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AP Review 1400 1800

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Information about AP Review 1400 1800
Education

Published on February 20, 2008

Author: Arkwright26

Source: authorstream.com

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Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture.:  Name Michelangelo’s most famous painting & sculpture. Sistene Chapel & David What period did Rafael belong to?:  What period did Rafael belong to? High Renaissance Name two characteristics of the nation state.:  Name two characteristics of the nation state. taxes, standing army, bureacracy, support of townspeople Who was the father of Humanism?:  Who was the father of Humanism? Petrarch What political structure did the strong nation state replace?:  What political structure did the strong nation state replace? feudal monarchy What Treaty kept the City-States unified against outside threat?:  What Treaty kept the City-States unified against outside threat? Treaty of Lodi Which emperor united the Spanish and Austrian sides of the Habsburg empire?:  Which emperor united the Spanish and Austrian sides of the Habsburg empire? Charles V What were the three main characteristics of the Spanish Empire in America?:  What were the three main characteristics of the Spanish Empire in America? Roman Cath., Social hierarchy, econ. Dependence Who was the most popular classical figure during the Renaissance?:  Who was the most popular classical figure during the Renaissance? Plato Who hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis?:  Who hoped that a strong Italian ruler would come from the Medicis? Machiavelli What was Castiglione’s main emphasis?:  What was Castiglione’s main emphasis? proper behavior for every situation Name the three main components of the colonial economy in Latin America.:  Name the three main components of the colonial economy in Latin America. Mining, shipping, and farming What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of?:  What was Erasmus’ philosophy a combination of? Christian and classical beliefs Who conquered the Incas? The Aztecs?:  Who conquered the Incas? The Aztecs? Pizarro and Cortes Name three countries where strong nation-states developed.:  Name three countries where strong nation-states developed. Spain, France, England Name two key places where they did not.:  Name two key places where they did not. Italy & HRE What alliance was formed to remove the French from Italy?:  What alliance was formed to remove the French from Italy? League of Venice Name the Popes of this era that were more political than spiritual.:  Name the Popes of this era that were more political than spiritual. Julius II and Alexander VI Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist.:  Name the work and author that describe an ideal society that will never exist. Utopia, Thomas More The Age of Exploration was driven by desire for what two things?:  The Age of Exploration was driven by desire for what two things? Spices and precious metals What work and author focused on man’s ability to determine his destiny?:  What work and author focused on man’s ability to determine his destiny? Oration on the Dignity of Man, Pico Della Mirandola What two noble houses fought in the War of the Roses?:  What two noble houses fought in the War of the Roses? Lancasters and Yorks What English dynasty emerges from the War of the Roses?:  What English dynasty emerges from the War of the Roses? Tudor (starting with Henry VII) Why is Machiavelli’s emphasis on virtu so humanist?:  Why is Machiavelli’s emphasis on virtu so humanist? strong individual, classical source (Rome) Who was the Renaissance Man?:  Who was the Renaissance Man? Leonardo da Vinci How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages?:  How did Renaissance Art differ from art from the Middle Ages? realism, accurate anatomy, secular patronage What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts?:  What economic developments allowed for secular patronage of the arts? increased trade & banking What major war of the Middle Ages helped unify France & England individually by pitting them against each other?:  What major war of the Middle Ages helped unify France & England individually by pitting them against each other? 100 Years War Identify the two major northern humanists.:  Identify the two major northern humanists. More & Erasmus How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren?:  How was the subject matter of the Northern Ren. a departure from the High Ren? Gothic, supernatural What issue caused a split between Thomas More & Henry VIII?:  What issue caused a split between Thomas More & Henry VIII? Henry’s desire for a divorce Who did Alexander VI try to install as ruler of Romagna?:  Who did Alexander VI try to install as ruler of Romagna? Cesare Borgia, his son Who was the first to “invite the French over the Alps” and break the Treaty of Lodi?:  Who was the first to “invite the French over the Alps” and break the Treaty of Lodi? Ludovico il Moro of Milan What was the “virtu” that Machiavelli so valued?:  What was the “virtu” that Machiavelli so valued? The ability to act heroically & decisively Who was the “German master” of Northern Ren. Painting?:  Who was the “German master” of Northern Ren. Painting? Albrecht Durer Who were the “crazy dutchmen” of the Northern Ren.?:  Who were the “crazy dutchmen” of the Northern Ren.? Bosch & Bruegel Who was the “Spider King” who ruled France at the peak of its power in the 1400s?:  Who was the “Spider King” who ruled France at the peak of its power in the 1400s? Louis XI What was the primary requirement for being a Renaissance Prince?:  What was the primary requirement for being a Renaissance Prince? Power What technological process that preceded movable metal type made mass printing more feasible?:  What technological process that preceded movable metal type made mass printing more feasible? Cheaper paper List two reasons the church feared the humanists.:  List two reasons the church feared the humanists. Self-reliance, outside interpretations, authorities other than God What is the message of Boccaccio’s Decameron?:  What is the message of Boccaccio’s Decameron? Beware of immoral behavior What two entities did Erasmus compare in trying to demonstrate the true nature of Xianity?:  What two entities did Erasmus compare in trying to demonstrate the true nature of Xianity? Christ & the modern clergy What kind of activity did Petrarch inspire?:  What kind of activity did Petrarch inspire? Examination of the classics, and writing related to them Name 4 of the major Italian city-states.:  Name 4 of the major Italian city-states. Venice, Florence, Milan, Pisa, Genoa, Romagna (Papal States) What did the competing political factions of the Renaissance use to communicate with the masses?:  What did the competing political factions of the Renaissance use to communicate with the masses? Art that they patronized Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture.:  Identify two classical features that were prominent in Ren. Architecture. Domes, columns, roman arches, ornamentation, integrated supports Which two nations were most involved in the exploration of the “New World” during the Renaissance?:  Which two nations were most involved in the exploration of the “New World” during the Renaissance? Spain and Portugal What did Ferdinand & Isabelle do (besides get married) to unify the nation of Spain?:  What did Ferdinand & Isabelle do (besides get married) to unify the nation of Spain? secure borders, venture abroad militarily, strengthen the RC church Why would the Printers’ Guild have supported the Reformation?:  Why would the Printers’ Guild have supported the Reformation? Economic stake, literate and sophisticated, often opposed to gov’t What did the Reformation offer peasants?:  What did the Reformation offer peasants? A chance for political liberation and social betterment Where did Luther first defend his 95 Theses?:  Where did Luther first defend his 95 Theses? At the Disputation of Leipzig (vs. Eck) What did the benefice system allow the laity to do?:  What did the benefice system allow the laity to do? Buy desirable church offices & benefit economically What 2 lay movements were the biggest attackers of the medieval church?:  What 2 lay movements were the biggest attackers of the medieval church? Lollards (Wyclif) and Hussites (Hus) What act by the Roman Catholic Church inspired the 95 Theses?:  What act by the Roman Catholic Church inspired the 95 Theses? Selling of indulgences What was the jubilee indulgence supposed to pay for?:  What was the jubilee indulgence supposed to pay for? New St. Peters cathedral in Rome What pushed Luther to “discover” justification by faith?:  What pushed Luther to “discover” justification by faith? His own feelings of unworthiness What did the Council of Trent say about church language and the official Bible?:  What did the Council of Trent say about church language and the official Bible? Speak Latin & use the Vulgate What kept Charles V from dealing with Luther quickly and efficiently?:  What kept Charles V from dealing with Luther quickly and efficiently? He was always at war (usually with the Valois), and busy trying to get elected HRE Who did Luther side with in the Peasant Revolts in Germany?:  Who did Luther side with in the Peasant Revolts in Germany? German Nobility How did Luther respond to the charges brought against him at the Diet of Worms?:  How did Luther respond to the charges brought against him at the Diet of Worms? “Here I Stand”, would not change How did members of the Schmalkaldic League benefit from the Ref. Economically?:  How did members of the Schmalkaldic League benefit from the Ref. Economically? Took over Church lands & property Why did the political structure of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform?:  Why did the political structure of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform? Small territories governed by princes instead of sovereign monarchies Why did the geography of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform?:  Why did the geography of Germany and Switzerland make them easier to reform? Far from Italy, divided into small parts (states) Who said: “Whatever lacks scriptural support should not be believed or practiced”:  Who said: “Whatever lacks scriptural support should not be believed or practiced” Zwingli What group believed in adult baptism and were eventually opposed by both Protestants and Catholics?:  What group believed in adult baptism and were eventually opposed by both Protestants and Catholics? Anabaptists (esp. radicals gathered at Munster) What was the formal name of the order founded by Ignatius Loyola?:  What was the formal name of the order founded by Ignatius Loyola? Society of Jesus Identify two major characteristics of the Jesuits.:  Identify two major characteristics of the Jesuits. Focused on church, underground missionaries, great educators, confessors to kings Who were the elect?:  Who were the elect? Those predestined for salvation (Calvin) Why is it politically dangerous for a Pope to call a Council?:  Why is it politically dangerous for a Pope to call a Council? they can limit his power Which Pope gets the counter reformation rolling?:  Which Pope gets the counter reformation rolling? Paul III, 28 years after the 95 Theses Who said: “We are all equal in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all Believers”?:  Who said: “We are all equal in the eyes of God, members of the Priesthood of all Believers”? Luther What group called on clergy to live as examples and upheld the doctrine of the Catholic Church?:  What group called on clergy to live as examples and upheld the doctrine of the Catholic Church? Council of Trent Where did the Council of Trent place tradition relative to scripture?:  Where did the Council of Trent place tradition relative to scripture? On equal footing What do the U & L in Calvin’s TULIP stand for?:  What do the U & L in Calvin’s TULIP stand for? Unconditional Election & Limited Atonement Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)?:  Under which monarch did England become truly Protestant (theologically)? Edward VI In what work can this original English Protestant theology be found?:  In what work can this original English Protestant theology be found? Book of Common Prayer (Cranmer) What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she came to the throne?:  What three religious groups did Elizabeth I face when she came to the throne? RCs, Anglicans, & Puritans Name at least three major causes of the Reformation.:  Name at least three major causes of the Reformation. Humanism, Hus & Wyclif, political division, church abuses, social inequality Why did Zwingli feel penance was unnecessary?:  Why did Zwingli feel penance was unnecessary? Christ had already borne the pain for our sins What happened when Calvin tried to “reform” Geneva the first time?:  What happened when Calvin tried to “reform” Geneva the first time? Exiled to Strasbourg (accused of “new papacy”) What tool did Calvin use to create his “New Jerusalem”?:  What tool did Calvin use to create his “New Jerusalem”? Strict moral code (spread through sermons and Catechism) What did Catholics and Prots. call unbelievers from the other side?:  What did Catholics and Prots. call unbelievers from the other side? Heretics & papists (respectively) Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism?:  Which English monarch attempted to reinstate Roman Catholicism? Mary I Which two sacraments did Luther claim were legitimate?:  Which two sacraments did Luther claim were legitimate? Baptism and communion (eucharist) What book provided the majority of the doctrine for the Anglican Church?:  What book provided the majority of the doctrine for the Anglican Church? Book of Common Prayer Name the two major down sides of the Counter Reformation.:  Name the two major down sides of the Counter Reformation. Index of Forbidden Books and Inquisition What issue kept the German and Swiss Reformations from uniting?:  What issue kept the German and Swiss Reformations from uniting? The physical presence of Christ in communion What finally gave princes in the HRE official control over religion?:  What finally gave princes in the HRE official control over religion? the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation?:  What was the main reason Henry VIII started the English Reformation? Wanted an annulment from Catharine, desired control over church structure & resources Name the major Protestant Group in each of the following areas: England, Scotland, Switzerland, North Germany.:  Name the major Protestant Group in each of the following areas: England, Scotland, Switzerland, North Germany. Anglicans, Puritans, Calvinists, Lutherans