Published on December 17, 2007
ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Course Coordinators: Russel Erickson 1250 Anthony Hall 355-8423 firstname.lastname@example.org David Hawkins 1250 Anthony Hall 355-8386 email@example.com Lecturers: Richard Balander 1250 Anthony Hall 432-1395 firstname.lastname@example.org Margaret Benson 2265E Anthony Hall 432-1388 email@example.com Christine Corn 1287I Anthony Hall 432-0383 firstname.lastname@example.org Nathalie Trottier 2209H Anthony Hall 432-5140 email@example.com Aldroaldo Zanella 1230F Anthony Hall 432-4134 firstname.lastname@example.org ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Graduate Assistants: Undergraduate Assistants: Ines Aviles 2280 Anthony Hall 432-0782 email@example.com Michelle Smiricky 2217 Anthony Hall 353-2260 firstname.lastname@example.org Kent Tjardes 2258 Anthony Hall 353-9703 email@example.com Rita Mikhail 1238 Anthony Hall 353-7289 firstname.lastname@example.org Maria Zavala 2280 Anthony Hall 353-0782 email@example.com ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Time: Lecture: Tu, Th 9:10 - 10:00 1280 Anthony Hall Laboratory: Sec. 1 Tu 10:20 - 12:10 Farm Lane Pavilion Laboratory: Sec. 2 Tu 12:40 - 2:30 Farm Lane Pavilion Laboratory: Sec. 3 Tu 3:00 - 4:50 Farm Lane Pavilion Laboratory: Sec. 4 Th 10:20 - 12:10 Farm Lane Pavilion Laboratory: Sec. 5 Th 12:40 - 2:30 Farm Lane Pavilion Laboratory: Sec. 6 Th 3:00 - 4:50 Farm Lane Pavilion Office Hours: By Appointment ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Text: Scientific Farm Animal Production by Robert E. Taylor and Thomas G. Fields, 1998. Sixth Edition Supplemental Text: Animal Science and Industry, D. Acker and M. Cunningham, 1998, Fifth Edition Handbook of Livestock Management Techniques, R. A. Battaglia, 1998, Second Edition Course Prerequisites: None ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Exams: 1. Exams will include true-false, multiple choice short answer and essay questions. 2. Three hour exams each worth 20 % of the course grade. 3. A one hour laboratory practical exam worth 15 % of the course grade. 4. Unannounced quizzes worth a combined 10 % of the course grade. The quizzes will cover both lecture and lab material. Seven quizzes will be given. The five highest scores will be your quiz grade. No make up quizzes. 5. An animal behavior project worth 15 % of the course grade. 6. The text for the course has a glossary of terms and definitations. These may be used on exams and quizzes ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1997: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1997 Grading Policy: Grades will be assigned upon a percentage of total possible points in the course. > 90 % = 4.0 70% - 74% = 2.0 85% - 89% = 3.5 65% - 69% = 1.5 80% - 84% = 3.0 60% - 64% = 1.0 75% - 79% = 2.5 < 60% = 0.0 ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Lecture Dates Tu 1/20 Dairy Cattle Cattle Lab I Th 1/15 Introduction and Dairy Cattle No Laboratory Th 1/22 Dairy Cattle Cattle Lab I Tu 1/27 Dairy Cattle Cattle Lab II Th 1/29 Beef Cattle Cattle Lab II Tu 2/03 Beef Cattle Cattle Lab III Th 2/05 Beef Cattle Cattle Lab III Tu 2/10 Beef Cattle Sheep Lab I Th 2/12 Hour Exam Sheep Lab I Tu 2/17 Sheep Sheep Lab II Th 2/19 Sheep Sheep Lab II Tu 2/24 Sheep Swine Lab I Th 2/26 Sheep Swine Lab I Tu 3/03 Swine Swine Lab II Th 3/05 Swine Swine Lab II ANR Week and Spring Break Tu 3/17 Swine Behavior Watch Orientation Th 3/19 Swine Behavior Watch Orientation ANIMAL MANAGEMENTANS 112SPRING 1998: ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ANS 112 SPRING 1998 Lecture Dates Th 3/26 Poultry Behavior Watch Tu 3/24 Hour Exam Behavior Watch Tu 3/31 Poultry Poultry Lab I Th 4/02 Poultry Poultry Lab I Tu 4/07 Poultry Poultry Lab II Th 4/09 Horse Poultry Lab II Tu 4/14 Horse Horse Lab I Th 4/16 Horse Horse Lab I Tu 4/21 Horse Horse Lab II Th 4/23 Behavior