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APP The American Experience WK7

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Information about APP The American Experience WK7
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Published on November 22, 2007

Author: Wen12

Source: authorstream.com

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Week 7:  Week 7 Of Sage Brush & Slot Machines #1 Statehood 1964 Wovoka, Sarah Winnemucca Twain The Donner Party The Spanish-American War Era Philippines War William James and the Anti-Imperialist League William James, C.S. Peirce, O.W. Holmes: three “Classical Pragmatists” The Age of the City:  The New Urban Growth Migrations Unprecedented Geographical Mobility The Age of the City America in 1900 Nevada Statehood & Constitution :  Nevada Statehood & Constitution Statehood in 1864, “just in time for its three electoral votes to help Abraham Lincoln win reelection” (90) If Nevada mines would provide the ores necessary for the Union, Nevada would be admitted into the Union without having to relinquish any of their state’s sovereignty. This is how Nevada became "Battle Born." “The fact that the Silver State was accepted into the Union during the Civil War explains the provisions prohibiting slavery and the assertion of “Paramount Allegiance” to the Federal Government” (90). Slide4:  “The Conquest of the Arid West,” by William Smythe “A big, splendid American state…a land full of prosperous little farms, tiled by their owners, mountains pouring out their annual tribute of gold and silver…this is the Nevada of the future….” (30) The Reclamation Act (1902) sought to promote agriculture in the arid west through the construction of large-scale irrigation projects. The first project under it was the Newlands Irrigation Project in Nevada's Lahontan Valley. Wovoka & the Ghost Dance:  Wovoka & the Ghost Dance Known as the messiah to his followers, Wovoka was the Paiute mystic whose religious pronouncements spread the Ghost Dance among many tribes all across the American West. Wovoka was born in Western Nevada, in what is now Esmeralda County, in about 1856. Slide6:  At the core of the movement was the prophet of peace Jack Wilson, known as Wovoka among the Paiute, who prophesied a nonviolent end to white American expansion while preaching messages of clean living, an honest life, and cross-cultural cooperation. Perhaps the best known facet of the Ghost Dance movement is the role it reportedly played in instigating the n the late 1880's Wovoka began to make similar prophecies. His pronouncements heralded the dawning of a new age, in which whites would vanish, leaving Indians to live in a land of material abundance, spiritual renewal and immortal life. an expression of Indian militancy and the desire to preserve traditional ways, Like many millenarian visions, Wovoka's prophecies stressed the link between righteous behavior and imminent salvation. Salvation was not to be passively awaited but welcomed by a regime of ritual dancing and upright moral conduct. Despite the later association of the Ghost Dance with the Wounded Knee Massacre and unrest on the Lakota reservations, Wovoka charged his followers to "not hurt anybody or do harm to anyone. You must not fight. Do right always... Do not refuse to work for the whites and do not make any trouble with them." Partly an expression of Indian militancy and the desire to preserve traditional ways, against an assimilation policy; also evidence of a growing pan-Indian identity which drew upon elements of both white and Indian traditions. Also a rather sad reflection on an unempowered people driven to unrealistic millenarian or utopian hopes and prophecies. Sarah Winnemucca:  Sarah Winnemucca Slide8:  At the time of her birth, Northern Paiutes and Washos were the sole inhabitants of the land that is now western Nevada. Her grandfather, Chief Truckee, welcomed the arrival of his "white brothers" and helped General John C. Fremont in the Bear War against Mexican control of California. However, her father, Chief Winnemucca, did not trust the white people and cautioned his own people to keep their distance. Perhaps hearing these opposite viewpoints became a portent of her life, which was spent attempting to interpret the two cultures to each other. Life Among the Piutes is Sarah Winnemucca's powerful legacy to both cultures, the Native Americans and the whites. It appeared in 1883, the first book ever published that was written by a Native American woman. Following the oral tradition of her people, she reaches out to readers with a deeply personal appeal for understanding, recording a portion of the history of the far west from the Native American perspective. Sarah was first introduced to white people at age six when her grandfather insisted she go with him to California. She was initially frightened, but did like such luxuries as beds, chairs, brightly colored dishes and the food she was served. When she was thirteen, her grandfather had arranged for Sarah and her sister to become members of Major Ormsby's household at Mormon Station, now Genoa, Nevada. By the time she was fourteen, she had acquired five languages, three Indian dialects, English and Spanish. Both times that she left her tribe, Sarah returned following an incident of white people treating her tribe poorly. Sarah & the Donner Party:  Sarah & the Donner Party The Age of the City:  The New Urban Growth Assimilation and Exclusion Assimilation Encouraged Immigration Restriction The Age of the City “Immigration Under