What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation?:  What type of art reflected the spirit of the Counter Reformation? Baroque What is Baroque Art designed to do?:  What is Baroque Art designed to do? Get an emotional response/reaction What percentage of Protestant converts were “reconverted” by the Catholic Reformation?:  What percentage of Protestant converts were “reconverted” by the Catholic Reformation? Over 50 List three components of Calvin’s moral code.:  List three components of Calvin’s moral code. No drinking, no dancing, no plays, religious music & psalm reading in taverns Identify the two major events that push Luther into the arms of the nobles.:  Identify the two major events that push Luther into the arms of the nobles. Peasant Revolt & squashing the Anabaptists Why was it tough to be a Prot. In France?:  Why was it tough to be a Prot. In France? Concordat of Bologna (state control of church) Why did Luther abandon the Peasants in their revolt of 1524?:  Why did Luther abandon the Peasants in their revolt of 1524? not xian’s role to transform society, better politically to back princes What family did Catherine de Medicis most often conspire with?:  What family did Catherine de Medicis most often conspire with? The Guise Family (RC) What percentage of French aristocracy joined the Huguenots to protest the Guise controlled monarchy?:  What percentage of French aristocracy joined the Huguenots to protest the Guise controlled monarchy? 40 What was the major outcome, other than dead people, of the St. Bart’s day Massacre?:  What was the major outcome, other than dead people, of the St. Bart’s day Massacre? Increased fighting between Catholics and Protestants Name the politique who succeeded Henry III.:  Name the politique who succeeded Henry III. Henry of Navarre (IV) Identify three freedoms guaranteed Hugs by the Edict of Nantes.:  Identify three freedoms guaranteed Hugs by the Edict of Nantes. worship, assemble, attend university, fortify towns, hold public offices What was Coligny trying to get Charles IX to do?:  What was Coligny trying to get Charles IX to do? aid Prots. in Netherlands How did Calvinists organize the churches and governments?:  How did Calvinists organize the churches and governments? Locally How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France?:  How did Henry of Navarre bring a close to conflict in France? converting to RC & Edict of Nantes Name 2 of the 3 areas Phillip II tried to conquer in this unit.:  Name 2 of the 3 areas Phillip II tried to conquer in this unit. The Netherlands, Portugal, and England What effect did the Spanish Fury have on the Southern 10 provinces of the Netherlands?:  What effect did the Spanish Fury have on the Southern 10 provinces of the Netherlands? It caused them to briefly unit with the northern 7 vs. the Spanish (Pac. of Ghent) What country was formed by the lower 10 provinces of the Netherlands?:  What country was formed by the lower 10 provinces of the Netherlands? Spanish Neth., which becomes Belgium What leader of the Dutch resistance became a martyr for the cause?:  What leader of the Dutch resistance became a martyr for the cause? William of Orange What treaty brought English help to Protestants fighting in France & the Netherlands?:  What treaty brought English help to Protestants fighting in France & the Netherlands? Treaty of Nonsuch What religion is most of modern day Belgium?:  What religion is most of modern day Belgium? RC What was Phillip II’s religious justification for going into the Netherlands?:  What was Phillip II’s religious justification for going into the Netherlands? enforcing Council of Trent What were Spain’s economic motives for trying to hold on to the Netherlands?:  What were Spain’s economic motives for trying to hold on to the Netherlands? tax $$$ and valuable trade & shipping Who did Phillip II put in charge of uniting the Dutch churches and gov’t?:  Who did Phillip II put in charge of uniting the Dutch churches and gov’t? Cardinal Granvelle When Granvelle failed how did Phillip II respond?:  When Granvelle failed how did Phillip II respond? sent in the Duke of Alba to use military force What tactics did the Dutch resisters use against the Spanish Army?:  What tactics did the Dutch resisters use against the Spanish Army? guerilla warfare, piracy Why was Mary, QOS such a bad match for Scotland?:  Why was Mary, QOS such a bad match for Scotland? Very French and RC Who wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures?:  Who wanted to rid the Anglican Church of all Catholic practices and structures? Puritans Who did Protestants want to succeed Mary I?:  Who did Protestants want to succeed Mary I? Elizabeth I Who did John Knox rail on?:  Who did John Knox rail on? Female rulers (Elizabeth, Marys, CDM) Why was Mary QOS executed?:  Why was Mary QOS executed? Plotting to kill Elizabeth I Name 2 things that brought about the demise of the Armada.:  Name 2 things that brought about the demise of the Armada. wind, tactics, sea dogs What RC things did the “Elizabethan Settlement” keep? What Protestant things?:  What RC things did the “Elizabethan Settlement” keep? What Protestant things? Church hierarchy & ceremony, Book of Common Prayer & 39 Articles What event provided inspiration for Protestants and marked the beginning of the end for Spain?:  What event provided inspiration for Protestants and marked the beginning of the end for Spain? Defeat of the Armada What does cuius regio, eius religio mean?:  What does cuius regio, eius religio mean? The ruler determines religion What were Ferdinand II’s chief goals at the start of the 30 Years War?:  What were Ferdinand II’s chief goals at the start of the 30 Years War? centralize his control over HRE and re-Catholicize the empire What Swedish King swung the 30 yrs. War in favor of the Protestants? What was his strength?:  What Swedish King swung the 30 yrs. War in favor of the Protestants? What was his strength? Gustavus Adolphus, military leadership Why did the English want to keep the Spanish out of the Netherlands?:  Why did the English want to keep the Spanish out of the Netherlands? fear of invasion, trade rivalry Name 2 groups that came in to support the Prots in the 30 Years War.:  Name 2 groups that came in to support the Prots in the 30 Years War. Swedes, Richelieu, Danes, Dutch Who did Spain support in the 30 Years War?:  Who did Spain support in the 30 Years War? HRE (Ferdinand) What two countries continued their conflict past the end of the 30 Years’ War?:  What two countries continued their conflict past the end of the 30 Years’ War? Spain & France (ending with Treaty of Pyrenees in 1659) Why did France & Richelieu side with the Prots. during the 30 Years’ War?:  Why did France & Richelieu side with the Prots. during the 30 Years’ War? hated Haps & Spanish, wanted weak Ger. What were Christian IV & Gustavus Adolphus trying to gain territorially?:  What were Christian IV & Gustavus Adolphus trying to gain territorially? states in N. Germany (Holstein & Brandenburg) How did families like the Medicis & the Fuggers exert their power?:  How did families like the Medicis & the Fuggers exert their power? lending $ to key people Name one of the two military leaders Ferdinand II brought in to fight the Prots.:  Name one of the two military leaders Ferdinand II brought in to fight the Prots. Maximilian (of Bavaria) and Wallenstein Identify two of the major outcomes of the 30 Years’ war.:  