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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Chloe

Source: authorstream.com

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Appendix III:  Appendix III Hazards Found in Seafood Objective:  Objective In this module, you will learn: The identity and characteristics of biological, chemical and physical safety hazards commonly identified with seafood. Control measures for hazards in seafood, Bacterial Pathogens:  Bacterial Pathogens Bacillus cereus Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium botulinum C. perfringens Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E coli O157:H7) Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella spp. Shigella spp. Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus) Vibrio cholerae V. parahaemolyticus V. vulnificus Yersinia enterocolitica Bacillus cereus:  Bacillus cereus Source: Soil, dust, raw foods Symptoms: 1) profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal pain; 2) vomiting, nausea Transmission: Spores present in raw foods Control: time/temperature; reheat cooked foods to >165o F Campylobacter jejuni:  Campylobacter jejuni Source: Intestines of poultry, livestock, domestic animals Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, weakness, fever Transmission: Contaminated foods & water, person to person Control: Proper cooking, proper hand and equipment washing, sanitary food handling practices Clostridium botulinum:  Clostridium botulinum Source: Heat-resistant spores found throughout the environment Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, weakness, double, blurred vision, dilated, fixed pupils, respiratory paralysis Transmission: Semi-preserved seafood, improperly canned foods Control: Proper canning, aw <0.93, pH <4.7 Clostridium perfringens:  Clostridium perfringens Source: Soil, dust, intestinal tract of animals and humans Symptoms: Intense abdominal cramps and diarrhea Transmission: Spores present in raw foods Control: Proper time/temperature control; preventing cross-contamination of cooked foods Escherichia coli:  Escherichia coli Source: Intestines of animals and humans Symptoms: Abdominal cramping, water or bloody diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest Control: Proper cooking, holding chilled foods <40oF, preventing cross-contamination, preventing ill people from working with food Listeria monocytogenes:  Listeria monocytogenes Source: Widespread in the environment Symptoms: Mild flu-like symptoms to meningitis, abortions, septicemia, and death Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked food Control: Proper cooking, preventing cross-contamination Salmonella spp.:  Salmonella spp. Source: Intestine of mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest Control: Proper cooking, holding chilled foods <40oF, preventing cross-contamination, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food Shigella spp.:  Shigella spp. Source: Intestine of humans Symptoms: Mild diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, severs fluid loss Transmission: Sewage pollution of coastal waters, contamination after harvest Control: Preventing human waste contamination of water supplies, preventing ill people or carriers from working with food Staphylococcus aureus:  Staphylococcus aureus Source: Humans and animals, air, dust, sewage Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea, fever Transmission: Contamination of food by workers or equipment, growth and toxin production in the food Control: Minimizing time/temperature abuse of food, especially after cooking, requiring that food handlers engage in proper hygiene Vibrio cholerae:  Vibrio cholerae Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries, bays and brackish water Symptoms: 01: watery diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps; non-01: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Vibrio parahaemolyticus:  Vibrio parahaemolyticus Source: Naturally occurring in estuaries and other coastal areas throughout the world Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Vibrio vulnificus:  Vibrio vulnificus Source: Naturally occurring marine bacterium Symptoms: Skin lesions, septic shock, fever, chills, nausea Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Yersinia enterocolitica:  Yersinia enterocolitica Source: Soil, water, domesticated and wild animals Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood, temperature abuse Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood, holding seafood <40oF Viral Pathogens:  Viral Pathogens Hepatitis A virus Norwalk virus Hepatitis A Virus:  Hepatitis A Virus Source: Contaminated coastal waters Symptoms: Weakness, fever, abdominal pain, jaundice Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Norwalk Virus:  Norwalk Virus Source: Contaminated coastal waters Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever Transmission: Cross-contamination from raw to cooked seafood, consumption of raw seafood Control: Proper cooking of seafood, preventing cross-contamination of cooked seafood Parasites:  Parasites Anisakis simplex Pseudoterranova decipiens Diphyllobothrium latum Anisakis simplex (Herring Worm):  Anisakis simplex (Herring Worm) Nematode: 18-36 mm x 0.24-0.69 mm Source: Raw fish (sushi, sashimi, lomi lomi, 18-36 mm x 0.24-0.69 mm ceveche, sunomono, Dutch green herring, marinated fish, cold-smoked fish Symptoms: Abdominal pain Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish Pseudoterranova decipiens (Codworm):  Pseudoterranova decipiens (Codworm) Nematode: 5-58 mm x 0.3-1.2 mm Source: Raw fish (sushi, sashimi, lomi lomi, ceveche, sunomono, Dutch green herring, marinated fish, cold-smoked fish, under-cooked fish) Symptoms: Abdominal pain Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish Diphyllobothrium latum:  Diphyllobothrium latum Tapeworm: Source: Raw freshwater or anadromous fish Symptoms: Abdominal pain Transmission: Consumption of raw or undercooked fish Control: Proper cooking of fish Marine Toxins:  Marine Toxins Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) Gempylotoxin Scombroid toxin Tetrodotoxin Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning:  Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Domoic acid Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish (mussels) feeding on algae (Pseudonitzschia spp.), viscera of Dungeness crab and anchovies Symptoms: Intestinal distress, facial grimace or chewing motion, short-term memory loss, difficulty breathing Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning:  Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Okadaic acid and its derivatives Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp.) Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning:  Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Brevetoxins Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Gymnodinium breve) Symptoms: Tingling of the face and spreading to other parts of the body, cold/hot sensation reversal dilation of pupils, feeling of inebriation Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning:  Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin: Saxitoxins (18 types) Source: Contaminated molluscan shellfish feeding on algae (Alexandrium, Pyrodinium, Gymnodinium spp.) Symptoms: Numbness and burning or tingling sensation of lips and tongue spreading to face and fingertips, general lack of muscle coordination in arms, legs, neck Control: Obtain molluscan shellfish from waters that have been approved for harvest Ciguatera Fish Poisoning:  Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Toxin: Ciguatoxin Source: Certain species of tropical and subtropical fish feeding on algae (Gambierdiscus spp.) Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abnormal or impaired skin sensations, vertigo, lack of muscle coordination, cold/hot sensation reversal, muscular pain and itching Control: Obtain fish from safe harvest areas Gempylotoxin:  Gempylotoxin Toxin: Oil contained in the flesh and bones of specific species Source: Gemplids, escolars or pelagic mackerels (escolar; oilfish, castor oil fish or purgative fish; snek) Symptoms: Diarrhea, generally without pain or cramping Control: Avoid specific fish species Scombroid Toxin:  Scombroid Toxin Toxin: Histamine Source: Improperly handled mahi mahi, tuna, bluefish, sardines, amberjack, mackerel Symptoms: Metallic or peppery taste, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, swelling and flushing of face, headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, hives, rapid and weak pulse, thirst, difficulty swallowing Control: Proper chilling and temperature control Tetrodotoxin:  Tetrodotoxin Toxin: Tetrodotoxin Source: Gonads, liver, intestines and skin of pufferfish Symptoms: Numbness and tingling of the mouth, weakness, paralysis, decreased blood pressure, quickened and weakened pulse. Death can occur within 30 minutes. Control: Avoid improperly prepared pufferfish Other Chemical and Physical Hazards:  Other Chemical and Physical Hazards Aquaculture drugs Allergens Chemical contaminants Food additives Glass Metal fragments

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