Published on February 25, 2014
Inside Apple’s SSL Vulnerability Mike Chapple email@example.com @mchapple
Digital Certificates • Digital Certificates use asymmetric cryptography to facilitate the secure exchange of public keys. • Rely upon the use of trusted Certificate Authorities – Certificate Authorities responsible for vouching for identity of certificate “subjects”. – Usually used for servers, can also be used by individuals. – Organization proves its identity to the CA and the CA provides a signed certificate that can be used to prove identity to others. • To a CA, trust is essential!
What’s in a Digital Certificate? • • • • • • • Name of the certificate subject Subject’s public key Name of the CA Serial number Signature algorithm Validity period CA’s digital signature Source: Apple Computer 3
Using Certificates in HTTPS • HTTPS uses digital certificates to ensure secure web communications • It supplements the standard HTTP protocol with SSL/TLS encryption 1. 2. You access a secure site using your web browser Your browser retrieves the site certificate and verifies it • 3. Your browser then chooses a symmetric key, encrypts it with the server’s public key and sends it to the server • 4. 4 What does a certificate error mean? Why don’t they just communicate using the server’s public key? Everything from that point forward is encrypted with the symmetric key
Apple’s Code The repeated “goto fail;” is the #fail Source: The Guardian
Apple’s Code Because it is always executed, bypassing this check Source: The Guardian
Simpler Version of the Same Flaw Default return value set to 1 Goto bypasses attempt to change return value Source: imperialviolet.org Default value (1) always returned by function
Impact • Digital signatures on ephemeral keys not verified • Certificate itself is verified • Link between certificate and key not checked • Clients always trust presented ephemeral keys because the certificate checked out OK
Fixes • For iOS, upgrade to 7.0.6 • No fix yet available for OS X • In the meantime, use Chrome for partial fix
Questions? Mike Chapple firstname.lastname@example.org @mchapple
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