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ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 1: The Science of Archaeology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II What is Archaeology?:  What is Archaeology? Archaeology is the scientific study of past peoples and cultures Illuminating the Present All Aspects of Humanity Material Evidence Archaeology and Anthropology:  Archaeology and Anthropology Anthropology: the holistic and comparative study of all humanity Cultural Anthropology Archaeology Anthropological Linguistics Biological Anthropology Archaeology and the Other Sciences:  Archaeology and the Other Sciences History Psychology Sociology Botany Zoology Geology Physics Chemistry Archaeology is truly an interdisciplinary science: The Basic Goals of Archaeology:  The Basic Goals of Archaeology Discovery and Description Baseline data Cultural history Culture chronology Explanation How cultures operate How they differ How and why they change Understanding Human Behavior Understanding ourselves The Branches of Archaeology:  The Branches of Archaeology Prehistoric Archaeology Before written records Historical Archaeology Biblical Archaeology Egyptology Medieval Archaeology The Branches of Archaeology:  The Branches of Archaeology Classical Archaeology ‘Classical’ states Greece Rome Maritime Archaeology Underwater archaeology Nautical archaeology Public Archaeology Cultural resource management The Archaeological Record:  The Archaeological Record The material remains of past human activities and behaviors Sites Features Ecofacts Artifacts Cultural Deposition, Stratigraphy, and Dating:  Cultural Deposition, Stratigraphy, and Dating Relative Dating Cultural Deposits Stratigraphy Law of Superposition Absolute Dating Radiocarbon Dating Reference Points AD/ BC BP Archaeological Cultures:  Archaeological Cultures Model Cultures Based on a Normative View Archaeology as Science:  Archaeology as Science Assumptions The universe is real Reality is objective Constant, discoverable laws Categories Physical sciences Natural sciences Social sciences The Structure of Scientific Knowledge:  The Structure of Scientific Knowledge Archaeology operates within the Western scientific paradigm Laws Models Hypothesis Theory The Scientific Method:  The Scientific Method Data Hypothesis Test Retest Model Building Theory Scientists generate new knowledge by adhering to a particular method: Research Design:  Research Design Statement of the Question Discussion of What is Already Known Description of the How the Question is to be Tested Expected Data Pseudoscience and Frauds:  Pseudoscience and Frauds Pseudoscience: use of scientific terminology in an attempt to appear scientific data does not meet standards untestable hypotheses Frauds: instances in which people fake data or otherwise attempt to fool archaeologists The Importance of Archaeology:  The Importance of Archaeology Help Predict the Future Appreciate Ancient Traditions Conserve Diversity Recover Ancient Knowledge Manage Cultural Resources ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 2: Backgrounds of Archaeology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Ancient Archaeology:  Ancient Archaeology The record of archaeological investigation dates from the last several thousand years Ancient Egyptians Ancient Romans Ancient Greeks King of Babylon Antiquarians:  Antiquarians Hobbyist Collectors Tourism The Discovery of Prehistory:  The Discovery of Prehistory Stone Tools Neanderthals Extinct Animals Uniformitarianism Basic Chronological Periods of the Old World:  Basic Chronological Periods of the Old World Iron Age: 3,000 years ago to present Bronze Age: 5,500 to 3,000 years ago Stone Age Neolithic: 9,000 to 5,500 years ago Mesolithic: 12,000 to 9,000 years ago Paleolithic Upper: 40,000 to 10,000 years ago Middle: 200,000 to 40,000 years ago Lower: 2.6 million to 200,000 years ago Classical Civilizations:  Classical Civilizations Roman Interest in Classical Greece Lord Elgin and The Elgin Marbles Nineteenth Century Discoveries The Emergence of Professional Archaeology:  The Emergence of Professional Archaeology Unilinear Cultural Evolution Diffusion Historical Approach Improving Field Methods The Emergence of Professional Archaeology:  The Emergence of Professional Archaeology An Early Base in History Focus on When and Where Discovery Classification Description Culture History and Chronologies Historical Approach The Emergence of Professional Archaeology:  The Emergence of Professional Archaeology Lewis Henry Morgan/ Edward B. Tylor ‘One Line’ Evolution Savagery Civilization Widely Adopted at First Dismissed as Inaccurate and Simplistic Unilinear Cultural Evolution The Emergence of Professional Archaeology:  The Emergence of Professional Archaeology Geographic Movement of Traits Civilization Diffused From Several Centers Requires Contact Racist? Diffusion The Emergence of Professional Archaeology:  The Emergence of Professional Archaeology Nineteenth Century Improvements H.L.F. Pitt-Rivers Flinders Petrie