Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint

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Information about Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint

Published on September 19, 2007

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

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Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules

Why Is Carbon So Important? Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry Organic refers to molecules containing a carbon skeleton Inorganic refers to carbon dioxide and all molecules without carbon

Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry

Organic refers to molecules containing a carbon skeleton

Inorganic refers to carbon dioxide and all molecules without carbon

Why Is Carbon So Important? Carbon atoms are versatile and can form up to four bonds (single, double, or triple) in rings and chains Bonds are very high in energy (strongest substance on Earth = pure carbon = …?) Functional groups in organic molecules confer chemical reactivity and other characteristics…

Carbon atoms are versatile and can form up to four bonds (single, double, or triple) in rings and chains

Bonds are very high in energy (strongest substance on Earth = pure carbon = …?)

Functional groups in organic molecules confer chemical reactivity and other characteristics…

Hydroxyl Hydrogen Example Groups, I Polar / Nonpolar Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis Almost all biochemicals Polar Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis Sugars H OH

Hydroxyl

Hydrogen

Polar / Nonpolar

Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis

Almost all biochemicals

Polar

Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis

Sugars

Amine or Amino Carboxyl (Carboxylic acid) Example Groups, II Polar & acidic Peptide bonds Fats; amino acids Polar & basic Peptide bonds Amino acids; proteins COOH NH 2

Amine or Amino

Carboxyl (Carboxylic acid)

Polar & acidic

Peptide bonds

Fats; amino acids

Polar & basic

Peptide bonds

Amino acids; proteins

Methyl Phosphate Example Groups, III Acidic & polar Energetic bonds; Links nucleotides DNA; ATP; Phospholipids Nonpolar Hydrophobic Many, especially lipids H 2 PO 4 CH 4

Methyl

Phosphate

Acidic & polar

Energetic bonds; Links nucleotides

DNA; ATP; Phospholipids

Nonpolar

Hydrophobic

Many, especially lipids

Joining Monomers Together Builds bigger molecules H from one joins OH from another Forms water (condensation) – the molecule loses water “DEHYDRATION” Loose bonds of remaining molecules join “SYNTHESIS” of starch

Builds bigger molecules

H from one joins OH from another

Forms water (condensation) – the molecule loses water “DEHYDRATION”

Loose bonds of remaining molecules join

“SYNTHESIS” of starch

Splitting Polymers Apart Opposite of condensation "Splitting (lysis) with water (hydro-)" Molecule broken in two Water is split ( “HYDROLYSIS” ) – H + goes to one; –OH - goes to other Digestion

Opposite of condensation

"Splitting (lysis) with water (hydro-)"

Molecule broken in two

Water is split ( “HYDROLYSIS” )

– H + goes to one; –OH - goes to other

Digestion

Dehydration / Hydrolysis Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis

Monosaccharides “ Mono-” means “one” Simple sugars — glucose, fructose Usually with 5 or 6 carbons 5-carbon sugars are pentoses 6-carbon sugars are hexoses etc. Soluble in water Taste sweet Deoxyribose Galactose 1. Carbohydrates O HOCH 2 H OH H HO HO H H CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H OH H O

“ Mono-” means “one”

Simple sugars — glucose, fructose

Usually with 5 or 6 carbons

5-carbon sugars are pentoses

6-carbon sugars are hexoses

etc.

Soluble in water

Taste sweet

Oligosaccharides “Oligo-” means “few” Few monosaccharides joined together Sucrose is disaccharide of glucose & fructose Often combined with other molecules Sometimes used for cell I.D. Sucrose & Water 1. Carbohydrates HO H CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H H O O HOCH 2 H CH 2 OH H HO H HO O CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H OH H O Glucose O HOCH 2 H CH 2 OH H HO HO H HO Fructose + +

“Oligo-” means “few”

Few monosaccharides joined together

Sucrose is disaccharide of glucose & fructose

Often combined with other molecules

Sometimes used for cell I.D.

Plant Starch (Amylose) Actually forms a spiral Glucose 1. Carbohydrates Polymerization of glucose to form starch OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH

Starch 1. Carbohydrates OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O O O O O O O O CH 2 OH

Cellulose OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH

Cellulose Structure & Function 1. Carbohydrates

Chitin Like cellulose, but with nitrogen Arthropods’ exoskeletons, fungal cell walls Strong, very resistant to digestion 1. Carbohydrates N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3 O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3

Like cellulose, but with nitrogen

Arthropods’ exoskeletons, fungal cell walls

Strong, very resistant to digestion

Chitin 1. Carbohydrates

Lipids - 2nd of 4 Classes of Organic Compounds Slippery-oils Nonpolar; mostly C & H, little bit of O Heterogeneous group Other classes more homogeneous Unified by insolubility in water Fatty-acid types: Oils & waxes Nonfatty-acid types: steroids

Slippery-oils

Nonpolar; mostly C & H, little bit of O

Heterogeneous group

Other classes more homogeneous

Unified by insolubility in water

Fatty-acid types: Oils & waxes

Nonfatty-acid types: steroids

Fat Molecules Triglycerides from beef, vegetable oils Three fatty acids and a glycerol Glycerol has 3 carbons Each with an –OH group Each fatty acid has a COOH These condense to form triglyceride and H 2 O 2. Lipids

Triglycerides from beef, vegetable oils

Three fatty acids and a glycerol

Glycerol has 3 carbons

Each with an –OH group

Each fatty acid has a COOH

These condense to form triglyceride and H 2 O

Fatty Acids Determines properties of fat Hydrocarbon chain with a COOH Most fats = 3 FAs + glycerol Glycerol: 3-carbon alcohol 3 OHs attract the COOH of FAs 2. Lipids

