Published on April 26, 2014
Aortic Stenosis Abdullatiff Sami Al-Rashed Group 6
Objectives • Definition. • Etiology. • Epidemiology. • Pathophysiology. • Clinical pictures. • The Case
Aortic Stenosis • Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a disease of the heart valves in which the opening of the aortic valve is narrowed. • This narrowing prevents the valve from opening fully, which obstructs blood flow from the heart into the aorta and onward to the rest of your body.
Etiology Congenital heart defect: Normal aortic valves have three leaves (tricuspid), but some individuals are born with an aortic valve that has two leaves (bicuspid). • Calcium buildup on the valve: In old age, Caused by accumulation of calcium in the valve • Rheumatic fever: More in males
Epidemiology Age Percentage Over 65 2% Over 75 3% Over 85 4% Type Number of cases congenital Aortic valve stenosis Occurs in 3 of every 1,000 births. Type Number of Cases Rheumatic AS Rare http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/aortic-stenosis-pro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aortic_valve_stenosis#Epidemi ology
Pathophysiology 1. Pressure overload causes obstruction to LV outflow, which results in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). 2. With long standing as, the left ventricle dilates, causing progressive lv dysfunction. 3. This end with heart failure due to pressure overload
Clinical Picture Symptoms: • Dyspnea on exertion. • Angina. • Fainting, weakness, or dizziness with activity. • Palpitations. • Syncope.
Clinical Picture Signs: • Low pulse pressure. • Sustained apex. • Systolic thrill. • Ejection systolic murmur • Soft delayed aortic component
The Case • How can these observations be explained? Let’s discuss !
The Case • A 85 year old women comes to the outpatient clinic because of edema. She is tired and she never ad a full collapse. Her medical history shows no cardiac disease. Physical examination shows BP of 145/85 mmHg, her pulse is weak with rate of 66 beats per minute. There is a thrill over the carotid arteries. Her second heart sound is feeble and a loud systolic murmur has a maximum at the second intercostal space right to the sternum. The murmur is almost is connected to the second heart sound. Physical examination of her lungs is normal and She has no edema
Important things in the case: • Dyspnea in rest. • History of angina. • Faints, but she never had a full collapse. • No history of cardiac diseases. • BP: 145/85 … Hypertensive. • Weak pulse… 66 beats per min. • Thrill over carotid artery. • 2nd heart sound is feeble. • Loud systolic murmur. • No edema
References • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/a rticle/000178.htm • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases- conditions/aortic- stenosis/basics/definition/con-20026329
Calcification Inhibitors in CKD and Dialysis Patients
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, such that problems result. It may occur at the aortic valve as ...
As the aortic valve narrows, the left ventricle has to work harder to pump blood out through the valve. To do this extra work, the muscles in ...
Aortic stenosis is a heart valve disorder that narrows or obstructs the aortic valve opening. Narrowing of the aortic valve prevents the valve ...
Aortic stenosis may be congenital (present from before birth), but is often diagnosed during teenage years.
Learn about aortic valve stenosis, an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart. Symptoms include chest pain, fainting, and shortness of breath.
Complete review of aortic stenosis symptoms, causes, dangers and surgical treatment options for patients and caregivers.
Aortic valve stenosis — or aortic stenosis — occurs when the heart's aortic valve narrows. This narrowing prevents the valve from opening fully, which ...
What is aortic valve stenosis? Aortic valve stenosis is a narrowing of the aortic valve. The aortic valve allows blood to flow from the heart's lower left ...
Aortic stenosis is the obstruction of blood flow across the aortic valve (see the image below). Among symptomatic patients with medically ...