Grid System Improving Field Methods Developing the Outline of World Prehistory:  Developing the Outline of World Prehistory The Americas Sub-Saharan Africa Asia and Oceania Political Influences in the History of Archaeology:  Political Influences in the History of Archaeology Nationalism General Biases Colonialism ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 3: The Development of Contemporary Archaeology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Archaeology after World War II:  Archaeology after World War II Archaeology experienced a paradigm shift from description to explanation. Radiocarbon Dating Computers Complex Statistics Processualism and Scientific Archaeology:  Processualism and Scientific Archaeology Archaeology experienced a paradigm shift from history to science. Walter Taylor Lewis Binford Processualism Archaeology and the Other Sciences:  Archaeology and the Other Sciences Hypothesis Background Theoretical Approach Data Sought Research Methods Excavation Methods An explicit, flexible research design facilitates fieldwork. Middle-Range Theory:  Middle-Range Theory Ethnographic Analogy: Info on living cultures Models of past cultures Ethnoarchaeology: Gather data on living cultures Experimental Archaeology: Replication of artifacts and features Cultural Materialism and Human Ecology:  Cultural Materialism and Human Ecology “Human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence” – Marvin Harris Techno- Environmental Materialism Selectionist Archaeology Evolutionary Archaeology Human Ecology Evaluating Processualism:  Evaluating Processualism Too Ambitious? Biased Perspective? Too Subjective? Working Out the Bugs? Too Dehumanizing? Postprocessualism and Archaeology as Narrative:  Postprocessualism and Archaeology as Narrative The Past is Subjective All Narratives of the Past are Valid Archaeology of Gender Evaluating Postprocessualism:  Evaluating Postprocessualism Too Ambitious? Biased Perspective? Too Subjective? Working Out the Bugs? Contradictory? Archaeological Frontiers:  Archaeological Frontiers Education of the Public New Discoveries Old Mysteries New Technologies DNA Virtual Reality GIS GPS Careers in Archaeology:  Careers in Archaeology Teacher Museum Specialist Contract Archaeologist Manager General Labor ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 4: The Archaeological Record This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Archaeological Sites:  Archaeological Sites Artifacts, Ecofacts, Features Nonrandom distribution Site Boundaries Distance between concentrations Large Sites Loci A site is a geographic locality where there is some evidence of past human activity. Types of Sites:  Types of Sites Geographic Context Function Age Site Deposits:  Site Deposits Anthropogenic Soils: Results from human behavior Middens: Ancient garbage Stratigraphy Vertical Horizontal Archaeological Evidence:  Archaeological Evidence Primary Context Secondary Context Artifacts:  Artifacts Portable objects made, modified, or used by humans Geofacts? Manuports Debris Tools Ecofacts:  Ecofacts Cultural Origins Food Bones Corncobs Paleofeces Noncultural Origins Some rodent bones Some insect remains Some pollen Unmodified remains of biological materials Features:  Features Hearths Pits Roads Dams Rock Art Earthworks Non-portable constructions that people made for some purpose Architecture Human Remains:  Human Remains Inhumation/Ossuaries Cremation Mummies Site Formation and Transformation:  Site Formation and Transformation Cultural Action Transformational Process Geology and Hydrology:  Geology and Hydrology Water Ash Mudslides Earthquakes Wind Taphonomy:  Taphonomy The study of the transformation of materials once they enter the archaeological record Bioturbation:  Bioturbation The disturbance or movement of deposited materials by organisms Burrowing and Nonburrowing Animals Plant Roots and Fallen Trees Human Agency:  Human Agency As soon as sites form, humans begin altering them. Pits for burial and building Reusing and Recycling Materials Preservation:  Preservation Preservation Conditions Biological activity Inorganic action Preservation and the Environment Extreme conditions Warm and dry Cold Anaerobic conditions Preservation refers both to physical items as well as their archaeological context Recognizing and Recovering Evidence:  Recognizing and Recovering Evidence All materials from the past still exist in the archaeological record As the pieces get smaller, more information is lost Recognition is a prerequisite for recovery Ongoing Impacts on the Archaeological Record:  Ongoing Impacts on the Archaeological Record Natural Actions Human Actions Development Large-scale agriculture Recreational activities Warfare Looting Archaeology ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 5: Conducting Fieldwork This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Finding Sites:  Finding Sites Accidental Project Related Remote Sensing:  Remote Sensing Nondestructive detection of phenomena unnoticed by the human eye Aerial Photography