Determines properties of fat

Hydrocarbon chain with a COOH

Most fats = 3 FAs + glycerol

Glycerol: 3-carbon alcohol

3 OHs attract the COOH of FAs

Components of Triglycerides

Triglyceride (Fat) Formation Triglyceride Add 3 Fatty Acids Glycerol 3 Waters Remove These Waters H H C H C H OH C H OH OH C O C C C H H H H H H H C C H H H H H H H C C O C O C C C H H H H H H H C OH C C C O H H H H H H H HOH HOH HOH C OH C C C O H H H H H H H C OH C C C O H H H H H H H O C H C H C H O O H H C O C C C H H H H H H H C C H H H H H H H C C O C O C C C H H H H H H H

Fatty Acid Types Saturated - No C=C double bonds animal fat, solid @ room temp, “bad” fats Unsaturated - One or more C=C double bonds plants & fish, liquids oils, “good” fats 2. Lipids

Saturated - No C=C double bonds

animal fat, solid @

room temp, “bad” fats

Unsaturated - One or more

C=C double bonds

plants & fish, liquids

oils, “good” fats

Phospholipids Phospholipids - mostly in cell membranes 1 glycerol, 2 FAs, & 1 polar phosphate group Like a triglyceride... 1 FA swapped for polar, phosphate group Soap-like properties Likes to get between polar and nonpolar materials 2. Lipids

Phospholipids - mostly in cell membranes

1 glycerol, 2 FAs, & 1 polar phosphate group

Like a triglyceride...

1 FA swapped for polar, phosphate group

Soap-like properties

Likes to get between polar and nonpolar materials

Phospholipids Polar Head Glycerol Fatty Acid Tails Hydrophobic Hydrophilic 2. Lipids

Complex ring forms Some hormones Cholesterol Natural substance Found in membranes Gives membranes natural flexibility Steroids 2. Lipids

Complex ring forms

Some hormones

Cholesterol

Natural substance

Found in membranes

Gives membranes natural flexibility

Steroids Cholesterol 2. Lipids Estradiol Testosterone

Proteins - 3 rd of 4 Classes of Organic Compounds Proteins are amino acid polymers Many roles in the cell… Enzymes Hormones Structure (muscle, hair, nails) Cell membrane pumps and channels

Proteins are amino acid polymers

Many roles in the cell…

Enzymes

Hormones

Structure (muscle, hair, nails)

Cell membrane pumps and channels

Amino Acids Small molecules — 20 kinds 1 amino group 1 carboxyl group 1 "R" group Joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptide Different sequence makes different protein 3. Proteins

Small molecules — 20 kinds

1 amino group

1 carboxyl group

1 "R" group

Joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptide

Different sequence makes different protein

Generic Amino Acid: 20 Different “R” Groups Amine Group     The “R” Group Placeholder Carboxylic Acid Group “ Alpha” Carbon R

Amino Acids: Glutamic Acid Structure Glutamic Acid “R” Group Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group “ Alpha” Carbon

Amino Acids: Leucine Structure Leucine “R”      Group 3. Proteins Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group

Amino Acids: Cysteine Structure Cysteine “R”      Group 3. Proteins Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group

Structural Proteins 3. Proteins Hair Horn Spiderweb

Peptide Bond Formation By Condensation between COOH & NH 2 Phenylalanine Leucine 3. Proteins

Peptide Bond: Phenylalanine-Leucine Dipeptide Water The Peptide Bond

Levels of Protein Structure Like describing a knot by starting with the strands of the rope Primary : The amino acid sequence Secondary : Coiling or folding Tertiary : folding, kinking, twisting entire structure Quaternary : Two or more chains together 3. Proteins

Like describing a knot by starting with the strands of the rope

Primary : The amino acid sequence

Secondary : Coiling or folding

Tertiary : folding, kinking, twisting entire structure

Quaternary : Two or more chains together

Illustration of Protein Structure Primary (Sequence) Secondary (Coiling) Tertiary (Bending) Quaternary (Layering)

Pleated Sheets “ Right-side up” AAs “ Flipped” AAs Hydrogen Bonds 3. Proteins

Nucleic Acids: 4 th Class of Organic Compound Nucleic acids are nucleotide polymers Genetics & cell control DNA : Genes RNA : Manages protein synthesis

Nucleic acids are nucleotide polymers

Genetics & cell control

DNA : Genes

RNA : Manages protein synthesis

Nucleotides 5-carbon sugar, a PO 3 , and a nitrogenous base Not only serve to make RNA & DNA Some are energy carriers ( ATP , NAD) Some are chemical messengers ( cAMP ) 4. Nucleic Acids

5-carbon sugar, a PO 3 , and a nitrogenous base

Not only serve to make RNA & DNA

Some are energy carriers ( ATP , NAD)

Some are chemical messengers ( cAMP )

Nucleotide Structure: 3 Parts Nitrogenous Base (1 of 5) Pentose Sugar Phosphate Group 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH HO P O O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2

Nucleic Acid Molecule Nucleotides can be joined together into a chain Result is a nucleic acid Nucleotide polymer DNA, RNA Connected by “sugar-phosphate” backbone 4. Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides can be joined together into a chain

Result is a nucleic acid

Nucleotide polymer

DNA, RNA

Connected by “sugar-phosphate” backbone

Cyclic AMP: (Adenosine Monophosphate) Used for intracellular communication CH 2 H Ribose O H O OH H H OH O O P N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2

ATP: (Adenosine Triphosphate) Used for energy transfer from one molecule to another 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH P O O O P O P HO OH O OH O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2

Coenzyme Structure 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH HO P O O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2

The End

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