Attack,” 1903 The Imperial Republic:  War with Spain Controversy over Cuba Cuban Revolt “Yellow Press”: Sensational accounts, often exaggerated, of heroic Cuban insurrectos rebelling against their cruel Spanish rulers. “You furnish the pictures…and I’ll furnish the war” William Randolph Hearst The Imperial Republic The Imperial Republic:  The Imperial Republic War with Spain, 1898 Explosion of the ”Maine” “A Splendid Little War” (Ambassador John Hay to Theodore Roosevelt) Slide13:  The Battle for Cuba Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders (Library of Congress) The Imperial Republic:  The Imperial Republic Stirrings of Imperialism The New Manifest Destiny Imperialism at High Tide, 1900 Slide15:  The American South Pacific Empire, 1900. Aftermath of war with Spain:  War in the Philippines The Philippine Declaration of Independence by Aquinaldo, etc. in June 1898; not recognized by the U.S. which had paid $20 million to Spain in consideration at the Treaty of Paris. Aquinaldo’s group was not represented at the Treaty. Formal independence granted to Philippines July 4, 1946. But they reverted their independence day back to June in recognition of Alquinaldo’s D. of I. Aftermath of war with Spain Slide17:  Emilio Aguinaldo had been waging war against Spain. American insensitivity in shutting his populist movement out led to warfare against the U.S. as the new imperialist governor. American leaders grossly underestimated their determination American as Empire: The Spanish—Am and Philippines Wars:  American as Empire: The Spanish—Am and Philippines Wars William James & the Anti-Imperialist League:  William James & the Anti-Imperialist League “The Metaphysical Club”:  “The Metaphysical Club” Slide21:  “Metaphysics” defined; things people as certain are a science, thought the agree to nothing more; Philosohers need to know to side with theoogy or science in wake of it; issue isn’t one of substantive consistency of evol and theism, which they didn’t doubt; but one of method. The Metaphysical Club (1872) They had their own sort of Dead Poets (Philosophers) Society, call ed the Metaphysical Club, and this is sometimes thought to be the origins of pragmatism, since so many of its members became influential writers. Our earliest evidence of the Metaphysical Club's existence is in two letters of Henry James, William's younger brother, in January and February 1872, to friends then living in Europe. From these letters alone we might guess that the Club had been founded after Peirce's return from Washington in January. Peirce himself often assigns it an earlier beginning, soon after his return from Europe in the spring of 1871. Perhaps the founding had been preceded by informal gatherings of some of the same people. The most striking fact about the eleven members named by Peirce is that more than half of them were lawyers. (Only three were scientists-Wright, Peirce, and James, who was then teaching anatomy and physiology; two were theologians-Abbot and Peabody; the remaining six were lawyers, and of these all but Fiske were lifelong lawyers.) And the most striking remark that Peirce later makes about the birth of pragmatism in the Club is that, while acknowledging the paternity that James had already ascribed to him, he calls lawyer Green its grandfather, because Green had so often urged the importance of applying Alexander Bain's definition of belief as "that upon which a man is prepared to act," from which "pragmatism is scarce more than a corollary.“ Henry James mentions Chauncey Wright, Peirce, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., William James, and "various other long-headed youths" who "wrangle grimly & stick to the question." Slide22:  James combined experimental findings of others with his own acute reflections on mental life & psychology. His journey from anatomy, to psychology, to philosophy James with others on botanical expedition to Brazil, 1865 Slide23:  The Impact of Darwinism Resistance to Evolution “Pragmatist” acceptance and extension “No Matter how full a reservoir of maxims one may possess, and no matter how good one’s sentiments may be, if one has not taken advantage of every concrete opportunity to act, one’s character may remain entirely unaffected for the better. With mere good intentions, hell is proverbially paved….”—William James, “Habit” James on the value of religious belief: “By their fruits ye will know them, not by their roots.”-James “Some Consequences of Four Incapacities”:  “Some Consequences of Four Incapacities” “Philosophy ought to imitate the successful sciences in its methods, so far as to proceed only from tangible premises which can be subjected to careful scrutiny, and to trust rather to the multitude and variety of its arguments than to the conclusiveness of any one. Its reasoning should not form a chain which is no stronger than its weakest link, but a cable whose fibres may be ever so slender, provided they are sufficiently numerous and intimately connected.”--Peirce “The Fixation of Belief”:  “The Fixation of Belief” “…every work of science great enough to be remembered for a few generations affords some exemplification of the defective state of the art of reasoning of the time…;and each chief step in science has been a lesson in logic.”—Peirce Pragmatism vs. absolutist mentalities and entrenched dogmatisms Supports the superiority of empiricism, the scientific method of settling belief, over methods of “tenacity,” “authority,” and “a priori reasoning.”

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