Identify two of the major outcomes of the 30 Years’ war. France most powerful, Ger. states separate, continuation of Augsburg, Switz. & Neth. are independent Identify three key outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia.:  Identify three key outcomes of the Peace of Westphalia. Swiss independence, Dutch independence, Hapsburgs looooooooooose, extension of Augsburg (Calv.), French get territory Identify three causes of the commercial revolution.:  Identify three causes of the commercial revolution. needs of N-S, putting out, rising pop., new industries, new shipping/colonies, Identify two rivalries that came about as a result of the Commercial Revolution.:  Identify two rivalries that came about as a result of the Commercial Revolution. Eng. vs. Spain, Spain vs. Dutch What is the main goal of mercantilism?:  What is the main goal of mercantilism? strengthen your economy at the expense of another Identify four components of mercantilism.:  Identify four components of mercantilism. tariffs, bullionism, colonies, sea trade, support for industry, exporting finished goods, full employment, large population What Petition required the consent of Parliament for all taxation?:  What Petition required the consent of Parliament for all taxation? Petition of Right Name two of the devices used by the Stuarts to raise funds outside of Par.:  Name two of the devices used by the Stuarts to raise funds outside of Par. ship money, impositions, forced loan, 1/4 troops What did both James I & Charles I do that the traditional nobility found threatening?:  What did both James I & Charles I do that the traditional nobility found threatening? Sold titles & offices Name 5 guys from this unit who believed in the divine right of kings?:  Name 5 guys from this unit who believed in the divine right of kings? Charles I, II, James I, II, Louis XIV What policy let Charles I rule without Parliament?:  What policy let Charles I rule without Parliament? the thorough Why did the Scots rebel in 1637? What did this force Charles to do?:  Why did the Scots rebel in 1637? What did this force Charles to do? Charles & Laud were try to force episcopal system on them, Call Parliament Why did Charles I disband the “Short Par”?:  Why did Charles I disband the “Short Par”? demanded redress of grievances What were the supporters of Charles and the Parliament called, respectively?:  What were the supporters of Charles and the Parliament called, respectively? Cavaliers (Mon/Ang) and Roundheads (Par/Pur) What was the main military reason the Roundheads were able to win the ECW?:  What was the main military reason the Roundheads were able to win the ECW? The prowess of the New Model Army & holding most big towns & ports Name 2 things abolished by the Rump Parliament.:  Name 2 things abolished by the Rump Parliament. House of Lords, Anglican Church and the monarchy (they kill Charles I) How did Cromwell rule the “commonwealth” of England?:  How did Cromwell rule the “commonwealth” of England? as Lord Protector over 10 districts run by generals Name two things that made Charles II appear to be pro-RC.:  Name two things that made Charles II appear to be pro-RC. love of ceremony, RC wife, support for France & Louis XIV What Code excluded both RCs & Puritans from public life in England?:  What Code excluded both RCs & Puritans from public life in England? Clarendon Code What Act did Parliament pass during the Restoration to keep RCs out of government? Who did they fear?:  What Act did Parliament pass during the Restoration to keep RCs out of government? Who did they fear? Test Act, James II What law required that English imports be carried on English ships? What nation was this designed to hurt?:  What law required that English imports be carried on English ships? What nation was this designed to hurt? Navigation Acts, the Dutch Republic What two groups formed in England toward the end of Charles II’s reign? Who did each support?:  What two groups formed in England toward the end of Charles II’s reign? Who did each support? Tories (king), Whigs (opposed to king) Whose overly absolutist policies pushed these two groups together?:  Whose overly absolutist policies pushed these two groups together? James II (attempt to assert absolute authority, threat of RC) Who did the Whigs & Tories call to throne in 1688?:  Who did the Whigs & Tories call to throne in 1688? Mary (Prot. daughter of James II) & William III of Orange What did William & Mary agree to accept in the Glorious Rev.?:  What did William & Mary agree to accept in the Glorious Rev.? Bill of Rights & Constitutional monarchy Why would William be willing to accept such terms that would limit his power?:  Why would William be willing to accept such terms that would limit his power? chance to be King of Eng. & oppose Louis XIV What 2 people rebuilt France after the religious conflict?:  What 2 people rebuilt France after the religious conflict? Swanson and Kilmer Henry IV & duke of Sully What would Richelieu do to nobles who refused to follow his reforms?:  What would Richelieu do to nobles who refused to follow his reforms? imprison, fine, execute What French leader was determined to suppress Protestants domestically but willing to support them internationally?:  What French leader was determined to suppress Protestants domestically but willing to support them internationally? Richelieu How did French nobility & townspeople respond to Mazarin’s continuation of Richelieu’s policies?:  How did French nobility & townspeople respond to Mazarin’s continuation of Richelieu’s policies? the Fronde Who was Louis XIV’s chief advisor while he was a minor?:  Who was Louis XIV’s chief advisor while he was a minor? Cardinal Mazarin What was the role of the intendants?:  What was the role of the intendants? supervise local activities for bur., keep eye on parlements What was Louis XIV’ main military goal?:  What was Louis XIV’ main military goal? Secure borders in the Alps & at the Rhine, ultimately expansion Name three things Louis XIV did to glorify himself in the eyes of the public.:  Name three things Louis XIV did to glorify himself in the eyes of the public. Arts, army, ceremony, propaganda, Versailles Name 2 components of mercantilism under Colbert.:  Name 2 components of mercantilism under Colbert. develop resources, encourage industry, high tariffs, French imports on French ships, the tailles How did most of Europe respond to Louis XIV when he took Strasbourg in 1681? What war started out of this?:  How did most of Europe respond to Louis XIV when he took Strasbourg in 1681? What war started out of this? Formed the League of Augsburg, Nine Years War Why did Louis XIV never call the Estates General?:  Why did Louis XIV never call the Estates General? source of power for nobility, didn’t need them for $$$ What action by Louis XIV caused the emigration of 250,000 Huguenots and the closure of Protestant schools & churches?:  What action by Louis XIV caused the emigration of 250,000 Huguenots and the closure of Protestant schools & churches? Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 In which direction was Louis trying to expand in the Nine Years War?:  In which direction was Louis trying to expand in the Nine Years War? East, into Germany Who’s philosophy was “one king, one law, one faith”?:  Who’s philosophy was “one king, one law, one faith”? Louis XIV What Treaty gave Louis the right to keep to put his grandson on the throne of Spain?:  What Treaty gave Louis the right to keep to put his grandson on the throne of Spain? Utrecht What did the Treaty of Utrecht give the English?:  What did the Treaty of Utrecht give the English? asiento & Gibraltar Who was removed from Parliament in “Pride’s Purge”?:  Who was removed from Parliament in “Pride’s Purge”? Presbyterians who insisted on their church system Where did the Royalists go after Charles I’s execution? What did they do?:  Where did the Royalists go after Charles I’s execution? What did they do? France, resisted Cromwell & Commonwealth Name 2 reasons why Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands in 1670?:  Name 2 reasons why Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands in 1670? making fun, territory, had England as an ally Where was Louis XIV looking to expand in the war of Devolution?:  Where was Louis XIV looking to expand in the war of Devolution? Spanish Netherlands Who was determined to give France peace & an improved economy in the early 1700s?:  Who was determined to give France peace & an improved economy in the early 1700s? Cardinal Fleury What financial crisis crushed French faith in public finance?:  What financial crisis crushed French faith in public finance? Mississippi Bubble Crisis Why did Fleury fail?:  Why did Fleury fail? died too soon, Louis XV was a fool Name three general attributes of eastern Europe.:  Name three general attributes of eastern Europe. agrarian, technologically behind, authoritarian rule What country bad declined by 1650 because of foolish monarchs & decline of imports from the New World?:  What country bad declined by 1650 because of foolish monarchs & decline of imports from the New World? Spain What country had declined by 1750 because of political disunity & overextension of their trade empire?:  What country had declined by 1750 because of political disunity & overextension of their trade empire? The Netherlands What industry did this country remain dominant in?:  What industry did this country remain dominant in? banking Which political group did George I favor when he came to Britain?:  Which political group did George I favor when he came to Britain? Whigs Which party supported a strong monarchy, low taxes, and the Anglican Church?:  Which party supported a strong monarchy, low taxes, and the Anglican Church? Tories Who dominated control of the House of Commons in the 1700s?:  Who dominated control of the House of Commons in the 1700s? Wealthy landowning men Who supported the Stuart “pretenders” in the early 1700s?:  Who supported the Stuart “pretenders” in the early 1700s? Jacobites Who rose to the office of Prime Minister by solving the South Sea Bubble crisis?:  Who rose to the office of Prime Minister by solving the South Sea Bubble crisis? Robert Walpole How did Walpole take executive powers away from the monarchy?:  How did Walpole take executive powers away from the monarchy? formation of the cabinet system (treasury, military, etc.) Name two countries whose decay led to advances by Prussia and Russia.:  Name two countries whose decay led to advances by Prussia and Russia. Poland and Sweden What two countries fought in the Great Northern War? Who won?:  What two countries fought in the Great Northern War? Who won? Russia and Sweden, Russia Whose diet required unanimity on all issues? Why was this a weakness?:  Whose diet required unanimity on all issues? Why was this a weakness? Poland, difficult to pass taxes to fund army (& other key decisions) Which Hapsburg repelled Turks & Louis & gained in Austria & Hungary?:  Which Hapsburg repelled Turks & Louis & gained in Austria & Hungary? Leopold I What agreement provided a legal basis for Maria Theresa to rule Austria? How well did it work?:  What agreement provided a legal basis for Maria Theresa to rule Austria? How well did it work? Pragmatic Sanction; not very well, the other European powers did not honor it What declining power in the east allowed the Hapsburgs & Hohenzollerns to fill the power vacuum?:  What declining power in the east allowed the Hapsburgs & Hohenzollerns to fill the power vacuum? Ottoman Empire Name two groups the Hapsburgs forced into their Austrian Empire.:  Name two groups the Hapsburgs forced into their Austrian Empire. Italians from Lombard, Slavs (Bohemia), Magyars (Hungary) What were the primary characteristics of the Prussian state?:  What were the primary characteristics of the Prussian state? military discipline & administrative rigor What was the primary accomplishment of the Great Elector?:  What was the primary accomplishment of the Great Elector? Uniting the Prussian State How does he accomplish this?:  How does he accomplish this? taxes to build army, Junkers must go through him for power, improve farming & industry Who spent extravagantly received the title “King of Prussia” in exchange for help in the war of Spanish Succession?:  Who spent extravagantly received the title “King of Prussia” in exchange for help in the war of Spanish Succession? Frederick I Why did the Hapsburgs decide to focus on Austria?:  Why did the Hapsburgs decide to focus on Austria? decline of Spain, losses in 30 Years War How did the Great Elector & other Hohenzollerns keep the Junkers in line?:  How did the Great Elector & other Hohenzollerns keep the Junkers in line? best jobs in bur. & mil. Which Prussian king imposed austerity and built the Prussian army to 80,000?:  Which Prussian king imposed austerity and built the Prussian army to 80,000? Frederick William II Who inherits Prussia’s army at it’s peak and is ready to use it to expand Prussian Power? Where does he take the army first?:  Who inherits Prussia’s army at it’s peak and is ready to use it to expand Prussian Power? Where does he take the army first? Frederick II, into Silesia vs. Austria What three groups opposed Peter the Great in his plans for Westernization?:  What three groups opposed Peter the Great in his plans for Westernization? Boyars, Streltsy, & Church How were the Boyars tamed by Peter the Great?:  How were the Boyars tamed by Peter the Great? Social standing determined by job, shave-o-rama, loyal to state first Who revolted when Peter went west? How were they tamed?:  Who revolted when Peter went west? How were they tamed? Streltsy, torture & execution, corpses on display What are always Russia’s two main assets?:  What are always Russia’s two main assets? people & resources What right/privilege did both the Hapsburgs & Hohenzollerns grant the nobility to curry favor?:  What right/privilege did both the Hapsburgs & Hohenzollerns grant the nobility to curry favor? domination of peasants & serfs Where did Peter build his great, superficially western, capital? How was it positioned to be a “window to the west”?:  Where did Peter build his great, superficially western, capital? How was it positioned to be a “window to the west”? St. Petersburg, on the Baltic Name two ways that Peter the Great reformed Russia’s army.:  Name two ways that Peter the Great reformed Russia’s army. improved weapons, discipline, outside officers, regiments, western uniforms, “Go Russia” t-shirts What is Peter the Great’s primary military goal? Where is he able to achieve this?:  What is Peter the Great’s primary military goal? Where is he able to achieve this? warm water ports, on the Baltic Name two steps Peter took to improve Russia’s economy.:  Name two steps Peter took to improve Russia’s economy. mercantilism, western