and Radar Side-scan Sonar and Magnetometers Satellite Mapping Space-based Laser Imaging Doing an Archaeological Survey:  Doing an Archaeological Survey Walking Systematic “Eyes on the ground” Dig holes/trenches Geophysical Survey Noninvasive Metal detector Magnetometer Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) Sampling:  Sampling Sampling is determined by: Environment Project specifications Background information Survey data Judgment Sample Statistical Sample Recognizing and Recording Sites:  Recognizing and Recording Sites Recognizing Surface finds Changes in vegetation, soil chemistry Animal signs Outcroppings Recording Name/ number Description Establish boundaries Map Excavating Sites:  Excavating Sites Sites thought to contain important information Sites chosen for salvage reasons Mapping the Site:  Mapping the Site Mapping Grid lines Triangulation Provenience Site datum Technology Standard transit Total stations GPS systems Computers Deciding Where to Dig:  Deciding Where to Dig Background Research Information from Mapping Survey Information Test-level Excavation Surface Collection Excavation plans have to be flexible and are usually based on: Digging:  Digging Auger Holes (10 to 30 cm. in diameter) Shovel-test Pits (about 50 cm. square) Standard Units (1 to 2 meters square) Block Excavations (2 meters square and up) Trenches (1 to several meters wide) Excavation units vary depending on the type of information sought: Digging:  Digging Trowels Brushes Toothpicks Shovels Bulldozers Excavation tools vary depending on the type of information sought: Digging:  Digging Mapping unit locations reveals contextual information. Vertical Context Horizontal Context Recovering and Cataloging Data:  Recovering and Cataloging Data In situ Excavate Map Photograph Screening Dry-screening Wet-screening Mesh size Workers maintain a record of all the information from their units. Recovering and Cataloging Data:  Recovering and Cataloging Data Sorted Cleaned Measured Classified Catalogued In the laboratory, artifacts and ecofacts are: Working with Specialists:  Working with Specialists Geologists Geomorphologists Palynologists Osteologists Chemists Physicists Botanists Zoologists Molecular Biologists Computer Scientists Practical Aspects of Fieldwork:  Practical Aspects of Fieldwork Funding and Staffing Curation Occupational Hazards Ethics in Archaeological Fieldwork:  Ethics in Archaeological Fieldwork Humanistic Issues Professional Obligations Legal Issues ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 6: Classification and Analysis of Artifacts This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Classification and Typology:  Classification and Typology Allows communication via a shared terminology Important for documenting and explaining changes in types, forms, and functions Morphology Function Attributes:  Attributes Sites and artifacts are classified according to various attributes. Quantitative Qualitative Were these attributes relevant to the original maker or user? Temporal Types:  Temporal Types Can be used for dating Does not work well with artifacts which change little over time Temporal types are sites or artifacts tied to specific times. Assemblages:  Assemblages All artifacts and ecofacts collected from a site Classified for purposes of site-to-site comparison Reveals general similarities and differences Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Ground Percussion Pecking Grinding Polishing Flaked Percussion Flaking Pressure Flaking Biface/ Uniface Blades/ Flakes Stone Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Ceramics Terra-cottas Porcelains Earthenwares Stonewares Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Metal Metallurgy Steel Iron Bronze Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Glass Faience Beads Windows Storage Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Shell Beads Tokens Pendants Cups Bowls Fishooks Bone Needles Awls Scrapers Beads Tubes Punches Shell and Bone Classifying and Typing Artifacts:  Classifying and Typing Artifacts Perishables Basketry Hide Leather Wood Use-Wear Analysis:  Use-Wear Analysis Examine Microscopic Wear Patterns Use Replicated Tools Geochemical Sourcing:  Geochemical Sourcing Chemical composition Acts as a ‘fingerprint’ Reveals the original source of the material Especially useful with Stones (obsidian, jade, turqoise) Metals (copper, tin, silver, gold) Clay (as in ceramics) Residue Analysis:  Residue Analysis Dried Food Wine Stains Resins Residues Embalming Chemicals Adhesive Proteins Residue Analysis:  Residue Analysis Microscopic Analysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Protein Residue Analysis Infrared Scanning Analysis DNA Analysis:  DNA Analysis Trace Migrations Identify Individuals Human Evolution Determine Domestic Plants and Animals ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 7: Determining Time in Prehistory This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II What Is So Important about Time?:  What Is So Important about