Horse Lab II Tu 4/28 Behavior Behavior Lab Th 4/30 Behavior Behavior Lab Final Exam at the Pavilion -- Tuesday, May 5, 1998 - 7:45 a.m. to 9:45 a.m. Third Hour Exam & Lab Practical Exam ANS 112 Lab Bus ScheduleSpring Semester 1998: ANS 112 Lab Bus Schedule Spring Semester 1998 Buses will run from the Farm Lane Bus lot to the commuter lot and then to the Pavilion. The cost for a bus pass to the commuter lot is $15.00 for the semester or $.60 per ride. The passes can be purchased at the residence halls, service garage or bookstore. This pass can be used for riding the bus to the Pavilion, but only at scheduled times. The following is the bus schedule to the ANS 112 labs. Leaving from the Farm Lane Bus lot: Tuesday and Thursday 10:00 2:30 10:15 2:45 10:30 3:00 12:00 4:45 12:15 5:00 12:30 5:15 MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Effective management of livestock operations implies that available resources are used to maximize net profit while the same resources are conserved or improved. Available resources include fixed resources (land, labor, capital, and management) and renewable biological resources (animals and plants). Effective management requires a manager who knows how to make timely decisions based on a careful assessment of management alternatives. In this course we will focus on renewable biological resources animals MANAGEMENT: MANAGEMENT Most livestock producers manage their operations with plans to make a profit. Profit or = (production x price) - cost <loss> The primary management focus for most livestock and poultry producers is to reduce costs while increasing production and maintaining or improving resources. OUTLINE OF DAIRY TOPICS: OUTLINE OF DAIRY TOPICS Extensive and Intensive raising of cattle Differences in timelines between Beef and Dairy Cattle Breeds and Numbers of Dairy Cattle Parts of Dairy Cow Makeup of a Normal Dairy Herd Dairy Animal Timeline - Birth to Removal Slide13: Extensive Cattle Raising Most cattle are raised out - of - door with a minimum of shelter Calves are usually born in small lots close to a structure Most of the feeding is done in pastures Normally Beef cattle are raised in extensive conditions Beef Cows Calving by Month Gestation Length 285 days for Cattle Bred an Animal June 1 - Calve March 13 June 15 - Calve March 27 July 15 - Calve April 27 September 16 - Calve June 28 Therefore you would have the Bull with the cows from June 1 to September 16 for 107 Day Breeding Season. Slide14: Michigan Beef Cow - Calf 1991 Survey Percent of calves born by Month January 3.5 % February 3.8 % March 24.2 % April 39.7 % May 17.1 % June 6.6 % All Other 5.2 % Total 100.0 % Average length of breeding season -- 107 days Slide15: Extensive Cattle Raising Most cattle are raised out - of - door Calves are usually born in small lots close to a structure Most of the calves nurse their mothers until weaning Most of the feed material is gathered by the animal grazing The animals are usually bred by a bull Normally Beef cattle are raised in extensive conditions Slide16: Intensive Cattle Raising Most cattle are housed in barns Calves are usually removed from their mothers after birth Most of the calves are bottle fed until weaning Most of the feed material is delivered to the animals The animals are usually bred by Artifical Insemination Normally Dairy cattle are raised in intensive conditions Timeline - Beef & Dairy: Timeline - Beef & Dairy Beef Cattle Cows bred for 107 days Calves about the same age Cows milk for 6 months Dairy Cattle Cows bred all year long Calves born throughout the year Cows milk for 10 months BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE: BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE Breed Registrations Holstein 325,782 Jersey 54,426 Brown Swiss 9,333 Guernsey 7,132 Ayrshire 5,790 Milking Shorthorn 2,453 Total 404,916 Source: 1997-98 National Pedigreed