craftsman, industrial serfs, iron How do the Russians defend themselves against invasion by Charles XII?:  How do the Russians defend themselves against invasion by Charles XII? Draw him in & let him freeze & starve Why does Peter have his son killed?:  Why does Peter have his son killed? he opposed westernization & Peter feared he would reverse his policies What two classical thinkers were most of the early scientific beliefs based on?:  What two classical thinkers were most of the early scientific beliefs based on? Aristotle & Ptolemy Who was the first to refute Ptolemy?:  Who was the first to refute Ptolemy? Copernicus How did Brahe’s opposition benefit Copernicus?:  How did Brahe’s opposition benefit Copernicus? Gave him publicity Name Brahe’s assistant that drew pro-Copernican conclusions from Brahe’s work?:  Name Brahe’s assistant that drew pro-Copernican conclusions from Brahe’s work? Kepler How did the church respond to Galileo’s use of the telescope?:  How did the church respond to Galileo’s use of the telescope? They condemned it, “God would have made us able to see it” Who was the father of modern philosophy?:  Who was the father of modern philosophy? Descartes Who were the two great political thinkers of the 17th century?:  Who were the two great political thinkers of the 17th century? Hobbes & Locke What major movement did the new science lead to?:  What major movement did the new science lead to? New Philosophy Who was the champion of the empirical method? What does this method encourage?:  Who was the champion of the empirical method? What does this method encourage? Bacon, observations based on lots of data What was Newton’s major work?:  What was Newton’s major work? Principia Mathematica How does Newton unlock the door to the rest of scientific discovery?:  How does Newton unlock the door to the rest of scientific discovery? universal gravitation was major missing link Identify 2 major influences on the literature of the 17th century.:  Identify 2 major influences on the literature of the 17th century. ECW, counter-reformation, restoration, Elizabethan times Who confronted both the Jesuits & skeptics and argued for the separation of religion & science?:  Who confronted both the Jesuits & skeptics and argued for the separation of religion & science? Pascal What was the main point of Don Quixote?:  What was the main point of Don Quixote? a combination of realism & idealism are important for a happy life Describe Shakespeare’s political & social outlook.:  Describe Shakespeare’s political & social outlook. Conservative What work and author described the fall of Satan?:  What work and author described the fall of Satan? Milton’s Paradise Lost What work and author described the effects of too much Restoration Partying?:  What work and author described the effects of too much Restoration Partying? Bunyan’s Life and Death of Mr. Badman Who argued that the existence of God was rational?:  Who argued that the existence of God was rational? Pascal Who was the first scientist to maintain that mathematical relationships explain everything?:  Who was the first scientist to maintain that mathematical relationships explain everything? Galileo What were the two of the main influences on Hobbes & Locke?:  What were the two of the main influences on Hobbes & Locke? ECW, Louis XIV & Glorious Revolution List two of Locke’s major beliefs.:  List two of Locke’s major beliefs. blank slate, overthrow bad gov’t, natural state is freedom, natural rights: life, liberty & property Who believed that people must turn over their rights to a strong ruler his rule would prevent anarchy?:  Who believed that people must turn over their rights to a strong ruler his rule would prevent anarchy? Hobbes How did Hobbes’ absolute ruler control his people?:  How did Hobbes’ absolute ruler control his people? Manipulating their fear of pain and desire for pleasure What were the four most formative causes of the enlightenment?:  What were the four most formative causes of the enlightenment? print culture, need for reform in France, Sci. Rev., success of GB Who are the three most prominent philosophes?:  Who are the three most prominent philosophes? Montesquieu, Voltaire, & Rousseau Why would you associate Voltaire with our 1st amendment?:  Why would you associate Voltaire with our 1st amendment? he advocated basic freedoms Name the author and work that discussed Laissez Faire Economics.:  Name the author and work that discussed Laissez Faire Economics. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations Who was Adam Smith’s chief influence, and what system did he attack?:  Who was Adam Smith’s chief influence, and what system did he attack? physiocrats, mercantilism Why did philosophes criticize the church?:  Why did philosophes criticize the church? promoted evil acts, took advantage of political position, emphasis on superstition, didn’t practice toleration, imperfection of man In what role did the Deists place God?:  In what role did the Deists place God? “divine watchmaker”, created world and stood back What two groups responded to Deism by making religion more personal?:  What two groups responded to Deism by making religion more personal? Pietists and Methodists Who criticized bigotry & advocated free speech in works like Candide?:  Who criticized bigotry & advocated free speech in works like Candide? Voltaire What did Montesquieu argue was the best form of gov’t?:  What did Montesquieu argue was the best form of gov’t? Three branch, separation of powers What is it about Montesquieu’s background that influenced these beliefs?:  What is it about Montesquieu’s background that influenced these beliefs? He was part of the noble Resurgence after Louis XIV Name three major beliefs of Rousseau.:  Name three major beliefs of Rousseau. Society over individual, bend to will, glorified motherhood, M&W in separate spheres How did women benefit from the enlightenment?:  How did women benefit from the enlightenment? emphasis on education, saloneirs, glorification of motherhood Why was the first encyclopedia such a major undertaking? Who edited it?:  Why was the first encyclopedia such a major undertaking? Who edited it? first time any group tried to compile “all” knowledge, Diderot If you had to sum up the enlightenment in one word, what would it be?:  If you had to sum up the enlightenment in one word, what would it be? darn well better be reason What were the three basic classes of the Ancien Regime?:  What were the three basic classes of the Ancien Regime? nobility, bourgeoisie, peasants What were Jethro Tull’s two main contributions to the Ag. Rev.?:  What were Jethro Tull’s two main contributions to the Ag. Rev.? iron plow and seed drill Who introduced the new crop rotation system that included turnips and clover?:  Who introduced the new crop rotation system that included turnips and clover? Charles Townshend What did the flying shuttle create a demand for?:  What did the flying shuttle create a demand for? thread/yarn What country was famous for land reclamation?:  What country was famous for land reclamation? The Netherlands Name two reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain.:  Name two reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain. coal & iron, individual liberties, roads & waterways, relatively mobile social structure Name 2 characteristics of NW European families in the Ancien Regime.:  Name 2 characteristics of NW European families in the Ancien Regime. nuclear, married later, smaller What commonly caused urban riots?:  What commonly caused urban riots? inflated prices, threat to traditional right, unjust action What group might encourage peasants to riot against the nobility?:  What group might encourage peasants to riot against the nobility? Bourgeoisie What did many “new” cities lack that would have helped them handle the influx of people?:  What did many “new” cities lack that would have helped them handle the influx of people? infrastructure Why did Frederick II start the War of Aust. Succession?:  Why did Frederick II start the War of Aust. Succession? wanted Silesia, saw that M-T was weak What was the world population in 1750?:  What was the world population in 1750? 