Published on March 6, 2014
Apache jclouds at Maginatics Experiences with billions of blobs across many blobstore providers. Andrew Gaul jclouds PMC
Agenda • • • • • • • What is blob storage Blobstore compatibility Case study: Maginatics Cloud Storage Platform (MCSP) Scaling Lessons learned Future directions Conclusion http://jclouds.apache.org https://maginatics.com Maginatics 2
What is blob storage? Blobstores offer key-value storage that is: • Scalable: 10s TB with few nodes and 100s of PB with thousands of nodes • Inexpensive: built on commodity hardware • Available/durable: tolerates hardware failures Do not offer guarantees that block storage and file systems provide: • Limited interface: get, put, delete • Eventual consistency: blob reads may return stale or no data for some limited time Maginatics 3
jclouds supports many providers Multiple public and private implementations allow customer trade-offs. Public Object Storage Maginatics Private Object Storage 4
Blobstore compatibility jclouds abstracts differences between APIs, but semantic differences remain: • Atmos: cannot overwrite blob • AWS-S3: cannot mutate or append to a blob, cannot put blob without explicit size • Swift: eventually consistent Portable applications must use the lowest-common denominator functionality: • Write to blobs exactly once, never mutate or append • Can read from blobs at any time, but must retry due to eventual consistency • When deleting, never reuse blob name Maginatics 5
Maginatics Cloud Storage Platform (MCSP) • Virtualized, cloud-based storage system • Layers network file system semantics on top of blob storage • Run any application on a variety platforms, including multiple-client file sharing • MCSP is a cloud-optimized NAS filer • Smart client gives LAN performance over WANs • Flexible deployment options: public, private, hybrid cloud • Refer to SNIA SDC 2013 slides for technical background Maginatics 6
Scaling Throughput MCSP supports thousands of clients reading and writing simultaneously. Single server could become a bottleneck, especially smaller instance sizes. Instead vend signed URLs to clients to allow them direct access to blobstore: • Cryptographically signed URLs allow read or write access to a specific blob for a specified time • Can embed other properties like content length and hash This technique allows a single MCSP server to mediate many Gbit/s throughput! Maginatics 7
Scaling Number of Blobs MCSP manages 100 TB of blob data across 1 billion blobs. Some providers require specific naming or sharding for best performance: • Atmos: no more than 100,000 blobs per directory, shard across directories • AWS-S3: name blob with unique prefixes • Swift: no more than 1 million blobs per container, shard across containers • GCS & HPC: remove Expect: 100-continue • Other quirks: Cleversafe performs better when disabling container listing Surprisingly challenging workload: removing all blobs from a large container. Maginatics 8
Scaling Blob Sizes Most MCSP blobs have small sizes, but some use cases require larger ones. jclouds support up to 2 GB blobs across all blobstores: • Could support 5 GB with Java 7 AWS-S3, Azure, and Swift support multi-part upload, tested with 40 GB blobs: Large blobs increase chances of transient network errors and failures: • Use a repeatable Payload like ByteSource to allow jclouds to retry • Always include MD5 checksum to guarantee data integrity Maginatics 9
Lessons Learned Cross-provider support required substantial effort: • Long tail of issues with authentication, configuration, error codes, timeouts, etc. • S3- and Swift-compatible clones are like snowflakes, no two are alike Measuring performance is difficult: • Blob naming and sharding important • Public providers will reshard very active containers for better performance • Private blobstores require configuration and tuning Mock blobstores (filesystem and transient) helped testing. Maginatics 10
Future Directions More diagnostic tools, especially for private blobstores. • Maginatics will contribute benchmark tool and compatibility tester Modernize with Guava additions, e.g., ByteSource, Hashing, MediaType. Simplify implementation: • De-async? • Remove annotations? New providers: • Modernized Swift (in-progress) • Google Cloud Storage (GSoC 2014?) • Amazon Glacier • Joyent Manta? Maginatics 11
Recap • jclouds can provide portability between blobstore providers if your application does not strongly depend on blobstore semantics • Applications can scale with the correct architecture and implementation choices • More work to do to make jclouds an inviting platform for all Java developers • jclouds community helped Maginatics over the last three years and we look forward to continuing to contribute Maginatics 12
http://jclouds.apache.org https://maginatics.com Thank you. 13
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