APP The American Experience WK3

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Information about APP The American Experience WK3

Published on December 17, 2007

Author: FunSchool


Week 3:  Week 3 Ben Franklin’s Philadelphia The Founding Fathers and the Debate over Federalism and States’ Rights Society and Culture in Provincial America:  The Colonial Population  Changing Sources of European Immigration  Religious Refugees Scotch-Irish Society and Culture in Provincial America Immigrant Groups In Colonial America Benjamin Franklin:  Benjamin Franklin The Empire In Transition:  Stirrings of Revolt The Stamp Act Crisis Lexington and Concord “Minutemen”   Recruiting Poster (Library of Congress) The Empire In Transition Two views on the tea tax & Boston Tea Party:  Two views on the tea tax & Boston Tea Party The American Revolution :  The American Revolution  Defining American War Aims Divergent American War Aims Common Sense Common Sense (Library of Congress) Radicals for Independence: S. Adams, P. Henry, T. Paine :  Radicals for Independence: S. Adams, P. Henry, T. Paine Philadelphia for 2nd Continental Congress:  Philadelphia for 2nd Continental Congress Abigail to John Adams:  Abigail to John Adams Thomas Jefferson:  Thomas Jefferson Signing of the Declaration:  Signing of the Declaration "We must indeed all hang together, or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."– Ben Franklin Slide12:  The day signed, 100 British naval ships with troops sighted off NY By August there were more Brit troops in NY then there were people in Philly, the largest colonial city. War went poorly at start; mention the importance of foreign aid. The French wanted to see the Am could win the war; victory wasn’t assured until they got it and French navy bottled up the british at Yorktown After, America was held together only loosely by the Articles of Confederation, and did not become a true nation until the Founders produced a constitution in 1787 Down Comes King George:  Down Comes King George NY, July 9, the day Washington had the Declaration read to his troops. Slide14:  MY NOTES After the revolution (7 year war) and under Articles of Confederation, problems arose Only a loosely organized federal gov’t,, and a and de-centralized union of largely autonomous states; had no power to directly tax; little ability to pay troops This made worse by foreign threats & general financial collapse after the war, with deep debts by the states Overseas trade was still disrupted after the Treaty of Paris The attempt of the states to pay off debts and fulfill their coffers led to other conflicts 1) Conflicting state claims to Western lands 2) Shay’s rebellion, when the states squeezed those in debt to pay that state, so it could pay its own debts. The rebels seized the courthouses in W. Mass (1786, the year before the Constitution was drafted, a revolt by indebted farmers being taxed; economic resentments with City and Industrial interests). Called themselves “regulators” against a corrupt system. Were they putting order in, or creating disorder? Constitutional Convention 1787. This unruliness and threat of internal conflict within and between states most directly showed the need for a stronger set of powers for the confederation, and when they met they instead started from scratch by drafting a constitution, using all they had learned from the 10 years in under which the constitutions of the various states had been tested. It wasn’t just for controlling those like the Shay’s rebels, but that it was indeed taxation without representation, and the re-emergence of “factions.” The Federalists thought a stronger federal gov’t was needed to resolve these problems. The Constitution and the New Republic:  The Constitution and the New Republic Framing a New Government  A Convention divided over: State vs federal authority Election system (Electoral college) Slavery Advocates of Reform Alexander Hamilton and the National Bank “Why has government been instituted at all? Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice, without constraint.” - Alexander Hamilton Founding Friendship: Washington and Madison:  Founding Friendship: Washington and Madison Founding Feud: Jefferson vs Hamilton & Adams:  Founding Feud: Jefferson vs Hamilton & Adams Slide18:  Both died on July 4, 1826, separately but within hours of each others, Adams could hear the canons set off, but despite their feud, his last words were purportedly, “Jefferson survives.” The Constitution and the New Republic:  Completing the Structure, 1787 Establishing the Executive Departments Checks and Balances The “Great Compromise” Lots of issues left unresolved Issues Ratification Federalists and Anti-federalists The Federalist Papers  The Bill of Rights  The Constitution and the New Republic Slide20:  : the federalists got the Constitution approved, and the anti-F got a bill of rights and the ‘great compromise’ on the (and a lot more extra incentives for the southern and slave-owning states, like the 3/5 rule). The Federalist Papers:  The Federalist Papers Slide22:  Side-step onto Crevouceuour here. He wrote 6 years before this, around the end of the War. Very optimistic is saying we new Americans living without the factions and class-interests of the Europe we came here to escape. Europe a country “convulsed by factions.” He obviously thinks little of the backcountrymen, he sees the new American as a free-holder, and self-made men by virtue of their industry & independence. But if he witnessed Shay’s, he would see that faction had stepped back in. Other things about Crev? So returning to the Constitutional Convention and the Federalist Papers, the question was whether and how to maintain the common interest, given that Americans were already a diverse group, from merchants and city-bred, to farmers, to back-woodsmen. We read the Fed papers because we don’t want to simplify history; They help us to see the intent of the framers (making that public was part of their motive), but also to see the tensions that were there, and perhaps still are there in things like federal vs states rights. FP written in the context of convincing the nation to ratify the Constitution. A time of heated public debate. “Anti-F” as term of negation. The issues [refer to handout] was the size and power of the central gov’t, and more particularly, representation Washington became 1st President in 1889, same year that the French Rev broke out Washington a strong federalist; wise to stay fairly neutral to French and English, and other European affairs, though we almost had war with France Jefferson’s agrarian ideals, seen in his own Presidency; by which time he was quite at odds with his former friend John Adams, the Federalist. The Bill of Rights:  The Bill of Rights Slide24:  key issues: 1. representation & 2. Slavery The great compromise: 2 Houses (small vs. large pop) with equal Rep in the senate, and by population in the House; Bill of Rights to appease the anti-Federalists. Slide25:  Fed Papers P written in the context of convincing the nation (and esp conventioneers) to ratify the Constitution. A time of heated public debate. “Anti-F” as term of negation. The issues [refer to handout] was the size and power of the central gov’t, and more particularly, representation Q: Who wanted a Bill of Rights? (anti-Federalists); Bill of rights was indeed a major issue, and the Constitution was finally adopted by all 13 states only after the first ten amendments, which came to be known as the bill of rights, was added under the first session of Congress. So The Bill of Rights (the frist 10 Amendments) is the legacy of Anti-federalism in the US Neg vs positive freedom: free to what, free from what? Settled fears of absolute and aristocratic rule. Establishing National Sovereignty:    Securing the West  Western land claims Whiskey Rebellion The Indians’ Ambiguous Status Maintaining Neutrality abroad Establishing National Sovereignty 1796: The First Real Election:  John Adams Elected 2nd president Jefferson and the anti-Federalists, now the “Democratic-republican Party, ran 2nd and became V.P. Both embraced the “classical model,” refusing to actively campaign. ‘Let the office seek out the man, not the man the office.’ 1796: The First Real Election

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