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Published on February 22, 2009

Author: sagarvtk


Implementation of GIS in Military applications : Implementation of GIS in Military applications What is GIS ? : What is GIS ? Definition of GIS: A broadly accepted definition of GIS is the one provided by the united states geological survey(USGS-1997) “A GIS is a computer based system capable of capturing,storing,analysing and displaying geographical referenced information” Data for GIS Applications : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Data for GIS Applications Digitised and scanned data Databases GPS field sampling of attributes Remote sensing and aerial photography Representation of data in raster and vector form : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Representation of data in raster and vector form GIS Applications : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS GIS Applications Mapping locations Mapping quantities Mapping densities Finding distances Mapping and monitoring change WHAT IS GPS? : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS WHAT IS GPS? Global positioning system(GPS) is a satellite based navigational aid. It provides accurate information on position, velocity and time of an object or a platform at any moment, anywhere on the globe. It consists of a 24 satellites constellation orbiting about 12,500 miles above the earth. Each of the satellites is 17ft & takes 12 hours to orbit the earth. This positioning service can be obtained by any user, only if he has a suitable GPS receiver. Constellation of GPS satellites : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Constellation of GPS satellites NAVSTAR GPS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS NAVSTAR GPS Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System It was designed, Funded and controlled by the U.S Department of defense since 1973 and the first satellite was launched in the year 1978. It is taken as one of the most accurate and highly dependable space-borne navigational aid in present state of development. The U.S. Air Force created the constellation of NAVSTAR satellites circling Earth twice a day. At least four of the space beacons are in view from any spot on Earth at any time System Overview : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS System Overview The total GPS configuration is comprised of three distinct segments (1) The space segment-Satellites orbiting the Earth (2) The control segment-Stations positioned on the Earth’s equator to control the satellites. (3) The user segment – Anybody that receives and uses the GPS signal. Slide 10: 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Three Segments of the GPS Space segment Control segment User segment Master station Monitor stations Ground Antennas Competitors of GPS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Competitors of GPS GLONASS - Russian Federation’s satellite navigation system Galileo -European Union and the European Space Agency Uses of GPS technology : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Uses of GPS technology Location - Determine a basic position Navigation - Getting from one location to another Tracking-Monitoring the movement of people and things Mapping-Creating maps Timing-Providing precise timing GIS in military operations : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS GIS in military operations The battle victory complete only after ground forces occupy the enemy land and take the control of the area to hold and maintain the control of the occupied land, armed forces need to know the spatial extent upon which they have the control. Slide 14: 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Spatial data is of crucial importance to the military commander in the battle MOD(ministery of diffense)in any country gathers data Visualizing raw tabular data with in a spatial network has many benefits LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT GIS plays an important role military logistics . it helps in moving supplies, equipment, and troops where they are needed at the right time and place . By using GIS in determining routes for convoys, forces are able to determine alternative routes if mishaps or traffic jams occur on the most direct route . By GPS and GIS sensitive articles can track DEFENSE ESTATE MANAGEMENT : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS DEFENSE ESTATE MANAGEMENT GIS technology as an administrative support is significant GIS allows military land and facilitates managers to reduce base operation and maintenance cost, improve mission effectivenes,rapid modeling, improve communication and to store institutional knowledge TERRAIN EVALUATION : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS TERRAIN EVALUATION Military commanders would like to know terrain conditions and elevations They need vegetation cover, road and communication line with an pin point accuracy Detailed land map-land use, terrain model, proximity of habitat NAVAL OPERATIONS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS NAVAL OPERATIONS At sea naval vessels depends largely on indirect method to navigate. GPS provides to determine the position at sea. Echo sounder provided measurement of depth of water below the vessel. In the Oceans, complex natural features such currents, wave conditions, sea surface temperatures and tides may prove at times deterrent to naval operations Slide 19: 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS ECDIS(electronic chart display and information system) helps the navigator. Electronic Navigation Chart (ENC) is used as tool for navigation, provides inputs for detailed information about depth, hazards and navigational aids within the area. ENC is the database for GIS operations and ECDIS is the real time GIS application in marine environment. AIR OPERATIONS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS AIR OPERATIONS Air operations in battle environment require the similar inputs as per land operations target location, proximity of civilian areas, and terrain evaluation and meteorological conditions besides navigational data. virtual reality concepts Military leaders heavily depend on GIS and GPS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Military leaders heavily depend on GIS and GPS guiding troops, supplies/equipment and ships, informing them of possible threats, problems with terrain in which they will encounter and also to direct there attention to specific areas of interests. WEATHER INFORMATIONS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS WEATHER INFORMATIONS Weather plays dominant role in battlefield. Real time weather information is essential for field commanders. A battle field commander should know the information regarding cloud coverage, wind conditions,visibility,temperature parameters. GIS SYSTEM : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS GIS SYSTEM GIS provide automated assistance to military forces. it receive,reformat,create,store,retrieve and update ,manipulate the data The uses for GIS will continue to evolve as technology advances and the costs decreases POSITIONAL INFORMATION : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS POSITIONAL INFORMATION One of the most important functions of GIS understand and interpret terrain determining how troops can be deployed in the quickest and most effective way military leader can determine strategic positions by understanding landscapes MAPPING TECHNIQUES : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS MAPPING TECHNIQUES Military needs maps for different purposes. Maps without clustering unwanted details. The battle commanders can evaluate thematic information for analyzing the real time scenario by manipulating the information available at their disposal. COMMON HORIZON DATUM : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS COMMON HORIZON DATUM the maritime operators use a vertical datum based on the high water mark . the land operators use a vertical datum based on mean sea level. the air operators are more concerned with the obstruction heights above ground level In India, we use Everest Datum and use of GPS receivers in the field may pose problem unless the datum shift is correctly established Material Identification : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Material Identification Operation Support / Traffic ability Analysis Identify Lines of Communications (roads, power lines, etc.) Identification of aircraft/helicopter landing zones, construction of launching bridges, vehicle refueling sites . Identification of shore landing zones Vegetation Characteristics : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Vegetation Characteristics Detection of human presence, vehicles passage, contamination by chemical or biological products Slide 29: 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS U-2 photo over a military air base : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS U-2 photo over a military air base MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SURVEYING : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SURVEYING Looking down and out (as from a mountain) to survey the battlefield for information useful to military leaders goes back to ancient times . advent of rockets and then satellites, observations of both military and political activities on the ground became possible, ushering in the so-called Age of Spy Satellites. KeyHole satellites : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS KeyHole satellites The primary group of military satellites used in reconnaissance and surveillance is known as the KeyHole series . KH-1 through KH-4 series KH-5 is called the Argon series KH-6 the Lanyard. view of Moscow made by a KH-4 p : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS view of Moscow made by a KH-4 p Slide 34: 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS IKONOS view of Afghanistan Taliban Air Force base at Baghram : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS IKONOS view of Afghanistan Taliban Air Force base at Baghram Drawbacks of using GIS : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS Drawbacks of using GIS Mistakes could be made with misrepresentation of data Need of little cartographic or spatial knowledge for the people who involved in gis operations FINAL WORD…… : 2/22/2009 MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF GIS FINAL WORD…… The use of remote sensing data combined with ground information would provide a common platform for analyzing the ground situation in time of war. The induction of satellites providing high-resolution images in the present era enhanced the ability of accurate map-making and by making the latest information available to the forces. THANK YOU TO ALL : THANK YOU TO ALL

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