advertisement

Approaches To Learner Autonomy In Language Learning

42 %
58 %
advertisement
Information about Approaches To Learner Autonomy In Language Learning
Education

Published on November 25, 2008

Author: irwyn12

Source: slideshare.net

advertisement

Approaches to Learner Autonomy in Language Learning Erin Lowry Senior English Language Fellow Centro Colombo Americano Armenia November 25, 2008

You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

You cannot teach a man anything; you can only help him find it within himself.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Learner Autonomy Defined Ability to take charge of one’s own learning Main idea behind learner autonomy is that students should take responsibility for their own learning, rather than be dependent on the teacher (Holec 1981) “ The autonomous learner is one that constructs knowledge from direct experience, rather than one who responds to someone’s instruction” (Benson 2001)     

Ability to take charge of one’s own learning

Main idea behind learner autonomy is that students should take responsibility for their own learning, rather than be dependent on the teacher (Holec 1981)

“ The autonomous learner is one that constructs knowledge from direct experience, rather than one who responds to someone’s instruction” (Benson 2001)     

Characteristics of Autonomy Concept based in natural tendency for learners to take control over their learning. Autonomy may be displayed in different ways and to different degrees depending on each learner and learning situation. Learners who lack autonomy are capable of developing it given appropriate conditions and preparation. Autonomous learning is more effective than non-autonomous learning.

Concept based in natural tendency for learners to take control over their learning. Autonomy may be displayed in different ways and to different degrees depending on each learner and learning situation.

Learners who lack autonomy are capable of developing it given appropriate conditions and preparation.

Autonomous learning is more effective than non-autonomous learning.

Versions of Autonomy TECHNICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL POLITICAL SOCIAL The act of learning a language outside the framework of an educational institution and without the intervention of a teacher The capacity which allows learners to take more responsibility for their own learning The conditions that allow learners to control the process and content of learning as well as the institutional context within which learning takes place The capacity to interact and collaborate with others Benson & Voller (1997)

TECHNICAL

PSYCHOLOGICAL

POLITICAL

SOCIAL

Characteristics of Autonomous Language Learners Seven main attributes (see Omaggio, 1978, cited in Wenden, 1998: 41-42): have insights into their learning styles and strategies take an active approach to the learning task at hand are willing to take risks are good guessers attend to form as well as to content, that is, place importance on accuracy as well as appropriacy develop the target language into a separate reference system and are willing to revise and reject hypotheses and rules that do not apply have a tolerant and outgoing approach to the target language

Seven main attributes (see Omaggio, 1978, cited in Wenden, 1998: 41-42):

have insights into their learning styles and strategies

take an active approach to the learning task at hand

are willing to take risks

are good guessers

attend to form as well as to content, that is, place importance on accuracy as well as appropriacy

develop the target language into a separate reference system and are willing to revise and reject hypotheses and rules that do not apply

have a tolerant and outgoing approach to the target language

What Needs to Happen First Teacher becomes less of an instructor and more of a facilitator Students discouraged from relying on the teacher as the main source of knowledge Students’ capacity to learn for themselves is encouraged Students encouraged to make decisions about what they learn Students’ awareness of their own learning styles is encouraged Students encouraged to develop their own learning strategies

Teacher becomes less of an instructor and more of a facilitator

Students discouraged from relying on the teacher as the main source of knowledge

Students’ capacity to learn for themselves is encouraged

Students encouraged to make decisions about what they learn

Students’ awareness of their own learning styles is encouraged

Students encouraged to develop their own learning strategies

Oxford’s Model of Learner Autonomy Technical perspective Focus on physical situation Psychological perspective Focus on characteristics of learning Sociocultural perspective Focus on mediated learning Political-critical perspective Focus on ideologies , access, power structure Oxford (2003, pp. 76, 80)

Technical perspective

Focus on physical situation

Psychological perspective

Focus on characteristics of learning

Sociocultural perspective

Focus on mediated learning

Political-critical perspective

Focus on ideologies , access, power structure

Some Background Autonomy is generally seen as a characteristic of adults Independent learning doesn’t mean solitude Autonomous learners are also part of communities of practice Autonomy is not necessarily a characteristic that is seen as important in learning in all cultures

Autonomy is generally seen as a characteristic of adults

Independent learning doesn’t mean solitude

Autonomous learners are also part of communities of practice

Autonomy is not necessarily a characteristic that is seen as important in learning in all cultures

Designing Courses that Promote Autonomy Take into consideration Learner goals The language learning process Tasks and design Learner strategies Reflection on learning

Take into consideration

Learner goals

The language learning process

Tasks and design

Learner strategies

Reflection on learning

Our Goals as Teachers Train learners to function better while studying Ensure learners continue to acquire the second language after formal studies end (Field 2007) Not use set methodologies Our job is to create learning opportunities, not to impose a method. There’s no one way to learn a language (Benson 2001)

Train learners to function better while studying

Ensure learners continue to acquire the second language after formal studies end (Field 2007)

Not use set methodologies

Our job is to create learning opportunities, not to impose a method. There’s no one way to learn a language (Benson 2001)

