Published on February 20, 2014
WHAT IS QUALITY? What would someone mean by the quality of a shoe? Let us suppose that it is a man’s shoe that he is asking about. Does he mean by good quality that it wears a long time? Or that it takes a shine well? That is feels comfortable? That it is waterproof? That the price is right in consideration of whatever he considers quality? Or it is good in design? Put another way, what quality-characteristics are important to the customer? - Deming
WHAT IS QUALITY? • Product quality is based on a product attribute. How will you differentiate the quality between woven shirt and sweater? • User-based quality is fitness for use, How will you differentiate the quality between women garments and kids garments as a wearer? • manufacturing based quality is conformance to requirements, Which quality parameters will be followed when manufacturing thermal wear and sweat jacket? • value based quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price Zara jacket or mango jackets are products gives value for money
QUALITY types? Assurance: The act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain. Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. Control: An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses; the act of guiding a process in which variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes. Quality Control: The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.
DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY • Conformance to specifications • The degree to which a product or • service meets the needs of the • customer • Uniformity around a customerdefined target • Exceeding customer expectations The customer is the most important part of the process.
IMPACT OF HIGHER QUALITY ON VALUE LESS WAIST LESS REWORK HIGHER QUALITY FEW REJECTION LOWER COST LESS BACKLOG HIGH PRODUCTIVITY FEW COMPLAINTS FEW RETURNS HIGHER VALUE
QUALITY MUST BE CONSIDER AT ALL STAGES IN THE LIFE CYCLE, AS SHOWN BELOW, OF A PRODUCT. MARKETING & MARKET RESEARCH DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS & SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE & MAINTENANCE DESIGN& DEVELOPMENT INSTALLATION & OPERATION PROCUREMENT SALES& DISTRIBUTION PACKAGING & STORAGE PROCESS PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION INSPECTION, TESTING & EXAMINATION
Quality inspection in apparel industries “Visual examination or review of raw materials, partially finished components of garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as measuring garments to check if they meet the required measurements.”
QUALITY INSPECTION IN APPAREL INDUSTRIES • Do to control quality of garments. • Checking of fabric, • Sewing thread, • Button, • Stitching, • Zipper and other trims, • Garments measurements/size etc according to required standard or specification is known as inspection. Quality inspection is important for every section of apparel industries.
STEPS IN APPAREL INDUSTRIES TO CONTROL QUALITY RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION IN PROCESS INSPECTION FINAL INSPECTION
RAW MATERIALS INSPECTION It is done for the raw materials which are used in the apparel production like fabric, sewing thread, button, other accessories etc. It is also termed as ‘incoming material inspection. Normally this is mainly done for fabrics using 4 point system or 10 point system.
ONLINE OR IN-PROCESS INSPECTION This is done during the manufacturing process so that if there is any problem in the process that will be rectified in that stage itself. This will be carried out by the quality controllers periodically say every two or three hours. They will check the measurement and defects and make the inspection report which will be intimated to the production incharge.
FINAL INSPECTION This inspection is done after the goods are manufactured and packed in carton boxes and which are ready for the shipment. The goods are inspected and will be graded as per acceptable quality level (AQL) which is prescribed by the buyer. The goods can be shipped after the final inspection is passed.
