ANT3141 20 Peru

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Published on October 19, 2007

Author: Heather

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  PERU Peruvian Chronology:  Peruvian Chronology Early Pre-ceramic: 10-6000 BC Middle Preceramic: 6-3000 BC Late Preceramic: 3-1800 BC Initial Period: 1800-800 BC Early Horizon: 800-200 BC Early Intermediate: 200BC-AD 600 Middle Horizon: AD 600-1000 Late Intermediate: AD 1000-1470 Late Horizon: AD 1470-1532 Late Preceramic:  Late Preceramic Large temple centers on the Peruvian coast (3000-1800 BC) Maritime hypothesis (Michael Moseley); ocean resources were economic base of early complex societies not intensive agriculture Intensive fishing of anchovies; primary domesticates include cotton and bottle gourds for nets El Paraiso Slide4:  Plan of El Paraiso Cotton and bottle gourds to make nets And floats were the primary domesticated Crops of the late (Cotton) preceramic Upswelling from deep sea currents brings nutrients to the surface supporting one of the richest fisheries on the planet Initial Period (1800-800 BC):  Initial Period (1800-800 BC) Introduction of ceramics Spread of irrigation; agricultural intensification Development of new art forms and architectural styles, with huge monumental constructions (larger than Temple of the Sun atTeotihuacan) Sechin Alto Initial Period:  Initial Period Movement from coast to inland valley floors correlated to irrigation agriculture Intensive agriculture becomes clear economic base of Initial Period centers Warfare and Irrigation Agriculture:  Warfare and Irrigation Agriculture Spectacular stone carvings depicting military victories; chronic warfare between centers Carneiro’s model: competition and war over circumscribed agricultural lands leads to subjugation of one center by another Cerro Sechin Early Horizon:  Early Horizon The First of three periods during which the Central Andes was integrated by the spread of the Chavin religious cult Question remains: was spread peaceful or not? Chavin de Huantar Slide9:  Chavin architectural styles and art styles spread widely across the Andes and the Pacific coast, culturally integrating diverse peoples across the central Andes Chavin Cult:  Chavin Cult Circular sunken plaza at Chavin de Huantar held many hundreds of people for important Chavin rituals, perhaps in honor of the Staff God, depicted on much Chavin and later art, but ritual cult remains poorly understood Early Horizon Warfare:  Early Horizon Warfare Evidence of warfare, suggesting that the Chavin cult did not spread through peaceful conversion, is widepread in Early Horizon Hilltop Fortress Early Intermediate: Moche:  Early Intermediate: Moche During Early Intermediate period (200 BC to AD 600), broad regional integration was replaced by the emergence of various regional polities, such as Moche, Nazca, and others Huaca del Sol, Cerro Blanco Taxation:  Taxation Roughly 1.5 million adobe bricks were used to construct Huaca del Sol over several generations; Each community had to supply a requisite number of bricks as tax to support state projects, each community had a specific maker’s mark Maker’s Marks Moche Warfare and :  Moche Warfare and During Moche times intensive warfare continued to be an important component of regional interaction; captives were sometimes sacrificed in rituals presided over by powerful warrior kings of rival centers Sacrifice Ceremony Warrior Kings:  Warrior Kings The Warrior Kings of the Moche state had supreme power over all their subjects, upon death they were lavished with massive quantities of wealth and numerous members of court were ritually killed to accompany the king into the afterworld Slide16:  Royal Tomb at Sipan, Moche Middle Horizon: Empire Building:  Middle Horizon: Empire Building During the Middle Horizon (AD 600-1000), two powerful empires – Tiwanaku and Wari - emerged in highland areas and their influence spread over much of the central Andes and coastal areas Tiwanaku:  Tiwanaku Flourished fromAD 400-1000 capital of the empire in the Lake Titicaca basin of the central Andes 1.5 sq. mile city core After AD 600 the empire spread over a vast area (150,000 square miles), conquering and incorporating many rival states The Staff God:  The Staff God The central deity of the Tiwanaku pantheon was the “Gateway God,” which shows clear affinities to the Staff-God of earlier Peruvian religions (e.g., Chavin) Intensive Agriculture:  Intensive Agriculture Intensive agriculture, using complex systems of terracing and irrigation supported the highland centers, supplemented by Llama husbandry Late Intermediate:  Late Intermediate During the Late Intermediate Period the influence of the highland empires waned, and diverse independent states emerged, including major coastal states such as Sican and Chimu in coastal areas Tucume, Sican Chimu:  Chimu Chimu, in northern Peru, was a powerful state centered on its capital of Chan Chan Chan Chan was composed of at least 10 major palaces, housed nobility, bureaucrats, artisans and other members of the royal court, a new one being established upon the death of Chimu rulers Chan Chan supported by complex system of sunken fields and sub-surface water control Chan Chan Slide23:  Extent of the Chimu empire, c. AD 1400 Plan of the capital city of Chan Chan Late Horizon: Inka:  Late Horizon: Inka During the Late Horizon, the Inka state, which was one of many rival states in highland areas up to c. 1470, subdued its immediate neighbors and entered into a campaign of expansion which spread over much of the Andes (over 3500 miles) Slide25:  The layout of the capital city of Cuzco followed a careful plan based cardinal directions, major roads leading to the four quadrants of the empire, and the form of a puma Inkan architecture used a highly sophisticated technique of fitted, cut stones, sometimes massive in size Slide26:  Fortress of Sacsahuaman, located on a ridge at the edge of Cuzco Incan Statecraft:  Incan Statecraft The Incan empire had a highly sophisticated system of statecraft, including clearly defined administrative hierarchies, well-trained standing armies, with state maintained roads and garrisons, taxation (including mit’a labor), and a highly developed system of accounting (quipu) Incan Political Expansion:  Incan Political Expansion Pachacuti, or “he who remakes the world” initiated Inkan expansion after defeating neighboring Colla c. 1470, until demise of the empire at the hands of the Francisco Pizarro in 1532 Inkan rulers often dominated through economic dependence, but could coerce allegiance with their massive armed forces that could be maintained in the field for extended periods; Inka would leave native ruling classes in power, alongside installed Inkan administrators, taking family members back to Cuzco to learn Inkan ways, to intermarry with Inkan nobility, and to act as hostages against rebellion Inkan Roads and Garrisons:  Inkan Roads and Garrisons The Inka had an elaborate system of roads, greatly expanded from those of earlier polities, which facilitated trade, conquest, and the maintenance of empire Slide30:  Huanaco Pampa The Inka had a system of colonization called mitmaq, whereby populations were shifted from one part of the empire to another to break up dissident groups or to improve exploitation of certain resources Slide31:  Machu Picchu, an estate of Pachacuti, was one of the strongholds that Inkan nobility held in resistance to the Spanish until the 1570s

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