Published on March 11, 2014
Approach to Integrate Land Use and Transport within Spatial Planning Processes Session 2B: Enabling Integrated Planning through Urban and Regional Development Planning Acts in India
URBAN CHALLENGES Potential of Urban India 300 million more people will live in Indian Urban areas in next 20 to 25 years (equal to population of US ) New urban population equal to size of 34 Bangalores are going to be added Engine of growth: 220 million people would be employed in cities – 2/3 of total working Aspirations and Prosperity: Percentage of urban households having car has increased from 5.6% in 2001 to 9.7% in 2011 Similar to demographic dividend of young India, urban areas of India is also facing growth dividend Other side of prosperity Bicycle usage in urban areas have reduced in the last decade Cities like Delhi has most polluted air in the world. 300 deaths due to respiratory diseases per 1 lakh population per year - highest in the world
Lack of affordable housing Insufficient affordable public transport Insufficient and unequal physical and social infrastructure Degradation of urban environment Long trips and long time spent in travelling High greenhouse gas emission and climate change URBAN CHALLENGES ARE INTERLINKED
INDIA ON THE URBANIZATION CURVE India China Mexico Brazil, USA Indonesia Europe Urbanization situation in World Geographies between 2010 - 2030 Key Decision Maker : Governor, Chief Minister Key Decision Maker: Mayor Strategies: National Policy & Finance, Demonstration Projects, Capacity Building Strategies: Unified authorities, Plan/Vision documents Country and state leaders represent urban populace hence cities are priority and have autonomy to make their own decisions.
Unending urban sprawl along the peripheries Low density, uncoordinated urban growth and spatially segregated land uses leading to longer trips URBAN CHALLENGE - BANGALORE Source: Prof. Shivanand Swamy, Centre of Excellence in Urban Transport ,CEPT Average Vehicle Km vs Urban Sprawl
URBAN SPRAWL & LACK OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT ACCESS Built up area 2000 - 2008 Built up area in 2000 Intensity of BMTC Connectivity Urbanized Area Of Bangalore Results: Every 3rd person owns a 2 wheeler Every 10th person owns a car Only 8.3% of trips are by walk Source: BMRDASource: BMTC & EMBARQ
SPRAWL, SEGREGATED USES & FREEWAY ORIENTED GROWTH Bus 15 Km Car 11.59 Km 2 wheeler 8.02 Km Source: http://www.ichangemycity.com/budget Average Trip length of Bangalorean Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagar Palike Budget 2013 - 14 Results:
WHY TOWN PLANNING ACTS ARE UNABLE TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES Role of Acts Acts set the processes of planning They mandate aspects needs to be covered in spatial planning They provide powers and delegate roles to the agencies Context Partial devolution of functions to the elected bodies as per the 74th CAA; Low capacities to implement reforms by urban local Governments Conflict of roles and lack of coordinated approach between agencies involved. High pace of urban growth and growing complexity of issues Changing aspirations and unmet needs of cities and people for global competitiveness
WHY TOWN PLANNING ACTS ARE UNABLE TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES Lack of integration between spatial, socio-economic and transport planning Lack of regional planning approach that integrates peripheries and rural with city areas Lack of integration between scales and no clear mandate to prepare local area plans; Lack of linkages between the master plans, municipal financing, implementation and operating strategy; Often the plans are rigid and deterministic, leading to poor levels of implementation; Often very technical and mechanical exercise not relating to on ground aspects for example: local economy, livelihood, culture; Large sections of populations not included in the planning process; Degradation of urban environment and climate change hardly addressed.
TRANSPORT POLICIES FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT ALONE NOT ENOUGH + = Sustainable transport Public rail transport Public bus transport Transport policies to improve public transport alone do not prevent private vehicle travel Public transport alone do not attract development around stations
LAND USE POLICIES FOR DENSITIES OR MIXED USES ARE NOT ENOUGH + High density Mixed uses = Land use policies on increasing densities or mixed land use without accompanying measures to make car travel more expensive or slower have little effect as people will continue to make long trips to maximise opportunities within their time and budgets Sustainable development
WHY LAND USE TRANSPORT INTEGRATION Integrated land use and transport policies are more successful than isolated individual policies in either field
WHAT CURRENT ACTS ARE MENTIONING ON LAND USE AND TRANSPORT INTEGRATIONKarnataka Town and Country Planning Act (Revised) Preparation of Land Use Map Official Gazette Outline Development Plan (ODP) /Master Plan (MP) Interim Master Plan Land Acquisition Town Planning Schemes (TP) Additional Area Master Plan Revision of Master Plan Transfer of Development Right Mobility plans are prepared on different timeline and for different planning period which often does not coincide with Development plans No mandate for Regional Plan, Local Area Plan, elaborate public participatory process and mandate to coordinate between planning related agencies
