hond a etc) Movement of sea floor up or down caused waves Release of several megatons of energy 30km exclusion zone for dangerous levels of radiation Extensive flooding up to 15km inland Overseas plants also affected Hazards Ground Shaking E (-) GDP fell by 0.5%, Nikkei index dropped 1.7% Management & Response Education: Earthquake and tsunami drills E Japan moved a further 3m out to sea S (-) Long term health concerns over radiation S (-) 10,000’s of deaths $1.5b 10m sea wall in Kamaishi overtopped by tsunami Most costly in history Automated TV warning system alerts people to strong quakes E (-) Saltwater contaminated crops E (-) Coastal subsidence over 1m in areas S (-) 500,000 made homeless More than 40% of Japans coastline protected by concrete sea walls and breakwaters 6m high Tsunami Impacts (S,E,P,E) E (-) $100 trillion economic cost Little tome to evacuate E (-) Nuclear waste leakage from reactor 4 S (-) Destruction of homes E (-) Coastal ecosystems damaged or destroyed by force of wave
TOPIC: Plate Tectonics LOCATION: Northridge, LA DATE: January 17 1994 MAGNITUDE: 6.7 EXAMPLE OF: MEDC Earthquake Caused by movement along a previously unknown thrust fault 10-20 seconds of strong ground shaking Depth of 17.5km General Facts 600 aftershocks further damaged buildings Stringent building codes Emergency drills and response procedures Education: Earthquake and tsunami drills 11,000 triggered Covers an area of 469 mi2 Alpha world city – links major economic regions to world economy Attributed to early morning (4:30am) and national holiday 700,000 applications to state and federal assistance programmes for financial help Management & Response Land Slides & other slope failures High level of exposure Metropolitan LA Pop: 16.5m Highest ever ground acceleration in US Richest State in Richest Country meant investment was high Av Density of 2500/km2 Hospitals and schools survived well – required reinforcement Change in building codes Blocked roads Ground Shaking Hazards Damaged water lines S (-) 11 hospitals damaged unable to serve community S (-) Loss of electricity, water and gas in areas S (-) Death toll: 57 people E (-) $30billion economic cost S (-) 9000 injuries and 20,000 made homeless E (-) Several elevated buildings with open air parking collapsed Impacts (S,E,P,E) E (-) 12,500 buildings suffered moderate to serious damage E (-) Seven motorways collapsed, 170 bridges sustained damage
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