Livestock Council Annual Report Dairy: Historical Trends(United States): Dairy: Historical Trends (United States) 80 100 120 140 Milk/cow Cows Total Milk 1970 1980 1990 Cows 1930 1950 1960 1970 1990 25x10 6 21x10 6 12x10 6 9.8x10 6 Yield: (1995) 16,443 Average pounds per cow per year Dairying: Dairying Average herd size is 100 milking cows per herd, 30 dry cows and 100 replacements Average milk production in 1995 was 16,443 pound of milk per cow per year There are 8.6 pounds of milk per gallon The average per capita consumption of milk is 26.3 gallons of milk The average per capita consumption of manufactured dairy products is 54 pound. This is cheese, ice cream and butter. Michigan Dairy Industry: Michigan Dairy Industry Dairy ranks first in Total Farm Receipts in Michigan Michigan has 4,800 dairy herds. Average production per cow per year is 16,905 Michigan produces 5.5 Billion pounds of milk annually. Michigan has 328,000 dairy cows. Michigan ranks 7th in the U.S. in number of Dairy Cows Slide22: Location of Dairy Farms Stages in Life: Stages in Life Prepartum Cows Signs of Calving Calving Process Common Cow Calving Problems The Newborn Calf Breathing Colostrum Navel Treatment Nutrition Weaning Dehorning Extra Teat Removal Stages in Life: Stages in Life Open Heifers Housing Nutrition Growth Curves Vaccinations Worming Hoof Care Stages in Life: Stages in Life Puberty Animal Changes Estrous Cycles Mating Decisions Time of Mating Estrus Synchronization Stages in Life: Stages in Life Mammary Gland Development Housing Nutrition Health Bred Heifers Stages in Life: Stages in Life Care of First Calf Heifers Grouping of Animals Parturition Stages in Life: Stages in Life Housing Nutrition The Milking Cow Lactation Curves Body Condition Scores Stages in Life: Stages in Life Housing Nutrition The Dry Cow Body Condition Scores Milking: Milking Process Equipment Procedures Records: Records Adjustment Factors Performance Health Breeding Records Dairy Business Animal Safety Milk Pricing Dairy Management: Dairy Management Goals: 1. Produce a high quality saleable product 2. Create an Optimal Environment for animals Slide33: Management tools Life cyles Stages NeoNate Weanling Yearling Pregnant Parturition Lactation Cycle E M L D Parturition Health Nutrition Growth Housing Reproduction Genetics Lactation/Milk Records Prepubertal Post Pubertal Nulliparous Parous Primiparous Multiparous X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Sequence of Major Events : Dairy Cattle: Sequence of Major Events : Dairy Cattle Reproductive Cycle ---------------------------------------------------------------- Calving Calving Not Pregnant 283 days 82 days Pregnant Lactation Cycle ----------------------------------------------------------------- Calving 305 day lactation 60 day “Dry” Calving Milk lb/day Days Postpartum Lactation Curve 60 120 90 30 60 90 305 Dry Reproductive Performance dictates lactational cycle: Reproductive Performance dictates lactational cycle If conception delay ( e.g. > 85 days 1. Extended Lactation 2. Extend Dry Period 3. Extend both lactation and dry period Any of these will decrease milk per day of herd life Impact will vary depending on peak and persistency of the lactation curve Reproductive Performance dictates lactational cycle: Reproductive Performance dictates lactational cycle Length of Lactation Length of dry period Optimal Reproduction to Avoid Low yield with extended lactation No yield with extended dry period Parturition : Parturition * Synchronized Process * Cervix, tightly closed, now relaxes * Permits fetus into Vagina and on to exterior * Relaxin, a hormone, helps to relax cartilage and ligaments in pelvic region Calving Problems : Calving Problems * Abnormal Presentation Normal Presentation of a Calf: Normal Presentation of a Calf Abnormal Presentation of a Calf: Abnormal Presentation of a Calf Makeup of a Normal Dairy