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Application of Statistics

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Information about Application of Statistics
Education

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: Naj_Jandy

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This is my first research-like paper. Glad it was assigned by group. It's indeed great to work with other people and bring out the best from all members and accomplish the task given!
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Frequency of letters/words in a language Objective  Analysis of a language text, using graphical and pie chart techniques. Description 1. The teacher may ask the students to work individually or in groups of two. 2. Students will select any paragraph containing approximately 250 words from any source e.g. newspaper, magazine, textbook, etc. Raw Data Imagine winning a free trip abroad, including accommodations and pocket money, and a chance to watch a big football match. Wouldn’t that be great if it happened to you? The couple took in the sights at Cape Town, and of course, went shopping as well. “We were also given a debit card worth US$1,200 on top of our pocket money!” Shei used her Gold Citi card, which she claims saved the day when she ran out of cash in the local currency. Shei Fuertez didn’t have to imagine it. Early this year, she filled up the back of a credit card slip and dropped it off at Citibank in Alabang. “But I claimed the win already right from the star,” she muses. And win, she did. In April, she and her boyfriend went on a four-day trip to Cape Town, South Africa with a thousand US dollars for pocket money, and two tickets to a FIFA match. “It was our first time in South Africa, but it was even more exciting because it’s free. It was an once-in-a-lifetime experience,” shares Shei, who absolutely loves to travel. The highlight of the trip was the match between Spain and Portugal, which they watched from VIP box no less. As from winning this fabulous trip, there are reasons why Shei has kept her Citi Card for the past five years. “It has always been reliable. My job takes me to other countries and one time my corporate credit card failed, I was able to use my Citi card. I also got my mom a supplementary card so that even I’m not here, she cans use it for emergencies, ”Shei concludes. 3. They will read every word and obtain a frequency table for each letter of the alphabet as follows. Table 1 Frequency of Each Letter Letter A B C D E Tally Marks IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-II IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII- Frequency 103 17 50 28 125

IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-I I IIIII-I IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III F G H I J K L M N O P Q R IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-I IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-I IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-I IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-I II IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III I S T U V W X Y Z 23 13 43 86 1 6 35 30 54 78 28 0 61 66 94 28 6 23 2 18 1 4. They will note down the number of two- letter, three-letter words,… so on and obtain a frequency table as follows: Table 2 Frequency of More than One-Letter Words Number of Words Two letter Three letter For letter Five letter Six letter Seven letter Eight letter Nine letter Ten letter Eleven letter Tally Marks IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIIIIIIII-I IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-IIII IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-III IIIII-IIIII-IIIII-II IIIII-IIIII-I IIIII-I III - Frequency 43 64 66 29 18 17 11 6 3 0

II Twelve letter Thirteen letter 0 2 5. Select 10 different words from the text which have frequency greater than 1. Give ranks 1,2,3,…,10 in decreasing order of their frequency. Obtain a table as follows: Table 3 Selected Words with Frequency Greater Than One Selected words Frequency Rank the 11 1 a 9 2 and 9 2 it 9 2 to 8 3 she 7 4 in 5 5 of 5 5 her 3 6 on 2 7 From Table 1 a) b) c) d) e) f) What is the most frequently occurring letter? What is the least frequently occurring letter? Compare the frequency of vowels? Which vowel is most commonly used? Which vowel has the least frequency? Make a pie chart of the vowels a, e, i, o, u, and remaining letters. (The pie chart will thus have 6 sectors).

Percentage of the Letters of the Alphabet 10% A 12% E I 8% O 59% U Consonants 8% 3% From Table 2 a. Compare the frequency of two letter words,… and so on. b. Make a pie chart. Note any interesting patterns. Percentage of More than One-Letter Word 2% 1% 0% 0% 1% 4% two-letter word three-letter words 17% four-letter words 7% five-letter words 7% six-letter words seven-letter words eight-letter words 11% 25% nine-letter words ten-letter words eleven-letter words 25% twelve-letter words thirteen-letter words From table 3 a. The relationship between the frequencies of a word to its rank. b. Plot the graph between the frequency and reciprocal of work rank. What do you observe? Do you see any interesting pattern?

c. Repeat the experiment by choosing text from any other language that you know and see if any common pattern emerges.

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