FOSTERING AUTONOMY

5 Ways of Supporting Autonomy Resource-based Independent use of learning materials Technology-based Independent interaction with educational technologies Classroom-based Learner control over the planning and evaluation of classroom learning (power to make decisions) Benson (2001)

Resource-based

Independent use of learning materials

Technology-based

Independent interaction with educational technologies

Classroom-based

Learner control over the planning and evaluation of classroom learning (power to make decisions)

5 Ways of Supporting Autonomy Con’t Curriculum-based Learner control over curriculum as a whole Teacher-based Emphasizes role of the teacher and teacher education in practice of fostering autonomy among learners Learner-based Development of autonomous learning skills Benson (2001)

Curriculum-based

Learner control over curriculum as a whole

Teacher-based

Emphasizes role of the teacher and teacher education in practice of fostering autonomy among learners

Learner-based

Development of autonomous learning skills

Resource-Based Self-access areas Use of authentic texts Self-instruction and distance learning

Self-access areas

Use of authentic texts

Self-instruction and distance learning

Self-Access Areas Technology Comptuers CDs & DVDs Learner literature Dictionaries Grammar reference Workbooks Books

Technology

Comptuers

CDs & DVDs

Learner literature

Dictionaries

Grammar reference

Workbooks

Books

Characteristics of Good Self-Access Materials classified by learners’ language level Suggestions on what to do next (pathways) Training for learners on how to use the resources and computers Making the area appropriate for learners How to keep interest going Harmer (2007)

Materials classified by learners’ language level

Suggestions on what to do next (pathways)

Training for learners on how to use the resources and computers

Making the area appropriate for learners

How to keep interest going

Levels of Autonomous Learning (Nunan, 1997) Level Learner action Content Process 1 Awareness Learners are made aware of pedagogical goals and content of the materials they are using Learners identify strategy implications of pedagogical tasks and identify their own preferred styles/strategies 2 Involvement Learners are involved in selecting their own goals from a range of alternatives Learners make choices among a range of options 3 Intervention Learners are involved in modifying and adapting the goals and content of the learning program Learners modify and adapt tasks 4 Creation Learners create their own goals and objectives Learners create their own learning tasks 5 Transcendence Learners go beyond the classroom and make links between the content of classroom learning and the world beyond the classroom Learners become teachers and researchers

Technology-Based Internet Software Computer-mediated communication

Internet

Software

Computer-mediated communication

Classroom-based Learners are asked to set their own goals and plan activities within the classroom Self-assessment

Learners are asked to set their own goals and plan activities within the classroom

Self-assessment

Learner-based Learner development activities Language learning strategies & techniques (p.149) “ Good language learner”

Learner development activities

Language learning strategies & techniques (p.149)

“ Good language learner”

Curriculum-based Process syllabus Inquiry-based learning Project-based learning Task-based learning

Process syllabus

Inquiry-based learning

Project-based learning

Task-based learning

Teacher-based Teacher roles Teacher autonomy

Teacher roles

Teacher autonomy

Our Roles as Teachers Voller (1997) identifies three roles for teachers working on an autonomous pedagogy the teacher as a facilitator the teacher as a counsellor the teacher as a resource

Voller (1997) identifies three roles for teachers working on an autonomous pedagogy

the teacher as a facilitator

the teacher as a counsellor

the teacher as a resource

ACTIVITIES FOR AUTONOMOUS LANGUAGE LEARNING

Strategy Training Learning strategies = the techniques you use to learn something 2 categories Metacognitive strategies Cognitive strategies

Learning strategies = the techniques you use to learn something

2 categories

Metacognitive strategies

Cognitive strategies

Metacognitive Strategies Thinking about your process of learning Planning Monitoring Problem-solving Evaluating

Thinking about your process of learning

Planning

Monitoring

Problem-solving

Evaluating

Cognitive Strategies Learners actually do something with the language in order to learn it, such as: Writing vocabulary lists Doing grammar exercises Listening to songs

Learners actually do something with the language in order to learn it, such as:

Writing vocabulary lists

Doing grammar exercises

Listening to songs

Learning Journals Purpose Teacher-student channel Reactions Responses Open Formats Written, Online, Tapes, CDs How often Public or private

Purpose

Teacher-student channel

Reactions

Responses

Open

Formats

Written, Online, Tapes, CDs

How often

Public or private

Learning Contracts What am I going to learn? ( Objectives ) How am I going to learn it? ( Resources and Strategies ) How am I going to know that I have learned it? ( My evidence ) How am I going to prove that I have learned it? ( Verification by teachers and peers ) Schwarzer, Kahn & Smart (2000)

What am I going to learn? ( Objectives )

How am I going to learn it? ( Resources and Strategies )

How am I going to know that I have learned it? ( My evidence )

How am I going to prove that I have learned it? ( Verification by teachers and peers )

Personal Plans To use in the weeks after a lesson finishes Aim: to improve my vocabulary Tasks: Read at least 3 magazine articles from Newsweek every week. For each article note down 3 words that I want to know the meaning of. Look up the words. Find the words again in next week’s articles and check to see that they mean the same thing in the new article. Do 1 unit from English Vocabuary in Use every week and check. Harmer (2007:408)

To use in the weeks after a lesson finishes

Aim: to improve my vocabulary

Tasks:

Read at least 3 magazine articles from Newsweek every week. For each article note down 3 words that I want to know the meaning of. Look up the words. Find the words again in next week’s articles and check to see that they mean the same thing in the new article.