Time? Chronology Change Relative Dating:  Relative Dating Determine the age of items in relation to one another Actual years are not determined Items can be arranged in chronological sequence Stratigraphy and Superposition:  Stratigraphy and Superposition Charles Lyell’s Law of Superposition: higher strata are younger than lower strata Index Fossils and Biostratigraphy:  Index Fossils and Biostratigraphy Index Fossils: Fossils of certain extinct creatures are always found in certain strata Biostratigraphy: Using evolutionary changes in well- known species as a dating tool Temporal Types:  Temporal Types Archaeological materials that can be associated with specific periods of time Seriation:  Seriation Tracking and graphing stratigraphic changes in stylistic frequencies Context-based seriation Frequencey-based seriation Fluorine, Uranium, and Nitrogen (FUN) Dating:  Fluorine, Uranium, and Nitrogen (FUN) Dating Buried bones slowly lose nitrogen over time Buried bones also absorb fluorine over time Can tell if a bone has been buried for as long as associated bones in the archaeological record How Old Exactly? Absolute Dating:  How Old Exactly? Absolute Dating Absolute Dating provides a specific temporal assignment in terms of years. Cross-Dating Dendrochronology Radiometric Methods Cross-Dating and Dendrochronology:  Cross-Dating and Dendrochronology Cross-Dating Common indicators Comparing similar items Dendrochronology: a prime example Dendrochronology Most accurate One tree ring/year Rings vary in width Matching rings yields sequences Radiometric Techniques:  Radiometric Techniques Parent/Daughter Elements Radioactive isotopes decay into daughter elements Rate of Decay Known rates of decay and accurate parent/daughter ratio measurements Clock Starting Mechanisms (Zeroing Event) When did the decay begin? Dating methods based on principles of atomic decay Radiocarbon Dating:  Radiocarbon Dating Most Common Radiometric Dating Technique Works with Organic Materials Charcoal Bone Wood Other Plant and Animal Remains Soils Pottery and Iron? How Radiocarbon Forms:  How Radiocarbon Forms 14C Formed in Atmosphere 14C in Plants and Animals Equilibrium via Ingestion How Radiocarbon Forms:  How Radiocarbon Forms Organism Dies 14C Half-life is Known to Be Approximately 5,700 years Ingestion Ceases/ Radiometric Clock Starts The Carbon-14 Cycle:  The Carbon-14 Cycle Assumptions about Radiocarbon:  Assumptions about Radiocarbon 14C concentration has been constant 14C mixes rapidly upon production 14C amount in samples is unaltered The half-life of 14C is accurately known Natural levels of 14C are accurately measured We can measure radiocarbon in a sample Assumptions about Radiocarbon:  Assumptions about Radiocarbon Fluctuations in Magnetic Field Have Influenced Past 14C Production Calibration Curves Based on Tree Rings Convert Radiocarbon Years into Calendar Years Collecting Radiocarbon Samples in the Field:  Collecting Radiocarbon Samples in the Field Meaningful Association Careful Collection Stratigraphic Context Sterile Storage More Issues with Radiocarbon Dating:  More Issues with Radiocarbon Dating Preparing Samples 2 to 100 grams needed Cleaned and Treated Methods of Dating Gas Decay Counting Liquid Scintillation Decay Counting Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Limitations 300 to 50,000 years (or more) Other Radiometric Techniques:  Other Radiometric Techniques Potassium Argon Uranium Fission Track Thermoluminescence Electron Spin Archaeomagnetism:  Archaeomagnetism Frequent Documented Magnetic Pole Shifts Iron Particles Align with Pole When Heated Current Pole Position Compared to Position of Iron Particles in Artifacts and Ecofacts Obsidian Hydration Analysis:  Obsidian Hydration Analysis Obsidian Absorbs Moisture and Forms a Band Freshly flaked surface - absorption begins Band Width = Amount of Time Since Flaking Comparison of dating techniques:  Comparison of dating techniques ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 8: Bioarchaeology: Human Remains This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II The Study of Human Remains: Getting to Know Ancient People:  The Study of Human Remains: Getting to Know Ancient People Paleodemography Warfare Health Practices Bioarchaeology: the study and interpretation of mortal remains Preserved Bodies:  Preserved Bodies Purposeful Mummies Natural Mummies Frozen Bodies Other Soft-Tissue Evidence Skeletal Remains:  Skeletal Remains More Common Than Soft Tissue Remains Osteology Analysis Yields Much Cultural Information Components of the Human Skeleton:  Components of the Human Skeleton 206 Bones/ 32 Teeth Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral Column Ribs and Sternum Shoulder Girdles Appendicular Skeleton Arms/ Hands Legs/ Feet Inhumation and Cremation:  Inhumation and Cremation Inhumation Formal Internment Funerary Objects Tombs/ Monuments Secondary Burials Ossuaries Relocation Sorting Cremation Burning Cremains Difficult to study Disasters, Accidents, Battles:  Disasters, Accidents, Battles Volcanoes