QUALITY INSPECTION IN APPAREL INDUSTRIES IN SAMPLE MAKING SECTION IN-MARKER MAKING SECTION INSPECTION IN FABRIC SPREADING SECTION INSPECTION IN FABRIC CUTTING SECTION INSPECTION IN FABRIC SEWN SECTION INSPECTION IN PRESSING & FINISHING SECTION
QUALITY INSPECTION IN SAMPLING MAINTAINING BUYER SPECIFICATION STANDARD CHECKING THE SAMPLE AND ITS DIFFERENT ISSUES MEASUREMENTS CHECKING FABRIC COLOR, GSM, FASTNESS ETC PROPERTIES REQUIRED CHECKING SPI AND OTHER PARAMETER CHECKING ANY OTHER DETAILING CHECKING
QUALITY CONTROL IN MARKER MAKING TO CHECK NOTCH OR DRILL MARK FABRIC WIDTH MUST BE HIGHER THAN MARKER WIDTH FABRIC LENGTH MUST BE HIGHER THAN MARKER LENGTH MATCHING OF GREEN LINE CHECK PATTERN SIZE AND DIMENSION MATCHING OF CHECK AND STRIPE TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION CONSIDERING GARMENTS PRODUCTION PLAN PATTERN DIRECTION CONSIDERATION
QUALITY CONTROL IN FABRIC SPREADING FABRIC SPREADING ACCORDING TO CORRECT ALIGNMENT WITH MARKER LENGTH AND WIDTH MAINTAIN REQUIREMENTS OF SPREADING LAY CONTAINS CORRECT NUMBER OF FABRIC PLY CORRECT PLY DIRECTION TO CONTROL THE FABRIC SPLICING TENSION CONTROL
QUALITY CONTROL IN FABRIC CUTTING The dimension of the pattern and the cut piece should be same and accurate CUT EDGE SHOULD BE SMOOTH AND CLEAN NOTCH SHOULD BE CUT FINELY DRILL HOLE SHOULD MADE AT PROPER PLACE NO YARN FRAYING SHOULD OCCUR AT CUT EDGE AVOID BLADE DEFLECTION MAINTAIN CUTTING ANGLE MORE SKILLED OPERATOR USING
QUALITY CONTROL IN SEWING SECTION INPUT MATERIAL CHECKING CUT PANEL AND ACCESSORIES CHECKING MACHINE IS IN WELL CONDITION THREAD COUNT CHECK SPECIAL WORK LIKE EMBROIDERY, PRINTING PANEL CHECK NEEDLE SIZE CHECKING STITCHING FAULT SHOULD BE CHECKED GARMENTS MEASUREMENT CHECK MISMATCHING MATCHING OF TRIMMING WRONG PLACEMENT OF INTERLINING SEAM FAULT CHECK SIZE MISTAKE CHECK SHADE VARIATION WITHIN THE CLOTH CREASED OR WRINKLE APPEARANCE CONTROL
QUALITY CONTROL IN FINISHING SECTION Proper inspection of the garments including measurement, spot, dirt, impurities Water spot SHADING VARIATION CHECK WRONG FOLD PROPER SHAPE IN GARMENTS SMOOTH AND UNFOLD IN POCKET IN SECURED OR BROKEN CHAIN OR BUTTON WANTED WRINKLE OR FOLD IN LINING PROPERLY DRIED IN AFTER PRESSING SIDE SEAM SLEEVE PLACKET ATTACH EVERY PARTS OF A BODY BOTTOM HEM CUFF ATTACH COLLAR CLOSING GET UP CHECKING BACK YOKE
FABRIC INSPECTION • Done through Fabric Inspection machine. • Very important for every industries . • In fabric inspection their checks several things i.e. in fabric are there any defect available or not. In fabric, fabric defects viz. off shade or shade variation, hole in fabric, barre effect etc. can be visual after entering into the store room. For those defects it will be problem able for making garments making. • In fabric inspection, also test fabric strength, color, quantity • To check fabric there are different system i.e. 4 point system, 10 point system etc.
SEWING THREAD INSPECTION During stitching fabric frequently brakeage of sewing thread is one of the great problems for garments manufacturing. So that it is necessary to check • • • • • • • • • • • THREAD CONSTRUCTION, SEWABILITY, COLOR, IMPERFECTION, FINISH, PACKAGE THREAD NUMBER, THREAD PLY, THREAD TENACITY, THREAD ELONGATION, WINDING, YARDAGE OF SEWING THREAD.
TRIMS AND ACCESSORIES INSPECTION The final quality of any garment is also affected by trims and accessories applied in it. So that it is necessary to check • BUTTON, • ZIPPERS • INTERLINING, • LABEL & • TAGS also need to check so that quality can be maintain according to required quality. FOR BUTTON, • BUTTON STRENGTH, • BUTTON COLOR, • QUANTITY ETC ARE CHECKED.