Do 1 unit from English Vocabuary in Use every week and check.

Learning Logs Individual student’s summary of what has been learned over a given period of time Beginner levels Teacher can help students summarize Young learners Circle appropriate drawings or adjectives

Individual student’s summary of what has been learned over a given period of time

Beginner levels

Teacher can help students summarize

Young learners

Circle appropriate drawings or adjectives

Learning Logs Consider asking one’s self questions such as: Did it go well? Why? What did you learn? Did it go badly? Why? What did you learn? How can you improve for next time Contains student’s record of their experiences, thoughts, feelings and reflections.

Consider asking one’s self questions such as:

Did it go well? Why? What did you learn?

Did it go badly? Why? What did you learn?

How can you improve for next time

Contains student’s record of their experiences, thoughts, feelings and reflections.

CALL / Technology Blogs Software Computer-mediated communication (CMC) Web 2.0 tools Wequests

Blogs

Software

Computer-mediated communication (CMC)

Web 2.0 tools

Wequests

Blogs

Websites

Webquests Presents student groups with a challenging task, scenario, or problem to solve using the Internet and its available resources Current events, controversial social and environmental topics work well

Presents student groups with a challenging task, scenario, or problem to solve using the Internet and its available resources

Current events, controversial social and environmental topics work well

Reflection Incorporate reflective lessons into your teaching Have students consider: Their motivation Changes in attitudes and ideas Which skills they need for different kinds of assignments What is blocking their learning Any gaps in their knowledge or skills

Incorporate reflective lessons into your teaching

Have students consider:

Their motivation

Changes in attitudes and ideas

Which skills they need for different kinds of assignments

What is blocking their learning

Any gaps in their knowledge or skills

Questions? Companion website for workshop http://colombotech.pbwiki.com/Approaches-to-Autonomous-Learning Email Erin [email_address]

Companion website for workshop

http://colombotech.pbwiki.com/Approaches-to-Autonomous-Learning

Email Erin

[email_address]

Selected Resources Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning . Harlow: Pearson Education. Benson, P. & Voller, P. (Eds.). (1997). Autonomy and independence in language learning . London: Longman. Healey, D. (2007). Theory and research: autonomy and language learning. In J. Egbert & E. Hanson-Smith (Eds.). CALL environments: research, practice, and critical issues (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning . Oxford: Pergamon. (First published 1979, Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Other resources cited on http://colombotech.pbwiki.com/Approaches-to-Autonomous-Learning

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning . Harlow: Pearson Education.

Benson, P. & Voller, P. (Eds.). (1997). Autonomy and independence in language learning . London: Longman.

Healey, D. (2007). Theory and research: autonomy and language learning. In J. Egbert & E. Hanson-Smith (Eds.). CALL environments: research, practice, and critical issues (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning . Oxford: Pergamon. (First published 1979, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Other resources cited on http://colombotech.pbwiki.com/Approaches-to-Autonomous-Learning

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

LEARNER AUTONOMY IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: TEACHERS’ BELIEFS

2.3.2 Approaches to fostering learner autonomy in the Vietnamese ... Table 4.5 Teachers’ Overall Beliefs about Learner Autonomy in Language Learning ...
Read more

New Approaches on Learner Autonomy in Language Learning

Learner autonomy in foreign language teaching and learning has been a favourite topic for a long time. Since the beginning of the millennium year, there ...
Read more

Learner autonomy and second/foreign language learning ...

Learner autonomy and second/foreign ... Approaches that equate ... In D. Crabbe and S. Cotterall (eds), Learner Autonomy in Language Learning: ...
Read more

Thanasoulas - What is Learner Autonomy and How Can It Be ...

... to dominant philosophical approaches to learning. ... autonomous learner in a language learning ... Autonomy in Language Learning ...
Read more

Approaches To Learner Autonomy | Strategic Learning Unlimited

Approaches To Learner Autonomy; Blair HS Linguistics; Learning Strategies Through Play; ... learner has in approaching language learning tasks (Chamot, ...
Read more

Brian Morrison - The Autonomy Approach | Delta Publishing ...

The Autonomy Approach Language learning in the ... underpin the majority of work on learner autonomy. ... access learning. With the autonomy ...
Read more

The Autonomy Approach: Language Learning in the Classroom ...

The Autonomy Approach: Language Learning in the ... underpin the majority of work on learner autonomy. ... as well as a variety of approaches, ...
Read more

Learner Autonomy In Language Learning: Student Teachers ...

Learner Autonomy In Language Learning: ... of learner autonomy in language ... learner autonomy in language learning focuses not ...
Read more

Learner Autonomy - Library of Congress

Learner Autonomy A guide to ... Some degree of autonomy is also essential to successful language learning. ... and the learner centred approaches.
Read more