Herd: Makeup of a Normal Dairy Herd Category Interval Number Percent Heifers (Nulliparous) Birth to 24 Months 200 50 * Birth-->Wean 6 Weeks 13 6.5 * Wean-->Puberty 1.5 to 12 Months 37 43.5 * Puberty-->Conception 12 to 15 Months 26 12 * Conception-->30 day Postpartum 15 to 23 Months 74 37 Cows (Parous) 200 50 * Prepartum ( 30 day) 23 to 24 Months 18 9 * LACTATING Calving-->305 day 167 83 * Early Calving-->60 day 33 20 * Middle 61 day to 200 day 78 47 * Late 201 day to 305 day 56 33 * Dry 60 days-->1 day Prepartum 33 17 Calving Environment : Calving Environment * Clean, dry, straw bedded area * Pasture environment if applicable * Calving area should be close to center of activity, so observation can occur. * Should have some method of lifting an animal up. * Should have ability to milk a cow in calving area. Cow Problems at Calving : Cow Problems at Calving * Retained Placenta * Milk Fever (Inability of cow to mobilize enough calcium to meet demand) * Ketosis (Inability of cow to mobilize enough energy to meet demand) * Temporary Paralysis (During parturition some nerves to the hind limbs may be damaged, animal is unable to get up.) COLOSTRUM: COLOSTRUM * First milk given by a female after delivery of her young. * High in antibodies that protect young from invading microorganisms IMMUNOGLOBULIN ABSORPTION: IMMUNOGLOBULIN ABSORPTION ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Blood Vessel Gastro Intestinal Tract at Birth ---- Blood Vessel ------------ -- ----------- --------------- ------------ ---------- ------------- -------------- ----------- --------------- -------------- ------- ----------- ------ Gastro Intestinal Tract at 24 hours After Birth Globulin cannot pass through the intestinal wall unchanged The Newborn Calf: The Newborn Calf * Breathing * Colostrum 2.0 TO 2.5 QUARTS IN FIRST 2 HOURS * Navel Treatment ( 7 % Tinture of Iodine - dipped on navel) * Animal Identification * Record Information in Permanent Record * Calf should be dehorned and extra teats removed at 4 to 8 weeks of age * Calf should be fed 10 % of body weight in either Milk or Milk replacer until weaning at about 6 weeks of age. Calf should gain about 1.75 lbs/day The Newborn Calf: The Newborn Calf * Calf is a single stomach animal until it is weaned. * Calf at birth will normally weigh about 6 to 7 % of its mothers weight. i.e. Holstein at 1500 pounds will have a 90 - 105 pound calf * Calves should have access to a high quality calf starter at 2 weeks of age. The Newborn Calf: The Newborn Calf Animal Identification Calf should be given a unique identification number. This may be a permanent eartag, or a tatoo Individual written calf record should be started. Record should include I.D. number, sire, dam, birthdate, and condition at birth. The Newborn Calf: The Newborn Calf Housing Enclosed Housing, if properly ventilated Calf Hutches, on well drained areas Draft free Dry bedding material Access to water, hay, and calf starter Hay should be the best possible, leafy, green Alfalfa hay The Newborn Calf: The Newborn Calf Health Pneumonia Scours or diarrhea Caused by drafts or inadequate disease resistance Maybe secondary health problem after scours Caused by unclean feeding utensils Maybe caused by bacteria or virus OPEN HEIFERS: OPEN HEIFERS Open Heifer - Young female that has not been bred After weaning, calf should gain about 1.5 pounds per day Reach puberty at about 12 months Heifers are most neglected animals on most farms Heifers should be grouped by size and age - a group would include those calves 3-4 months old, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-15. Holstein Heifers should be 800 pounds at 15 months of age OPEN HEIFERS: OPEN HEIFERS Housing Normally require protection from wind, wet weather, but adequate ventilation Health Vaccination : PI3, IBR, BVD,Leptospirosis, hemopilus,pasteurella, clostrid, Brucella (at 4 to 8 months