IN PROCESS INSPECTION • Inspecting different parts of garments before sewing are called in process inspection. • It starts from marker making, than fabric spreading, fabric cutting, fabric sewing, pressing or finishing checking is done in process. • • • • • • • • MARKER MAKING FABRIC SPREADING FABRIC CUTTING SORTING/ BUNDLING FABRIC SEWING SEAM DEFECTS ASSEMBLY DEFECTS PRESSING/ FINISHING DEFECTS
PATTERN GRADING DEFECTS 1. Grade Not Conforming to Specification measurements • Finished product not measuring to specified dimension • component parts not fitting in relationship to notches, • openings and seams such as armholes sleeve heads neck bands, • neck openings and side seams inseams, • waist measurements and etc. 2. Distorted Grading: • Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams, • puckering, • pleating and • a general uneconomical yardage waste.
MARKER INSPECTION • It is necessary to check all the parts of garments pattern are in marker. • In marker labelling or coding of pattern should be checked • Pattern direction should be checked. • Pattern grain line is very important thing which must be considered during marker making. • During marker making every pattern pieces dimension should be accurate. • During marker making fabric length and width should be considered.
MARKER INSPECTION •Notches & drill marks •Knife clearance •Checks and stripes (mittering) •Marker width
MARKING DEFECTS Shaded Parts:-All component pans not included in same section. Pieces not Symmetrical:-Will not sew together without puckering or pleating. Not Marked by Directional Lines:-Bias will not lit together, causing twisting, puckering. pleating and a general mismatching of component parts. Skimpy marking:-Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern. Notches and Punch Marks:-Left out., not clearly marked or misplaced. Marker Too Wide:-Parts will not catch in lay, causing skimpy garments or requiring results.
MARKER DEFECTS Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space. Marker Too Narrow:-Results In wasted material Mismatched Plaids-Marker did not block component parts to match. Misdirected Napping:-Patterns not marked in same direction and napped fabrics.
SPREADING INSPECTION Factors which must be checked • Fabric Nature • Ply alignment • Ply tension/slackness • Bowing • Splicing • Grain-line • Shade variation • Selvedge alignment & tightness • Fabric width • Checks • Static electricity
SPREADING DEFECTS 1. Uneven Spreading:-Front edge of lay is not even, resulting in front or back edge of marker not catching all ply. 2. Narrow Material:-Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover marker width. 3. Missed Sectional Breaks:-Sectional marker breaks too long or too short. Parts in lay will be short or material wasted. 4. Improper Tension:-Cloth spread too tight or too loose, causing parts not to fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments. 5. Mismatching Plaids:-Material spread too loose or too tight causing plaid lines to run diagonally or bow. 6. Misdirected Napping:-Air pockets not removed. Napped material reversed in spreading. 7. Improper Matching of Face of Material:-Not spread face down, face up or face to face as required.
FUZZY, RAGGED OR SERRATED EDGES
CUTTING INSPECTION Marker Making ↓ Fabric Spreading ↓ Placing Marker Paper on to the Lay ↓ Fabric Cutting ↓ Numbering ↓ 100% checking & Parts Replacing if needed. ↓ Shorting & Bundling ↓ Sewing/Assembling
CUTTING INSPECTION •Ply to ply fusion •Single edge fusion •Pattern precision •Notches & drillers •Cutting Equipment precision
CUTTING DEFECTS 1. Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets or Bundle Members:-Attached to, or marked on, wrong bundles, causing mixed sizes or land shades. 2. Drill Marks:-Drill marks misplaced, not perpendicular, omitted or wrong side drill used. 3. Opening Slits:-Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Not cut through entire bundle or omitted. 4. Improper Cutting:-Not following marker lines, resulting in distorted parts. Letting knife lean causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes. 5. Notches:-Misplaced, too deep, too shallow or omitted. 6. Oil Spots:-Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned. 7. Improper Knife Sharpening:-Causing ragged, frayed or fused edges on bundles.
SORTING/ BUNDLING It is necessary to check numbering, sorting, and bundling is done accurately. DEFECTS 1. 2. Not Stacked in Numerical Order: Bundle numbers not in order on rack skid or box. Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong material.
SEWING INSPECTION • • • • • • • • • Stitching Defects Needle damage Skipped stitch Thread breaks Seam pucker Wrong stitch density Uneven stitch Staggered stitch Improperly formed stitch
Skip stitches •Improper threading. •Poor clamping or insufficient pressure (flagging). •The needle needs replacing. •Wrong size needle. •Wrong type of needle for the material. •Lubrication. •Wrong thread for the application. •Poor quality thread. •Needle size and thread weight are mismatched. •Worn thread guides, paths or eyelets
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