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Travel-Nature

Published on March 31, 2008

Author: Saverio

Source: authorstream.com

Europeans and the New World:  Europeans and the New World 1492-1600 Chapter 1 Opening Vignette:  Opening Vignette Columbus Encounters the Tainos of San Salvador Columbus Encounters the Tainos of San Salvador :  Columbus Encounters the Tainos of San Salvador Europeans and the New World:  Europeans and the New World Europe in the Age of Exploration A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic Spanish Exploration and Conquest The New World and Europe Conclusion: The Legacy of the Sixteenth Century Europe in the Age of Exploration:  Europe in the Age of Exploration A. D. 1000 the Norse established settlements in the ‘New World’ Europe’s interests were in the East not West Europe had developed a taste for luxuries It was dangerous… But it could be VERY PROFITTABLE!!! Europe in the Age of Exploration:  Europe in the Age of Exploration Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion A Century of Portuguese Exploration Europe in the Age of Exploration:  Europe in the Age of Exploration Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion :  Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion From the 12th to the 15th Century Trade was controlled by the Italian Cities in the Med. The other countries felt the grip. This is only one reason the other countries sought other routes to the east. Mediterranean Trade :  Mediterranean Trade Mediterranean Trade :  Mediterranean Trade Spice Silk Carpets Ivory Gold Persia Asia Minor India Africa China European Expansion :  European Expansion There were other reasons…. Conquest and Empire-See Spanish The Black Plague The hope of gaining land Scientific and technological advancements A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration SMALL TINY ITTY BITTY Will spend BIG money on Exploration Helped the Spanish Drive off the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula Turning point for Portugal—capture of Ceuta 1415 A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator Son of the King of Portugal Techie 1415-1460 Expand types of Trade Push his explorers Blessing of the King and the Pope A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration Bartolomeu Dias 1488 Cape of Good Hope The possibility of sailing to India A Century of Portuguese Exploration:  A Century of Portuguese Exploration Vasco da Gama 1498 First trip to India No middle men No mark ups No over land travel No Italians A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic:  A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic The Explorations of Columbus The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus Born 1451 in Genoa At sea at 14 Married well – Felipa Moniz Father-in-law grew up in the home of Henry the Nav. Columbus inherited all maps, charts and papers. The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus Columbus has a plan He believes Asia is 2500 miles from his front door—to the west. In reality, Asia is more than 11,000 miles Good sailor—Bad Math The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus Portuguese King first So he moves to Spain Henry VII of England He then goes to the French He finally finds support The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus They give him three ships They really don’t have much to lose The could have a lot to gain. The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus Use the Technology and sailing skills of the Portuguese. Nina, Pinta, and the Santa Maria Six weeks later—pay dirt. The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus What went wrong??? No Asians No wealth Three months searching – for who? The King of Japan Takes six Tainos back with him The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus They are happy as larks Spain is now first place Columbus is made Admiral of the Ocean Sea The six ‘heathern’ are baptized They run to the Pope—Alexander IV The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus Columbus goes back to ‘Asia’ 17 ships and 1000 settlers and workers Ship Wreck strands 39 sailors on Hispaniola When he comes back—bad things Dies in 1505 The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange From this point on everything changes The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange John Cabot Giovanni Caboto born 1455 in Gaeta, near Naples First trip - Newfounland Second trip—never heard from again The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange Amerigo Vespucci Passion for Geography 1499 – Sailed with Spanish to New World Landed South American Continent 1507 – German Map maker Named the “New World” America The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange Pedro Alvars Cabral Headed for the Indian ocean Oops-Brazil Vespucci sent to check it out The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange 1513 – Vasco Nunez de Balbao crossed the isthmus of Panama 1519 – Magellan leaves on his voyage 5 Ships 250 men 1520 – killed by Philippine tribesmen 1 Ship 18 men The Explorations of Columbus:  The Explorations of Columbus The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange This was a disaster What did it prove? Columbus was a good Sailor but… You can get there this way, but… From this point on, If you go west, it is for the new world. The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange:  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange From Europe Christianity Iron tech Sailing Ships Firearms Wheeled vehicles Horses and other domesticated animals Smallpox, measles… To Europe Corn Potatoes Pineapples Tobacco STD - Syphilis Spanish Exploration and Conquest:  Spanish Exploration and Conquest Up to this time, the New World was barley paying for itself. But After 1519, The New World would make Spain the most powerful nation in the world Spanish Exploration and Conquest:  Spanish Exploration and Conquest At first, Spanish Exploration was along the coast and islands They established settlements on the large islands Enslaved Caribbean Tribes – Mine Gold, Grow Crops But by 1519 things will change Spanish Exploration and Conquest:  Spanish Exploration and Conquest The Conquest of Mexico The Search for Other Mexicos New Spain in the Sixteenth Century The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico The Conquest of Mexico:  The Conquest of Mexico 1504 – arrives in new world – 19 years old Fought in Cuba 1519 – given OK to go to the mainland…Why? A fabled Kingdom of GOLD Takes 600 men, 11 Ships The Conquest of Mexico:  The Conquest of Mexico Very Charismatic – His men will