of age), Put in gastric magnet Consult with the Veterinarian about other Vaccinations Have Veterinarian check the reproductive tract prior to breeding OPEN HEIFERS: OPEN HEIFERS Breeding At 13 months, heifers should be watched to determine if they are cycling. Information on estrous cycles and/or estrus date should be recorded Heifers should be Artifically Bred according to the reproductive goals established for the farm Record the date bred and also the service sire used Heifer should be pregnancy checked 60 days after breeding OPEN HEIFERS: OPEN HEIFERS Puberty Ovaries become active, cycles may be irregular in length Estrous cycle is normally 21 days in length Estrus is 18 hours in length, and this is the only time the female is receptive to a male and when fertilization can occur. Ovulation occures 10 - 18 hours after end of estrus OPEN HEIFERS: OPEN HEIFERS Breeding Artificial Insemination Without a bull, responsibility for determining if animal is in estrus, is the dairy person. Signs of estrus Restlessness and more alert Red and swollen vulva Tries to mount other cows Increased mobility Stands to be mounted by other cows (Most accurate visual sign) Slide56: 90 lbs. birth 1.5 3 6 9 Puberty 550 - 600 lbs 12 15 24 <--- <------ 1st Parturition - 1100 - 1150 lbs <----- 800 lbs Conception Sequence of Reproductive Events in Dairy Cattle Wean <---Months---> Sequence to reach calving at 24 months Slide57: Composition and Characteristics of Colostrum and Normal Whole Milk Item First Second Second Third Whole Milking Milking Day Day Milk Specific gravity(gm/ml) 1.056 1.040 1.034 1.033 1.032 Total Solids (%) 23.9 17.9 14.0 13.6 12.9 Fat (%) 6.7 5.4 4.1 4.3 4.0 Nonfat Solids (%) 16.7 12.2 9.6 9.5 8.8 Protein (%) 14.0 8.4 4.6 4.1 3.1 Lactose (%) 2.7 3.9 4.5 4.7 5.0 Ash (%) 1.1 1.0 .8 .8 .7 Vitamin A (ug/100ml) 295.0 190.0 95.0 74.0 34.0 Immunoglobulins (%) 6.0 4.2 1.0 - .09 Normal Heart-Girth Measurement and Weight of Calves and Heifers During Growing Period: Normal Heart-Girth Measurement and Weight of Calves and Heifers During Growing Period Age in months Holstein Ayrshire Guernsey Jersey Inches Pounds Inches Pounds Inches Pounds Inches Pounds At Birth 31 96 29.5 72 29 66 24.5 56 1 33.5 118 32 98 31.5 90 29.5 72 3 40.25 213 38.75 179 38 164 35.25 138 5 47 335 45.5 291 44.25 265 41.5 228 7 52.5 455 51.25 408 49.75 362 47.25 325 9 57 559 55 485 53.75 448 51.75 409 11 60.5 658 58 563 56.75 521 55 481 13 63.25 740 60.75 630 59.25 587 57.25 540 15 65.25 805 63 703 61.75 640 59 585 17 67.25 874 65.25 758 63.5 696 60.5 635 19 69.25 946 66.5 813 65.5 752 62.5 687 21 71.5 1025 68.5 885 67.5 816 64 740 Slide59: Comparison of Newborn Calf and Mature Cow Slide60: Simplified Diagram of the Ruminant Stomach NUTRITION: NUTRITION Body Cavities Thorax Encased by ribs Contains lungs and heart Under negative pressure Seperated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm Abdominal Digestive tract Reproductive organs and tract NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract A. Teeth B. Tract 1. Esophagus 2. Rumen 3. Reticulum 4. Omasum 5. Abomasum 6. Small Intestine 7. Caecum 8. Large Intestine 9. Anus NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Teeth Prehension is different in cattle and sheep Cattle wrap their tounge around grass and then tear it off against their bottom teeth Cattle do not have top teeth in the front, only a hard pallet Sheep have a split hard pallet on the top therefore bite the grass off, using the bottom teeth NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Saliva Provides a buffer - dilute solution of sodium bicarbonate, which buffers the acidity of the rumen Cattle produce from 100 - 200 liters a day of saliva Saliva acts as a lubricant NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Esophagus Goes from mouth to rumen Can be differentiated from the trachea by palpation Esophagus is