3/4 billion Why did landlords want to enclose their lands?:  Why did landlords want to enclose their lands? higher bread prices, wanted to force the use of new methods What happened to many peasants as a result of enclosure?:  What happened to many peasants as a result of enclosure? cut loose from the land, forced to look for other employment What country held colonies in the St. Lawrence & Ohio River valleys?:  What country held colonies in the St. Lawrence & Ohio River valleys? France Why was the war of Jenkins’ Ear important?:  Why was the war of Jenkins’ Ear important? Kick off to series of conflicts What did GB do to keep the French busy on the continent during the 7 Years War?:  What did GB do to keep the French busy on the continent during the 7 Years War? Gave lots of aid to Prussia How did Maria Theresa keep her kingdom together during the War of Austrian Succession?:  How did Maria Theresa keep her kingdom together during the War of Austrian Succession? Concessions to the nobility, esp. the Magyars Name the worst country to be a peasant in.:  Name the worst country to be a peasant in. Russia (Poland was a close 2nd) What event marked a major shift in traditional alliances?:  What event marked a major shift in traditional alliances? Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 What war did this “Revolution” lead to?:  What war did this “Revolution” lead to? 7 Years War Name two things the British gained from the 7 Years War.:  Name two things the British gained from the 7 Years War. All of NA east of the Miss., trade rights in India, disappearance of France from colonial scene Why did the Bourgeoisie resent the nobility?:  Why did the Bourgeoisie resent the nobility? inherited legal rights & privileges How did GB try to address the massive war debt they were left with after the 7 Years War?:  How did GB try to address the massive war debt they were left with after the 7 Years War? Taxing their colonists How was the average European Jew treated during the Ancien Regime?:  How was the average European Jew treated during the Ancien Regime? non-citizen, lived in separated area, discriminated against What right were the British abusing before the War of Jenkins Ear?:  What right were the British abusing before the War of Jenkins Ear? asiento Who were the 2 chief rivals in this era of colonial expansion?:  Who were the 2 chief rivals in this era of colonial expansion? GB & France What is an audencia?:  What is an audencia? A judicial council in the New World What action started the 7 Years War?:  What action started the 7 Years War? Frederick II’s preemptive strike on Saxony Name 2 benefits of the steam engine.:  Name 2 benefits of the steam engine. Move factories away from rivers, constant source of power In which industry did the Industrial Revolution start?:  In which industry did the Industrial Revolution start? textiles What system was replaced by the factory system?:  What system was replaced by the factory system? cottage or “putting-out” Name one factor that may have led to the population boom that started in the mid-1700’s.:  Name one factor that may have led to the population boom that started in the mid-1700’s. End of the plague, less warfare, improved health Name the two crops that were introduced from the New World.:  Name the two crops that were introduced from the New World. potatoes & corn What cause did John Wilkes associate himself with?:  What cause did John Wilkes associate himself with? opposition to George III & individual liberty What institution did the Wilksites want reformed?:  What institution did the Wilksites want reformed? Parliament What problem did the 7 Years War leave all of its participants with?:  What problem did the 7 Years War leave all of its participants with? war debt How did increased demand for sugar and cotton in Europe lead to increased slavery?:  How did increased demand for sugar and cotton in Europe lead to increased slavery? plantation system demands it What were the American colonists originally trying to protect when they revolted against GB?:  What were the American colonists originally trying to protect when they revolted against GB? Rights as Englishmen In what kinds of places did the “new cities” spring up?:  In what kinds of places did the “new cities” spring up? waterways, road hubs, sea ports What are the two basic types of Bourg.?:  What are the two basic types of Bourg.? commercial/financial & bureaucratic/professional Where would you be living if you got married at 17 had 10 kids and lived with your aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents?:  Where would you be living if you got married at 17 had 10 kids and lived with your aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents? SE Europe What was the primary unit of both production and consumption during the Ancien Regime?:  What was the primary unit of both production and consumption during the Ancien Regime? the family Where did Dutch trade influence remain high in the 1700s?:  Where did Dutch trade influence remain high in the 1700s? Asia What are colonies supposed to provide to the “home country”?:  What are colonies supposed to provide to the “home country”? markets and raw materials How did the new gov’t they created differ from all previous gov’ts?:  How did the new gov’t they created differ from all previous gov’ts? Equality of all white men, no aristocracy or social classes by birth, no king Name three causes of the French Rev..:  Name three causes of the French Rev.. Food shortages & prices, heavy taxation of poor, little taxation of nobles & clergy, bourgeoisie vs. nobles, nobles vs. monarchy List two reasons why the French gov’t was in so much debt.:  List two reasons why the French gov’t was in so much debt. 7 Years War, American Rev., War of Austrian Succession, couldn’t tax upper classes What group did the 3rd Estate form when they left the Estates General? What did they promise in the Tennis Court Oath?:  What group did the 3rd Estate form when they left the Estates General? What did they promise in the Tennis Court Oath? National Assembly, keep meeting until they wrote a constitution What group did this become when it was recognized by Louis XVI?:  What group did this become when it was recognized by Louis XVI? National Constituent Assembly (NCA) What class were the reps of the 3rd Estate from?:  What class were the reps of the 3rd Estate from? Bourgeoisie How did nobles react to the Great Fear?:  How did nobles react to the Great Fear? renounced their rights, cleared way for Cons. What did Louis XVI do to cause the poor to storm the Bastille?:  What did Louis XVI do to cause the poor to storm the Bastille? muster troops around Paris