Battlefields Cannibalism Mass Graves Epidemics Analytical Approaches in Bioarchaeology:  Analytical Approaches in Bioarchaeology Appearance Health Age/ Sex Cause of Death Characteristics in Relation to Population Osteobiography: a life story inferred from bone evidence Skeletal Sex:  Skeletal Sex Muscle Attachments Forehead Eye Orbits Chin Brow Ridges Robusticity Pelvic Outlet Sacrum Skeletal Sex Traits Aid Determination Skeletal Age:  Skeletal Age Dental Eruption Epiphysial Union Pubic Symphasis Distal Rib Skull Sutures Osteon Abundance Vertebral Osteoarthritis Dental Wear Skeletal Age Traits Aid Determination Skeletal Stature:  Skeletal Stature Height Body Proportions Long Bone Lengths Mathematical Formulas Skeletal Stature Traits Aid Determination Racial Determination:  Racial Determination Metric Skeletal Traits Nonmetric Skeletal Traits Large Sample Sizes Comparative Distinctive Populations and Skeletal Traits Soft-Tissue Reconstruction: Facial Reconstruction:  Soft-Tissue Reconstruction: Facial Reconstruction Clues From Muscle Attachments Mean Tissue Depths Effects of Aging Tracking Skeletal Variability in Early Human Ancestors:  Tracking Skeletal Variability in Early Human Ancestors Marker Traits The Larger the Sample Size, the Better Determining Nutrition, Health, and Disease:  Determining Nutrition, Health, and Disease Pathologies Antemortem vs. Postmortem Trauma Trephination Infectious Disease Noninfectious Disorders Nutrition Harris Lines Rickets Chemical Analysis of Bone:  Chemical Analysis of Bone Stable Isotope Analysis Carbon Nitrogen Metabolic Pathways Analysis of Ancient DNA Bone Mummified Tissue Difficult and Expensive ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 9: Environment and Adaptation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II The Environment:  The Environment Living and nonliving systems interacting within a bounded geographic unit called Earth Biotic Abiotic Paleoenvironment The Environment:  The Environment Humans occupy and dominate most terrestrial places and so have a huge habitat. Niche Resource Carrying Capacity Environmental Archaeology:  Environmental Archaeology Paleoecology Environment Resources Technologies and organizations Effect on culture Effect on environment Reconstructing Past Landforms:  Reconstructing Past Landforms Geomorphology Geoarchaeology Atmospheric changes Reconstructing Past Plants and Animals:  Reconstructing Past Plants and Animals Plant Macrofossils Plant Microfossils Pollen/Phytoliths Animal Remains Reconstructing Past Climate:  Reconstructing Past Climate Paleoclimate Cores Archaeological Data Remote Sensing Climate vs. Weather Human Biological Adaptation:  Human Biological Adaptation Physiological Changes: Short-term Primary vs. Secondary Anatomical Adaptation: Long-term Genetic Selective Pressures Evolutionary Ecology:  Evolutionary Ecology The application of the principles of biological selection to the understanding of how organisms adapt Cultural practices are also subject to natural selection Optimization Models:  Optimization Models People attempt to maximize their net efficiency and minimize their risk. People who make optimal use of their resources will be most successful. Human Cultural Adaptation:  Human Cultural Adaptation Culture is the primary mechanism of human adaptation. Cultural Ecology: the study of cultural adaptation to the environment Social organization Technology Controlling the Environment:  Controlling the Environment Environmental Manipulation: Large scale Active alteration Resource Management: Smaller scale Individual resources Direct Control vs. Indirect Control Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution:  Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution Oasis Marginal Environment Hilly Flanks Scheduling Changes Food Crisis/ Population Explosion Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution:  Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution Oasis: Post-Pleistocene conditions forced people into close association with certain plants and animals Hilly Flanks: abundance of native Mesopotamian grasses led to their eventual domestication Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution:  Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution Marginal Environment: marginal environmental conditions forced people to domesticate plants and animals Food Crisis/ Population Explosion: Post-Pleistocene food crisis coupled with population explosion Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution:  Domestication and the Agricultural Revolution Scheduling Changes: overreliance on certain resources due to changes in scheduling ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 10: Understanding Past Settlement and Subsistence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II How Did People Make a Living: Subsistence:  How Did People Make a Living: Subsistence Subsistence activities revolve around obtaining and processing the necessities of life: Food Shelter Fuel Raw materials How Did People Make a Living: Subsistence:  How Did People Make a Living: Subsistence There are three main elements of subsistence: Diet Technology Organization Primary Subsistence Systems:  Primary Subsistence Systems Hunter-Gatherers Live predominantly from wild foods Plant foods are usually the mainstay Horticulture Low-intensity food production Small gardens Small numbers of domesticated animals Primary Subsistence Systems:  Primary Subsistence Systems Pastoralism Herding, breeding, consumption, and total exploitation of domesticated animals Pastoral nomadism Intensive Agriculture Large scale production of domestic plants and animals Animal labor, plows, irrigation Larger societies Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence Data Relating to: Diet Procurement artifacts Preparation Food consumption Any other form of material culture relating to subsistence practices Indirect Evidence vs. Direct Evidence Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence Bone Shell Hair Hide Scales Chitin Proteins DNA Faunal Remains (Zooarchaeology) Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence What technology and behavior was involved? What was the diet? Which animals were eaten? Who was involved in procurement? How were the animals used? Faunal Remains (Zooarchaeology) Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence Basic Goals: Reconstruct diet Who was eating what? Patterns of access Patterns of procurement Technologies involved Also known as: Archaeobotanical Paleobotanical Phytoarchaeological Floral remains Botanical Remains Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence Cess Coprolites Gut Contents Remnants of: Food Medicine Bacteria/viruses Fungi Hormones DNA Trace elements Paleofeces Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence:  Archaeological Evidence of Subsistence We can determine: Diet Pathology Living conditions Cultural practices Technologies involved From observing: Bone chemistry Bone structure Teeth Human Remains Subsistence Technology and Organization:  Subsistence Technology and Organization Technology: informs us about how members of a group made their living Organization: the management and control of resources is reflected in certain political and organization structures Recovery and Identification of Ecofactual Evidence:  Recovery and Identification of Ecofactual Evidence Careful Collection Identify Taxon Determine Cultural vs. Non-cultural Origin Quantifying Ecofactual Data:  Quantifying Ecofactual Data Ecofacts are counted to measure abundance and to gain an understanding of what plants and animals people were using. Number of Identified Specimens (NISP) Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI) Ubiquity Determination of Age, Sex, and Seasonality:  Determination of Age, Sex, and Seasonality Determining an ecofact’s age, season, or sex can reveal information about: Hunting patterns Seasonality of site occupation Prey demographics Faunal utilization Assessment of Dietary Contribution:  Assessment of Dietary Contribution Abundance vs. Relative Contribution MNI does not equal Relative Contribution Difficult to determine with botanical ecofacts Where Did People Live: Past Settlement Systems:  Where Did People Live: Past Settlement Systems Settlement patterns can provide great insights into past lifeways. Land-use patterns Systems of settlement Settlement structures Systemic and structural change over time Settlement Archaeology:  Settlement Archaeology Depends on many variables: Basic subsistence system Resources Ideology Technology Environment Settlement Pattern: the manner in which a particular group organizes its settlements and occupies its geographic space. Understanding Site Components:  Understanding Site Components Sites are comprised of components which contain artifacts, ecofacts, and features. Each component represents an archaeological culture. Important elements determined by artifact and ecofact analysis: Age Structure Function Season of Occupation Analyzing Population:  Analyzing Population Paleodemographic data can be determined from analyzing: Settlement patterns Size and type of structures Paleoenvironment/Carrying capacity Skeletal remains Catchment Analysis:  Catchment Analysis Where were materials obtained? How much of an effort was needed to procure them? How did procurement effect settlement patterns? Catchment Zones: Primary Within 5 kilometers Secondary Requires overnight stay Tertiary Requires extended visits ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 11: Interpreting Past Cultural Systems This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II How Can Archaeology Answer Anthropological Questions?:  How Can Archaeology Answer Anthropological Questions? Culture: “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired…as a member of society.” (Edward B. Tylor, 1871) Society: people living together and sharing aspects of culture Social structure Social organization Social Archaeology:  Social Archaeology An assumption: past cultures operated in the same basic manner as contemporary ones An