WHAT CURRENT ACTS ARE MENTIONING ON LAND USE AND TRANSPORT INTEGRATION Chapter II, Section 4, subsection [2(vi)] Chapter III, Section 17, subsection (2) (a) (vi) Chapter IV, Section 26, subsection (2 (a) (iv) State Perspective Plan Metropolitan area Perspective Plan District Perspective Plan Policies and strategies for National and state level Transportation network Policies, strategies and projects for metropolitan area level transportation system including mass transport Policies, strategies and projects for socio economic development pertaining to district level transportation system Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised)
WHAT CURRENT ACTS ARE MENTIONING ON LAND USE AND TRANSPORT INTEGRATION Model Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law (Revised) Development Scheme Chapter VIII, Section 78, subsection (1) (q) (r) (q) Construction, reconstruction, alteration, improvement and maintenance of public roads and streets, bridges; parking lots, transport terminals including railway station, bus depots, air and seaports, bus bays and stops, street lighting and avenue plantation; (r) Provision of public transportation including mass transportation by rail or road;
IMPLICATIONS – OPPORTUNITY MISSED IN BANGALORE RMP 2015- Metro Rail alignment and other major transport proposals not integrated as part of land use and densification strategy. Higher FAR only based on width of access road irrespective of public transport intensity Potential TOD influence zones
IMPLICATIONS – OPPORTUNITY MISSED IN BANGALORE Transport projects and investments, their disjunction with the emerging Sub centres of land use proposals Integration with the peri- urban areas and emerging centres in the region are weak Bangalore RMP 2015
HOW TO ACHIEVE LAND USE TRANSPORT INTEGRATION +Compact urban structure Distribution of centres of activities & connect Complete transport network High density along public transit + + Mixed uses Improve public transport Multi-modal integration + + + Promote pedestrian infrastructure & NMT Parking managementAccessibility improvement by complete streets + + +
HOW TO INTEGRATE AT REGIONAL SCALE CASE: COPENHAGEN A long-range planning vision shaping rail investments, which in turn shaped urban growth The corridors to channel overspill growth from urban centres were planned early in the planning process Evolution of Copenhagen Region Copenhagen Regional integration
HOW TO INTEGRATE AT REGIONAL SCALE Decentralising commercial and other economic activities through the development of regional, sub-regional, and fringe centres of mass rapid transit stations with mixed uses and high densities; Reducing the need to travel by locating employment centres near residential areas
HOW TO INTEGRATE IN DEVELOPMENT PLAN Towards compact and sustainable Bangalore 2011 As is scenario 2041 Automobile Scenario 2041 Sustainable Scenario Population (million) 8.5 18.9 18.9 Trips (million/day) 7.82 47.5 47.5 VKT (million kms/day) 32.61 746 141 Area (sq.kms) 800 4209 1894 Transport Emissions (million Tons CO2/year) 0.92 15.98 3.43 Traffic Fatalities /year 735 16,826 3,177
HOW TO INTEGRATE IN DEVELOPMENT PLANS, Case Ahmedabad and Delhi Source: AUDA Master plan for Delhi is in the process of integrating TOD Ahmedabad City Master Plan includes TOD zones along its BRTS corridor. Special regulations applies along the transit corridor Source: UTTIPEC, DDA
HOW TO INTEGRATE IN DEVELOPMENT PLANS, Case Naya Raipur Master plan for TOD in Naya Raipur Transit supportive Station Area plan prepared by NRDA and IBI Group Naya Raipur is in the process of integrating TOD principles in the detailed design of sectors
INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT AT LOCAL LEVEL, Indira Nagar, Bangalore Proposed Regulations Resulting Density: 451 pph Maintain the character of residential in the Buffer area Source: EMBARQ
INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT AT LOCAL LEVEL, Navanagar Public Spaces and Streets Feeder Network and Bicycle lanes to BRT Stop BRTS Feeder Bus Routes BRTS Stop Feeder Bus Stop Project Area Source: EMBARQ
INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT AT LOCAL LEVEL, Navanagar Public Spaces and Streets 1 2 3 Park Park Park Schools BRT Corrido r Design Components: Public Spaces 1. Central Spine 2. Plaza 3. Temple & Pond Safe Access - Streets 4. Streets with dedicated cycle track Project Area Key Map
INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT AT LOCAL LEVEL, HSR NIP, Bangalore Network of Public Spaces Source: EMBARQ India
INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT AT LOCAL LEVEL, HSR NIP, Bangalore Source: EMBARQ
WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE IN THE ACTS AND POLICIES, Best Practice: London & UK Comprehensive state urbanisation policy framework Triangular strategy of Spatial plan – Transport Plan – Economic strategy Bottom-up planning process Manuals to demystifying Acts
WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE IN THE ACTS AND POLICIES Comprehensive state urbanisation policy including framework of detailed policies and manuals to demystifying Acts Regional approach for Land use and Transport Integration Mandate coordinated preparation of DP – CMP – Economic Plans Mandate cooperation between agencies Preparation of Local Area Plans need to be mandated More specific directions required in policy framework – such as favouring compact urban form, mixed use, TOD, NMT, safe access, shared streets and parking management
CHANGE IN LIFE OF COMMON MAN BY LAND USE TRANSPORT INTEGRATION People have easy access to Work Place – Housing – Recreation Expenditure on transport reduced Time gained Safer neighbour hoods Better opportunities for physical activity Healthier environment
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