Published on February 26, 2014
"Say:” Travel in the land and see how (Allah) originated creation, and then Allah will bring forth (resurrect) the creation of the Hereafter (i.e. resurrection after death). Verily, Allah is able to do all things." (Surat Al-'Ankabut: 20)
OBJECTIVE Identify the following on satellite image of Landsat 7 : Discrimination between different rock types. Identification of limestone. Hands on practice of software ENVI 4.7 & Arc GIS 9.3 Result & Conclusion.
METHODOLOGY Literature review Acquisition of the Landsat 7 data. Layer stacking of image. Index processing Band Combination & Band Ratios application. Thematic maps using Arc GIS.
INTRODUCTION GEOLOGICAL MAPS A geological map is a special-purpose map made for showing subsurface geological features. Geologic maps are often superimposed over a topographic map (and at times over other base maps) with the addition of a color mask with letter symbols to represent the kind of geological unit, fault lines, strike and dip symbols, and various additional symbols (e.g. mine or mineralization) as indicated by the map key. Geological maps provide a plan view of an area. They are produced by a combination of aerial surveys and on-theground mapping. They show rock types appearing at Earth’s surface, as well as the orientation of rock strata.
STUDY AREA The targeted area is located at the southern end of Kirthar Fold Belt which in turn is located to the west of the Karachi city. The area belongs to Survey of Pakistan topographic sheet/map No. 35 L/13.
LANDSAT 7 IMAGE OF STUDY AREA (2009)
FALSE NATURAL COLOR COMPOSITE BANDS 7,4,2
VEGETATION ENHANCEMENT BANDS 4,3,2
BANDS 7/4, 7/5, 7 IN RGB FOR LIMESTONE
BANDS 7/4, 7/5, 7 IN RGB FOR LIMESTONE
GSP GEOLOGICAL MAP
RESULT Ratios of Landsat TM bands played an important role in Landsat image interpretation and identification of different lithologies. Landsat data also revealed to be capable of depicting lineaments during geological mapping The unsupervised classification by using all seven bands has attested positive in identifying the major rock types present in the study area. Interesting features like these support the need of ground truthing purposely for clearing doubts emerged in the analysis.
CONCLUSION Band ratios and composite images have played a great role in discriminating and identifying different rock types. Results from this study suggest that large part of geological mapping can be done through the use of Landsat data as an alternative approach Additionally they are cheap compared to the geological data, sometimes these data are free of charge. Moreover, to the third world countries, the approach is a solution to the unavailability of fund which has been an ordinary song from their national governments.
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