archaeological model of culture: Technology/material culture Settlement and subsistence Cultural systems Cognition Creating and testing models of past societies and cultures Cognitive Archaeology:  Cognitive Archaeology Worldview: People’s beliefs and assumptions about how the world works and should work. “The study of past ways of thought as inferred from material remains.” (Colin Renfrew 1994) Archaeology and Cultural Symbols:  Archaeology and Cultural Symbols Symbols: material expressions of ideas and meanings used to: Communicate Organize Regulate social relations among people Regulate social relations between people and supernaturals Nonutilitarian vs. utilitarian objects/designs Interpreting Past Social Structures:  Interpreting Past Social Structures Kinship Study of households Skeletal analysis Social Stratification Stratified vs. nonstratified Mortuary analysis People’s roles and statuses set the stage for social organization Interpreting Past Social Structures:  Interpreting Past Social Structures Gender Ethnographic analogy Dietary data Skeletal data/ Mortuary data Art Ethnicity Direct historical approach People’s roles and statuses set the stage for social organization Interpreting Political Organization:  Interpreting Political Organization Individuals with power Political office Ritual office Polity: a group with independent political organization Political organization: a specific type of social structure that allocates and distributes power and authority in a society Interpreting Political Organization:  Interpreting Political Organization Bands Nonstratified Small population Hunting and Gathering Mobile Tribes Larger pop. Chiefs More permanent settlement Mixed economy Four Levels of Political Organization Interpreting Political Organization:  Interpreting Political Organization Chiefdoms Thousands of people Large, permanent settlements Agriculture/ specialists Formal authority States Many tens of thousands of people Cities Record keeping Complex infrastructure Labor intensive projects Four Levels of Political Organization Theories of the Origin of States:  Theories of the Origin of States Hydraulic Theory Irrigation leads to complex management which leads to state level organization. Warfare Agricultural prosperity leads to creation of military for defense and conquest. Multicausal Each state develops through its own particular history of interrelating factors. Interpreting Past Belief Systems:  Interpreting Past Belief Systems Religious Organization and Expression Ritual Objects and Sacred Places Alteration of natural places Special architecture Symbolic or repetitive art Ritual artifacts The Archaeology of Birth and Death Mortuary patterns Art associated with birth and pregnancy Cosmology, Philosophy, and Oral Tradition:  Cosmology, Philosophy, and Oral Tradition Cosmology: the understanding of one’s universe, its origins, organization, and workings Philosophy: deals with ethics, values, aesthetics Oral Tradition: the narration of stories from one generation to the next Writing Art Iconography, Art, and Expression:  Iconography, Art, and Expression Iconography: using artistic images to represent aspects of belief systems and other information. Numerical systems Hieroglyphics Calendrical systems Iconography, Art, and Expression:  Iconography, Art, and Expression Art: the creation of aesthetic objects Representational Art: paintings, inscriptions, sculptures Two dimensional Three dimensional Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs Geoglyphs Remembering the Individual:  Remembering the Individual Imagining the individual behavior that created the archaeological record Difficult to verify Information about individuals can be learned from paleofeces and forensic analysis. ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 12: Understanding Cultural Change This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II The Archaeology of Change:  The Archaeology of Change Culture History: changes in traditions Cultural Ecology: social changes in relation to the environment Political Economy: changes in relationships between social groups. The Archaeology of Change:  The Archaeology of Change Synchronic vs. Diachronic Rapid vs. Slow Systems Theory:  Systems Theory Cultures are comprised of a set of subsystems Economy Politics Settlements Gender Etc. These subsystems operate together in equilibrium Ripple effect Evolutionary Approaches:  Evolutionary Approaches Evolutionary Archaeology Darwinian Variations of artifact types Selective pressures Quantifying the Role of Culture Difficult to do Invention and Diffusion:  Invention and Diffusion Invention: the creation of a new technology in response to a need Innovation: creating new ways of doing things with preexisting methods and/or technologies Diffusion: movement of materials and ideas Independent invention Social and Political Movements:  Social and Political Movements Political and social movements may leave a mark on material culture. Spread of Christianity Spread of market economies Migrations and