follow him Lands on the Yucatan peninsula Meets a Mayan chief Chief gives him an interpreter – Malinali She learned Spanish She would be very useful to Cortes The Conquest of Mexico:  The Conquest of Mexico Montezuma hears about them He thinks it’s Quetzalcoatl as was predicted He sends gifts worthy of a god Marina clues Cortes about Quetzalcoatl Cortes puts on the divine cloths People return and tell Montezuma Everything they saw He makes a feast for them – Just the way Quetzalcoatl likes it. The Conquest of Mexico:  The Conquest of Mexico 1519 Cortes takes 350 of his men to find Montezuma Cortes takes him hostage-puppet king One of Cortes men does a bad thing 1520 Cortes must flee with the remainder of his men He makes friends-Tlaxcalans He regroups and prepares He returns to lay siege to the city Along with tens of thousands of Indians The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos Francisco Pizarro 1532 – Peru With two hundred men captured the Incan ruler - Atahualpa They gave him the largest treasure yet They killed the ruler The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos Juan Ponce de Leon 1521 – Florida – Killed by Calusa Indians Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon 1525 – Atlantic Coast from Fl. to S.C. Establish small settlement in Ga. Within a few months they become sick and most die Panfilo de Narvaez 1528 – Gulf coast from FL to TX – Ends badly on coast of TX The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos Hernando de Soto 1539 – Inland Involved in Peru 600 men, 9 ships Searching for a ‘Peru’ in North America Dies in 1542 His men bury him and bolt The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos Francisco Vasquez de Coronado 1540 – Southwest and Great Plains 300 Spanish, 1000 Indians, 1500 horses, and a priest The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos The Search for Other Mexicos:  The Search for Other Mexicos Juan Rodriguez Careillo 1542 – West coast of California Dies on Santa Catalina Island Men push on to Oregon New Spain in the Sixteenth Century:  New Spain in the Sixteenth Century Spain controled the New World in the 16th Century Portugal had Brazil but not interested in colonies The Crown allowed them to do what they wanted Crown took the “royal fifth” New Spain in the Sixteenth Century:  New Spain in the Sixteenth Century New Spain was governed by Encomiendas Similar to a Feudal system Indians were under the authority of the conquistadors The Indians did all the labor The Encomienderos ensured they could become Christians This System brought about 2 types of critics New Spain in the Sixteenth Century:  New Spain in the Sixteenth Century The first set of critics were the Priests Fray Bartolome de Las Casas Did not influence the Encomienderos Did win friends in Noble Circle at home The second set of critics were the Royal bureaucrats Not concerned with the mistreatment of Indians Concerned with the autonomy of the encomienderos New Spain in the Sixteenth Century:  New Spain in the Sixteenth Century The Crown would try to reform the system 1549 repartimiento was an attempt to regulate the forced labor Never really had an impact – two reasons The Royals were still getting rich The coerced labor was based on racist assumptions The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization :  The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization By 1560… Major centers of Indian civilization had been conquered Indian leaders overthrown Their religious practices suppressed Their people forced into slavery The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization :  The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization Not only human conquest… Disease was conquering them also Smallpox, Measles, Respiratory illness By 1570, fifty years after Cortes… The native population had fallen to 10% of when Columbus arrived. Of course this did not escape Spanish notice, something would have to be done… The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization :  The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization Import slaves from Africa By 1550, only 15,000 African slaves From 1550 to 1600 this would increase to 36,000 This would complicate things for the Spanish—very race conscious Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico:  Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico 1493 – Pope gives new world to Spain Needed settlements to prove it. Needed settlements to protect gold shipments Group of French Protestants were in Flordia Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico:  Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico 1565 – Pedro Menendez Aviles Create settlements along the Atlantic coast He removes the French from St. Augustine 1567 St. Elena (Parris Island) Sent a group to Chesapeake Bay-bad move Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico:  Northern Outposts in Florida and New Mexico 1598 – Juan Onate Father was silver miner Wife was Isabel Tolosa Cortes Montezuma Modern Day New Mexico The Indians swore an oath to God and King in each pueblo San Gabriel (Santa Fe) Acoma Pueblo revolted – 800 M-W-C The New World and Europe:  The New World and Europe The Protestant Reformation and the European Order New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions Europe and the Spanish Example The Protestant Reformation and the European Order:  The Protestant Reformation and the European Order Martin Luther Good Catholic Monk Wanted to reform from the inside The Kings and Princes may have had other plans New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions:  New World Treasure and Spanish Ambitions Charles V Son Philip II Spent more than was coming from America Taxed the Spanish – not the nobles Had to borrow money from banks Europe and the Spanish Example:  Europe and the Spanish Example 1534 Cartier- St. Lawrence 1564 – Huguenots 1576 – Martin Frobisher NW Passage Europe and the Spanish Example:  Europe and the Spanish Example Sir Humphrey Gilbert 1578 & 1583 attempted colonies in New Foundland Lost at sea Sir Walter Raleigh Europe and the Spanish Example:  Europe and the Spanish Example 1585-First trip left no one 1587-Sent back about 100 settlers John White leader White went back for supplies 1590-Everyone Gone Croatoan – carved on tree Conclusion: The Legacy of the Sixteenth Century :  Conclusion: The Legacy of the Sixteenth Century Whole new world Columbian Exchange European Monarchs found… Resources to exploit Land to expand Empire Wealth beyond their dreams… Some of these dreams would turn to nightmares

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