pliable and expandable Trachea has hard cartlidge rings and is the air passage Make sure when stomach tubing an animal that the hose goes down the esophagus, you should be able to feel the hose going down NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Rumen Papillae on interior Capacity in adult cow is 50 gallons Contains a large population of bacteria and protozoa Mixing vat for liquids and feed material In the rumen reticulum area, the bolus is formed, that is regurgitated for further mastication of rumen contents NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Reticulum Also know as the honeycomb, because of the honeycomb surface Honeycomb structure provides increased surface area for absorption of nutrients Reticulum is located across the diaphragm from the heart Sharp metal objects lodged in this area can puncture the diaphragm and tissue around the heart - hardware disease NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Omasum Also called manyplies, because of the internal structure, which looks like leaves of a book Large increased surface area, because of the manyplies NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Abomasum Similar to stomach in monogastric animals Secretion of gastic enzymes, that break down protein and carbohydrates In the calf, rennin is producted. This helps clotting of the casein in milk. The clot slows down the movement of casein in the digestive tract. NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Small Intestine About 130 feet in length for a cow Capacity of 15 gallons Absorption of nutrients NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Caecum Not of extreme importance in ruminant animals NUTRITION: NUTRITION Digestive Tract Large Intestine About 10 gallons in capacity Contains fecal residues, such as undigested fiber, debris from intestinal epithelium lining, intestinal bacteria and mucus Empties through the anus to outside NUTRITION: NUTRITION Nutrients Water - most important Energy - carbohydrates Protein - natural and synthetic Vitamins - A & D Minerals -- Na, Cl, Ca, P NUTRITION: NUTRITION Nutrients needed for the cow for: Maintenance of body functions Growth of the body - Cow does not mature until 6 years of age Milk production or productive functions Pregnancy - usually the last trimester is the most important NUTRITION: NUTRITION Feeds classified as: Forages - bulky material - high in fiber (hay, silage, grass, corn stalks) Concentrates - concentrated source of energy (corn, cereal grains,) By-products of industry (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, beet pulp, fish meal, brewers grains) Synthetic compounds (urea, ammonia) (( if used, must provide source of energy for bacteria to make protein)) Slide76: Conversion of energy sources in the rumen Slide77: Protein Conversion and Formation in the Rumen Slide78: Ruminant Needs and Sources of Vitamins Body Condition Score: Body Condition Score 1) Thresholds for Performance 2) Reserve for Negative Energy Balance An Investment in future milk producton Slide80: Body Condition Scoring - Scale 1 -- 5 Body Condition score = 1 Slide81: Body Condition Scoring - Scale 1 -- 5 Body Condition score = 2 Slide82: Body Condition Scoring - Scale 1 -- 5 Body Condition score = 3 Slide83: Body Condition Scoring - Scale 1 -- 5 Body Condition score = 4 Slide84: Body Condition Scoring - Scale 1 -- 5 Body Condition score = 5 Slide85: 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 B 6 12 15 24 60 180 Dry Calving Days postpartum Calving Age months Birth . . . . . . . . Postpartum loss should be < or = 1.0 Body Condition Score > Slide86: LACTATION CURVE Milking Cows: Milking Cows Housing Most dairy cattle in the midwest are housed in barns, with free stalls or tie stalls Barns may be naturally or artifically ventilated Cattle may be grouped by pounds of milk produced or by reproductive status Milking Cows: