Published on January 10, 2009
Appreciative Inquiry : Appreciative Inquiry A Positive Revolution in Change Russ Ball (firstname.lastname@example.org) Chris Thompson (email@example.com Pat Bassett (firstname.lastname@example.org) Appreciative Inquiry The Philosophy : Appreciative Inquiry The Philosophy You cannot solve a problem from the mindset that created it. Albert Einstein Based on Five Principles : Based on Five Principles 1. Social Constructionism: what we know determines how we act and what we create as a future. 2. Poetic: Human organizations are open books where past, present and future are an endless source of learning and inspiration Principles continued : Principles continued 3. Simultaneity: Inquiry contains the seeds of change. The intervention of questioning simultaneously creates a new system. 4. Anticipatory: Our most important resource for creating the future is collectively imagining it. The future image guides current behavior Principles continued : Principles continued 5. Positive: Positive affect is as contagious as negative affect. Positive inquiry is an antidote to cynicism. Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Truth Exists and can be known Plato: a priori truth We co-create what is considered true Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Careful observation will reveal the truth Aristotle Participation is all that is possible. To observe and ask questions is to participate Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Adversarial perspective is for observation: Francis Bacon: “We should torture nature to give up her secrets.” Cooperative position is a natural form of participation. Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Observers are separate from what is observed. Descartes Observers are in the system that they observe. Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Reduction of larger parts into smaller will enable the truth to be revealed. Newton: “man as a machine.” Human experience is arbitrarily punctuated Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism We live in a linear and hierarchical world. We live in a circular world of relationships Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Individuals operate independent of environment. Individuals and environment form an ecosystem. Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Causes are inside the individual Problems are reciprocal interactions between and within parts of the system. Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Pathology focused, disease identification. Health focused; lifestyle enhancement Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Problem oriented: identify the causes Goal oriented: seeking solutions Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism : Historic Epistemologies Social Constructionism Experts “give” treatment Change agents help create a context for problem solving Adapted from Steve Lankton Comparison of Empirical Process vs. Appreciative Process : Comparison of Empirical Process vs. Appreciative Process Define the immediate problem Fix what is broken Focus on decay What problems are you having? Learning from our mistakes Who is to blame? Search for solutions that already exist. Amplify what is working Focus on life-giving forces What is working well around here? Learning from what works. Who is to affirm? What is Appreciative Inquiry : What is Appreciative Inquiry “Ap-pre-ci-ate, v” “… to value or admire highly; to judge with heightened understanding; to recognize with gratitude.” “In-quire, v” “… to search into, investigate; to seek for information by questioning.” Appreciative InquiryThe Process : Appreciative InquiryThe Process More than a method or technique, the appreciative mode of inquiry is a means of living with, being with, and directly participating in the life of a human system in a way that compels one to inquire into the deeper life-generating essentials and potentials of organizational existence. David Cooperrider AI… : AI… Focuses organizations on their most positive qualities. Leverages those qualities to enhance the organization Appreciative Inquiry is the study of what works well. Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry : Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry In every society, organization or group, something works. What we focus on becomes our reality. Reality is created in the moment, and there are multiple realities. Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry : Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry The act of asking questions of an organization or group influences the group in some way. People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future when they can carry forward parts of the past. If we carry parts of the past forward, they should be what is best about the past. Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry : Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry It is important to value differences. The language we use creates our reality. The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry : The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry Define Awareness of the need for development. Preparing for a appreciative process. Committing to the positive. The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry : The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry Discover What in God’s name is going on in your school? Interview process and gathering of life-giving experience within your school community. Valuing the best of what is The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry : The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry Dream What is the community calling us to be? What would our school look like in 5 years time? Developing common images of the future. Visioning the ideal The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry : The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry Design Aligning values, structures and mission with the ideal. Developing achievable plans and steps to make the vision a reality. Dialoguing what should be The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry : The Five Phases of Appreciative Inquiry Deliver Co-creating a sustainable, preferred future. Innovating what will be. 4 Foundational Questions : 4 Foundational Questions The Best Experience Tell me about the best times that you have had with your school or organization. Looking at your entire experience, recall a time when you felt most alive, most involved, or most excited about your involvement. What made it exciting? Who was involved? Describe the event in detail. Q4: What are three wishes to heighten vitality and health? 4 Foundational Questions : 4 Foundational Questions Values Without being humble, what do you value most as a human being, a friend, teacher and so on? When you are feeling best about your work, what do you value about it? What about your school or organization do you value? What is the single most important thing your school or organization has contributed to your life? Slide 31: Core Life-Giving Factor What are the core factors that give “life” to the organization? What is it that, if it did not exist, would make your organization totally different than it currently is? 4 Foundational Questions : 4 Foundational Questions Three Wishes If you had three wishes for your school or organization, what would they be? Provocative Propositions : Provocative Propositions Find examples of the best (from the interviews) Determine what circumstances made the best possible (in detail). Provocative Propositions : Provocative Propositions Take the stories and envision what might be. Write an affirmative statement (a provocative proposition) that describes the idealized future as if it were already happening. Provocative Propositions : Provocative Propositions To write the proposition, apply “what if” to all the common themes. Then write affirmative present-tense statements incorporating the common themes. Check-list : Check-list Is it provocative? Does it stretch, challenge or innovate? Is it grounded in examples? Is it what we want? Will people defend it or get passionate about it? Is it stated in affirmative, bold terms and in present tense. Lessons from the Field : Lessons from the Field St. Thomas Vestry NAIS Staff Canterbury School Departments NAIS AIM Appreciative Inquiry (AI) @ NAIS : Appreciative Inquiry (AI) @ NAIS Application of AI to Diversity Training at NAIS: 2-day retreat in the fall learning the AI approach and overcoming initial skepticism and expectation that this was another “sensitivity training” session. Developed mission statement for the “Thrive, Not Just Survive Diversity Summit”: adopt an authentic and positive intent to change ourselves for the better; communicate honestly and directly about diversity; become a role model for our schools in the area of Equity and Justice Follow-up Session: one-month later: Interviews with one another: Describe an epiphany you’ve had about diversity here; what are you most proud about the contributions you’ve made to the organization in the last month and the ways in which you’ve made a difference? Think back on the vision we created last month: paint a picture of what NAIS will become. Team objectives: What’s the diversity task our team plans to accomplish? What will be the performance measures? Three years later: Climate survey indicates continued differences of opinion on progress in the E&J arena. Need to re-group and re-affirm and re-direct efforts. Advancing E&J: needs to be in the individual and team performance criteria, not just in the vision statement in an old file. Slide 39: Antidote to “the deficit discourse” of MAP Focus future / strategic diversity planning on what is positive and constructive Shift “issue framing dialogues” in the direction of health rather than pathology Inspire administrators, faculty, parents, students, alumni, trustees Good to Great: AIM Data will produce some “brutal facts”; AI approach will leverage “unshakeable beliefs.” AI as the Approach to Assessment of Inclusivity & Multiculturalism (AIM) Resources : Resources Google Search on “Appreciative Inquiry” Appreciative Inquiry (Jane Magruder Watkins & Bernard J. Mohr) The Thin Book of Appreciative Inquiry (Sue Annis Hammond)
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