Diasporas:  Migrations and Diasporas Migration: the movement of a population from one locality to another Replace Absorbed Blend Diaspora: segments of a population disperse into new areas without replacing the existing population. War Famine Reconstructing Population Movements:  Reconstructing Population Movements Some Basic Assumptions: Each culture has a unique cultural assemblage (the Normative View) A population moves with its assemblage Assemblages can be traced Reconstructing Population Movements:  Reconstructing Population Movements When a new group enters an area, they bring: A language/ symbolic system Burial patterns Artifact types Settlement types/ patterns Language, Geography, and Genetics:  Language, Geography, and Genetics Paleolinguistics How languages developed Where they originated When they moved Geographical distribution Population Genetics Determining relatedness based on genetic profiles Can be used to test linguistic models Interpreting Evidence of Change:  Interpreting Evidence of Change Reconstructing Events Reconstructing Patterns and Trends Culture Contact and Conflict:  Culture Contact and Conflict Culture Contact Acculturation Absorption Culture Conflict The Archaeology of Trade:  The Archaeology of Trade Internal Exchange Opportunistic External Trade Planned External Trade The Archaeology of Warfare:  The Archaeology of Warfare Warfare: organized conflict between two cultures Social and political organizations Military facilities Weapons Settlement patterns Demographic patterns Actual remains from battles ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 13: Cultural Resource Management and Public Archaeology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II The Impact of Population Growth and Development on Archaeology:  The Impact of Population Growth and Development on Archaeology Development Recreation Looting The Field of Cultural Resource Management:  The Field of Cultural Resource Management Prosecute offenders Repatriate remains Safeguard sites Laws and Legislation Exist to: Antiquities Legislation in the United States:  Antiquities Legislation in the United States The Antiquities Act of 1906 Illegal to dig without permit Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960 Funds salvage excavation National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA):  National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) National Register of Historic Places for sites associated with: Historic events Historic people Distinctive types The possibility to yield new information Section 106 Section 110 The Preservation Process:  The Preservation Process State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) Historic preservation officer State archaeologist Legal experts Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) Adjudicate disagreements between SHPO and federal agencies Compliance Archaeology:  Compliance Archaeology Inventory Evaluation Nomination Other Important Acts:  Other Important Acts The Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) 1979 Toughens the Antiquities Act The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) 1990 Discovery of human remains must be reported Antiquities Legislation Around the World:  Antiquities Legislation Around the World UNESCO Convention of 1970 Unidroit Convention of 1995 The Role of Public Education :  The Role of Public Education “There is no such thing as ‘private archaeology’.” - Charles McGimsey 1972 Passports in Time Archaeology Week Internet Avocational Organizations Cultural Resource Management Among Traditional Peoples:  Cultural Resource Management Among Traditional Peoples The Archaeology Department of the Navajo (Dene) The National Aboriginal History and Heritage Council Archaeology and Ethics:  Archaeology and Ethics Stewardship Accountability Commercialization Public Education Intellectual Property Public Reporting and Publication Records and Preservation Training and Resources Ethical Principles of Archaeology The Register of Professional Archaeologists ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past:  ARCHAEOLOGY The Science of the Human Past Chapter 14: Archaeology in the Real World This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Mark Q. Sutton & Robert M. Yohe II Archaeology Today:  Archaeology Today Traditional Viewpoints Political Motivations Applied Archaeology Archaeology and Politics:  Archaeology and Politics Identify Ethnic Origins May Cloud Objectivity May Be Used to Justify Conflict Who Owns the Past?:  Who Owns the Past? All People? Only Indigenous Peoples? Learning from the Past: Applying Archaeology to Contemporary Problems:  Learning from the Past: Applying Archaeology to Contemporary Problems Providing solutions to contemporary problems Providing information about human impact on the environment Forensic knowledge and skills Archaeology, Mass Media, and Public Perception:  Archaeology, Mass Media, and Public Perception Movies? Museums Magazines Parks TV Documentaries

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