What’s significant about who was involved in storming the Bastille?:  What’s significant about who was involved in storming the Bastille? Entrance of the popular masses into the revolution What kind of representation & voting did the nobility want in the EG?:  What kind of representation & voting did the nobility want in the EG? Equal number of reps for each estate & voting by order What was the purpose of the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen?:  What was the purpose of the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen? Guiding statement for the Cons. of 1791 Who got the franchise under the Cons. of 1791?:  Who got the franchise under the Cons. of 1791? Active citizens (pay taxes = to 3 days of labor) What revolutionary faction was more moderate and favored Constitutional Monarchy?:  What revolutionary faction was more moderate and favored Constitutional Monarchy? Girondins Identify a way in which Louis XVI demonstrated his anti-revolutionary sentiment.:  Identify a way in which Louis XVI demonstrated his anti-revolutionary sentiment. muster troops, stall on Dec. of Rights, flee to Varennes, refractory clergy Identify two components of the Civil Cons. of the Clergy. What impact did it have on the French clergy?:  Identify two components of the Civil Cons. of the Clergy. What impact did it have on the French clergy? elected clergy, reorganized dioceses, seized lands; Split them (refractory) How did the Pope respond to the CCC?:  How did the Pope respond to the CCC? condemned it and the Rev. Why did the women of Paris march on Versailles?:  Why did the women of Paris march on Versailles? food, make Louis agree to Dec. of Rights What were the chief concerns of the sans-culottes?:  What were the chief concerns of the sans-culottes? food and representation Which enlightenment thinker’s ideas are most evident in the French Revolution? Where?:  Which enlightenment thinker’s ideas are most evident in the French Revolution? Where? Rousseau; separate sphere, General Will, Name two components of the economic reform under the Cons. of 1791.:  Name two components of the economic reform under the Cons. of 1791. assignats, guilds banned, more equitable taxation, laissez faire Despite their active participation in the revolution, which two groups were consistently left out?:  Despite their active participation in the revolution, which two groups were consistently left out? poor (esp. urban) & women What kind of reaction did the invasion by Austria & Prussia produce?:  What kind of reaction did the invasion by Austria & Prussia produce? panic, fear, “invasion mentality” What tool did the Convention use to mobilize France for war? name two components of this tool.:  What tool did the Convention use to mobilize France for war? name two components of this tool. levee en masse; conscription of all males, price ceilings, war production Give two examples of occasions when the Bourgeois revolutionaries benefited from the actions of the poor.:  Give two examples of occasions when the Bourgeois revolutionaries benefited from the actions of the poor. Versailles, Bastille, insurrection, expulsion of Girondin, rev. army What revolutionary faction was more radical and favored a republic?:  What revolutionary faction was more radical and favored a republic? Jacobins (Mountain) Why did the Convention try to dechristianize France?:  Why did the Convention try to dechristianize France? religion would get in the way of the virtuous republic, second authority What two places did the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen get its ideas from?:  What two places did the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen get its ideas from? Dec. of Independence & Enlightenment What did the Paris Commune force the Legislative Assembly to do?:  What did the Paris Commune force the Legislative Assembly to do? step down and give way to the National Convention (start of the 2nd Rev.) What event led to the formation of the Paris Commune?:  What event led to the formation of the Paris Commune? the Paris insurrection of August, 1792 (attack on Tuileries) Identify two of Edmund Burke’s criticisms of the Revolution.:  Identify two of Edmund Burke’s criticisms of the Revolution. revs have no gov’t experience, democracy sucks (popular gov’t can’t work) Describe the politics and religion of the countryside in comparison with those of Paris.:  Describe the politics and religion of the countryside in comparison with those of Paris. more conservative and traditional or devoutly RC What was Robespierre’s overarching (ultimate) goal?:  What was Robespierre’s overarching (ultimate) goal? republic of virtue Name two steps he was willing to take to achieve this goal.:  Name two steps he was willing to take to achieve this goal. dechristianize, suppression of rights, massive bloody guillotine death What was the “white terror”?:  What was the “white terror”? backlash against the red terrorists of Robespierre’s terror How did Robespierre wind up turning the blade of terror against himself?:  How did Robespierre wind up turning the blade of terror against himself? eliminated opposition without cultivating allies Describe the gov’t set up by the Cons. of Year III.:  Describe the gov’t set up by the Cons. of Year III. Councils of Elders and 500 (leg.), Directory (exec.) What did the Directory use to maintain its power?:  What did the Directory use to maintain its power? army over cons. What did Babeuf claim in 1796?:  What did Babeuf claim in 1796? Rev. has not gone far enough What group benefited the most in the end from both revolutions?:  What group benefited the most in the end from both revolutions? Bourgeoisie Name three things women did as participants in the revolution.:  Name three things women did as participants in the revolution. Society of Women, spokespeople, Versailles, fought in army Put these in order: Nat. Assembly, Convention, NCA, Legislative Assembly, Estates General:  Put these in order: Nat. Assembly, Convention, NCA, Legislative Assembly, Estates General Estates General, Nat. Assembly, NCA, Legislative Assembly, Convention How did the goals of enlightened absolutists differ from those of the traditional absolutists?:  How did the goals of enlightened absolutists differ from those of the traditional absolutists? They didn’t - just used enlightenment ideas Who was the ultimate enlightened absolutist? Identify two of his reforms.:  Who was the ultimate enlightened absolutist? Identify two of his reforms. Joseph II; seized church lands, = taxation for all, = punishment for all, abolished serfdom, nobility out of bur. Who tried to continue in Peter’s footsteps as the westernizer of Russia? What made his/her position so precarious?:  Who tried to continue in Peter’s footsteps as the westernizer of Russia? What made his/her position so precarious? Catherine the Great, non-Russian, female, had to rely on nobility Name two “enlightened” actions of Frederick the Great.:  Name two “enlightened” actions of Frederick the Great. legal reform, reduce control over peasants, agricultural reforms, religious toleration What was shocking about Joseph II’s religious toleration?:  What was shocking about Joseph II’s religious toleration? He was a Hapsburg (very RC) What brings Enlightened Absolutism to a screeching halt?:  What brings Enlightened Absolutism to a screeching halt? the French Revolution

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