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Information about anzio

Published on October 30, 2007

Author: Sevastian


Slide1:  "The Rapido River ran north and south of the foot of Mt. Cassino. We used to refer to that as the 'Bloody River' because those infantry troops that were trying to take the mountain were just being torn apart." Anzio 1944 :  Anzio 1944 Learning Objectives Explain the general significance of Operation Shingle (the landing at Anzio) Explain the planning and conduct of the landing and subsequent operations ashore Anzio 1944:  Anzio 1944 Learning Objectives, cont’d Explain any similarities between the Anzio operation and the British Landings at Gallipoli in WW I Significance of Anzio:  Significance of Anzio Our attempt to turn the German flank in Southern Italy. Anzio was seen as the shortcut to Rome (big political and strategic prize) after the stalemate at the Gustav Line Our attempt to interdict the supply lines behind the Gustav Line and relieve pressure on 5th Army Significance of Anzio:  Significance of Anzio Our attempt to draw vital troops away from the English Channel and Russia (Anzio and Gustav line eventually sucked up 20 German Divisions!) Significance of Anzio:  Significance of Anzio The Gustav line and Anzio were where Hitler decided to draw a “line in the sand” and mark a turning point for Germany (1943 not a good year) Hitler was encouraged by his near-success at Salerno and threw 10 divisions at the Allies at Anzio in his bid to win Timeline:  Timeline January 17, 1944 Battle for the Gustav Line begins with Allied troop attack. January 22, 1944 Allied landing on Anzio. Allies only progress seven miles before German troops under General Kesselring pin the Allies down. 16-20 Feb, 1944 Major German counter attk commences Timeline cont’d:  Timeline cont’d May 11, 1944 Allies begin decisive assault against Gustav line. By May 17 reach 25 miles behind German positions forcing withdrawl from Monte Cassino May 18, 1944 Allied troops capture Monte Cassino June 4, 1944 Allied troops enter Rome. June 6, 1944 D-Day - Allies invade Europe. Lucas’ Mission:  Lucas’ Mission Seize/Secure beachhead near Anzio Advance and secure the Alban Hills 25 mi. inland Be prepared to advance on Rome All this with only 2 divisions! Sending a boy to do a man’s job??? conduct of the landing:  conduct of the landing Allies conducted a successful diversionary attk at Civitavecchia (N of Rome) Brits landed at Peter Beach (6 mi. NW of Anzio) unopposed 3d Div (US) landed at X-ray Beach (4 mi. SE of Anzio) landed with similar ease conduct of the landing:  conduct of the landing By noon beachhead perimeter established by L/up of Brit and U.S. forces By midnight, 90% of the amphibs unloaded and a 7 mi. deep and 14 mi. wide beachhead established. German Reaction:  German Reaction Gen von Mackenson moved AA batteries from Rome and encircled the beachhead (used them as Anti-Armor batteries). By the morning of the 23d, 6 German Divisions packed around the beachhead German Reaction:  German Reaction On the 31st the Battle for Albano Road commenced- Brit 1st Div attacked first, but attk bogged down (poor tank mobility) on 2 Feb, Gen von Mackenson counterattacked and pushed Allied forces back to vic of beachhead perimeter similarities between Anzio & Gallipoli:  similarities between Anzio & Gallipoli Anzio, like Gallipoli was hampered by the fact that Churchill couldn’t keep his chubby fingers out of the pie Italian surrender terms dictated that we’d have to occupy all of Italy IOT prevent annexation by Germany LF failed to punch out of the beachhead and secure inland objectives conclusions:  conclusions Even a bad rehearsal can lead to a picture perfect landing Gen Lucas excessively cautious. Holed up on the beach and waited for Germans to attack him there Most of the battles took place at night (Germans had the advantage) conclusions:  conclusions Just securing the beachhead doesn’t guarantee successful operations ashore 43,000 Allied casualties (7,000 KIA) “Soft underbelly, my foot!”

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