Milking Cows NUTRITION Cow is usually in negative energy balance until peak milk production Cow cannot consume enough energy for milk production, therefore, mobilize fat from body Peak milk production usually occurs 60 - 90 days post calving Peak milk production time is also the time cow should be bred for the next lactation Milking Cows: Milking Cows NUTRITION Computer programs are available to balance feed rations for cattle These programs consider the feed material available, milk production, and growth One such program is called the Spartan Ration Balancer - available from MSU Milking Cows: Milking Cows Health Mastitis - major health problems with milking animals Infection of the mammary gland - caused by bacteria entering through the teat opening Mammary gland is perfect environment for bacteria, warm and moist Milking Cows: Milking Cows Mastitis Clinical or subclinical Clinical - when milk is stripped from teat - clots may be present Subclinical - no clots present, but a low grade infection When milking cows, sanitation is important so you do not spread infection between cows Milking Cows: Milking Cows Mastitis Prevention Make sure milking equipment is operating properly Try to have cows remain standing for a time period after milking Use separate cloths or towels for each cow, to clean the udder Immediately after milking, teat dip each teat with an approved teat dip Milking Cows: Milking Cows Mastitis The antibiotic reside in milk is zero Because Some people are allergic to antibiotics Cheese cannot be made from milk with antibiotics Slide94: Structures of the Mammary Gland Milking Cows: Milking Cows Milk ejection reflex 1. Mechanical stimulation 2. Induces response in brain 3. Oxytocin is released into blood 4. Myoepithelium around alveolus contract 5. Epinephrine inhibits 6. Oxytocin has a very short half-life 7. Even after milking, some milk is left in udder, called complimentary milk Milking Cows: Milking Cows Milking 1. Suckling - first milking devise (Calf wraps tounge around teat, creates a seal, then swallows, creates a vacuum, this vacuum draws the milk from the teat) 2. Hand milking ( Thumb and index finger close at top of teat, followed by other fingers squeezing in order, forcing the milk from streak canal, then release and start again) Slide97: Phases during milking Milking Phase Massage Phase Milking Cows: Milking Cows Milking Machine Using alternating pressures Slide99: Phases during milking Milking Phase Massage Phase Milking Cows: Milking Cows Milking Systems 1. Stall barns a. Carry milk bucket to milk house, dump in tank b. Dump station in barn c. Glass or stainless steel pipeline around barn 2. Milking parlors a. Side opening stalls b. Herringbone c. Polygon d. Rapid exit - cows stand side by side milking is done from behind Basic Data for Records to Manage a Dairy Herd: Basic Data for Records to Manage a Dairy Herd Dates; Birth, Conception, Calving Yield of milk Body Weights at various ages Analysis of feeds Feed offered and consumed to each group of cattle Sires used in the Herd Costs Income Polygon Milking Parlor: Polygon Milking Parlor Slide103: Side Open Herringbone Types of Milking Parlors Economics of Dairy Farming: Economics of Dairy Farming 1. Michigan Farms Summary 1995 A. 154 cows B. 562 acres 2. Income from milk per cow per year = $ 2568.88 3. Total Income from sale of milk = $ 395,607.50 4. Cash expense per cow = $ 2269.00 5. Total cash expense for dairy herd = $ 349,426.00 Economics of Dairy Farming: Economics of Dairy Farming 1. Michigan Farms Summary 1995 A. 154 cows B. 562 acres 2. Average individual on a dairy farm works = 3300 hours per year 3. This average farm had 3.6 people in the total labor force 4. There were 2 hired people on this farm 5. The unpaid labor on this farm was 1.6 people and their salary had to come from $ 46,181
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