Annex 14 ppt cheng

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Published on January 15, 2009

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Annex 14 ppt cheng

Annex 14 Aerodromes Volume 1 Aerodrome Design and Operations By:- Cheng Ling Perng

The Objectives Understanding the philosophy of ICAO’s Annex 14 SARP for Aerodromes Identify, explain and discuss the more important Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) of Annex 14

Understanding the philosophy of ICAO’s Annex 14 SARP for Aerodromes

Identify, explain and discuss the more important Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) of Annex 14

Methodology Classroom manual text review (referring to Annex 14 text & review accordingly) Study of texts, tables, figures & charts Discussions on important topics and how to resolve the issues Technical visit to an aerodrome (if necessary)

Classroom manual text review (referring to Annex 14 text & review accordingly)

Study of texts, tables, figures & charts

Discussions on important topics and how to resolve the issues

Technical visit to an aerodrome (if necessary)

Development of SARPs ICAO adopted Aerodrome SARPs in 1951 & designated it as Annex 14 Many amendments since 1951 1990, Annex 14 split into 2 volumes Vol. 1 - Aerodrome Design & Operations Vol. 2 - Heliports Signatories agree to abide by or to exceed the standards If signatories choose to differ, they must file a difference with ICAO

ICAO adopted Aerodrome SARPs in 1951 & designated it as Annex 14

Many amendments since 1951

1990, Annex 14 split into 2 volumes

Vol. 1 - Aerodrome Design & Operations

Vol. 2 - Heliports

Signatories agree to abide by or to exceed the standards

If signatories choose to differ, they must file a difference with ICAO

Annex 14 Amending Process A country submits an issue to ICAO If pertinent, ICAO forms a Project Team Research, risk analysis & impact assessments are done over a few years Brought before the aerodrome ICAO main meeting Draft and consultation Final amendments Ex. International Runway Friction Index (IRFI)

A country submits an issue to ICAO

If pertinent, ICAO forms a Project Team

Research, risk analysis & impact assessments are done over a few years

Brought before the aerodrome ICAO main meeting

Draft and consultation

Final amendments

Ex. International Runway Friction Index (IRFI)

Annex 14 – Table of Contents Abbreviations and Symbols Manuals – related to this Annex Foreword Chapter 1 - General Chapter 2 – Aerodrome Data Chapter 3 – Physical Characteristics Chapter 4 – Obstacle Restriction & Removal Chapter 5 – Visual Aids for Navigation

Abbreviations and Symbols

Manuals – related to this Annex

Foreword

Chapter 1 - General

Chapter 2 – Aerodrome Data

Chapter 3 – Physical Characteristics

Chapter 4 – Obstacle Restriction & Removal

Chapter 5 – Visual Aids for Navigation

Annex 14 – Table of Contents Chapter 6 – Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles Chapter 7 – Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas Chapter 8 – Electrical Systems Chapter 9 – Aerodrome operational services Chapter 10 – Aerodrome maintenance Appendices 1 to 6 Attachment A – Suppl. Guidance Material Attachment B – Obstacle Limitation Surface Index

Chapter 6 – Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles

Chapter 7 – Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas

Chapter 8 – Electrical Systems

Chapter 9 – Aerodrome operational services

Chapter 10 – Aerodrome maintenance

Appendices 1 to 6

Attachment A – Suppl. Guidance Material

Attachment B – Obstacle Limitation Surface

Index

Editorial Practices Standards:- light face roman Recommended practices:- light face italics Status of RPs:- prefix as Recommendation Notes:-light face italics Status of Notes:- prefix as Notes

Standards:- light face roman

Recommended practices:- light face italics

Status of RPs:- prefix as Recommendation

Notes:-light face italics

Status of Notes:- prefix as Notes

Standard Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention

Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Convention

Recommended Practice Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigational, and to which Contracting states will endeavour to conform in accordance to the Convention

Any specification, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigational, and to which Contracting states will endeavour to conform in accordance to the Convention

SARPs Standards are identified by the verb < shall > and are mandatory Recommended practices are identified by the verb < should > and are only recommendations

Standards are identified by the verb < shall > and are mandatory

Recommended practices are identified by the verb < should > and are only recommendations

Critical Aircraft The aeroplane identified from among the aeroplanes the aerodrome is intended to serve has having the most demanding operational requirements

The aeroplane identified from among the aeroplanes the aerodrome is intended to serve has having the most demanding operational requirements

Aeroplane reference Field Length The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air an zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane field manual

The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air an zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane field manual

The First Premise: The Aerodrome Reference Code The aerodromes are coded according to the physical requirements of the critical aircraft The aerodrome facilities (or part of) must meet physical requirements of the critical aircraft

The aerodromes are coded according to the physical requirements of the critical aircraft

The aerodrome facilities (or part of) must meet physical requirements of the critical aircraft

Motivation Understanding the rationale applied in the development of Annex 14 will help the aerodrome inspector/operator to be more consistent in their interpretation and application of SARPs It will be helpful for them to have a thorough knowledge of SARPs that are more difficult to understand

Understanding the rationale applied in the development of Annex 14 will help the aerodrome inspector/operator to be more consistent in their interpretation and application of SARPs

It will be helpful for them to have a thorough knowledge of SARPs that are more difficult to understand

Methodology Formal presentation and review of SARPs Study of texts, tables, figures, graphs and charts Discussions on topics, of problems and solutions Technical visit of an aerodrome

Formal presentation and review of SARPs

Study of texts, tables, figures, graphs and charts

Discussions on topics, of problems and solutions

Technical visit of an aerodrome

Outline Part I Rationale Part II Physical Characteristics & OLS Part III Visual Aids and other SARPs

Part I Rationale

Part II Physical Characteristics & OLS

Part III Visual Aids and other SARPs

Rationale Part I

Rationale

Part I

Part I Outline Development of SARPs Amending Process Annex 14 Table of Contents Aerodrome Coding Concept

Development of SARPs

Amending Process

Annex 14 Table of Contents

Aerodrome Coding Concept

Status of Annex Components Material comprising the Annex proper: SARPs Appendices Definitions Tables and Figures Material approved by the council for publication with the SARPs: Forewords, introductions Notes, attachments

Material comprising the Annex proper:

SARPs

Appendices

Definitions

Tables and Figures

Material approved by the council for publication with the SARPs:

Forewords, introductions

Notes, attachments

The Aerodrome Coding Concept Based on two premises Aerodrome reference code Type of approach Example: 3C NP Designed as a planning tool Applied in reverse when aerodrome built

Based on two premises

Aerodrome reference code

Type of approach

Example: 3C NP

Designed as a planning tool

Applied in reverse when aerodrome built

Aerodrome Reference Code Table 1-1. Aerodrome reference code (se 1.3.2 to 1.3.4) a. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels. Up to but not including 4.5 m 4.5 m up to not including 6 m 6 m up to not including 9 m 9 m up to not including 14 m 9 m up to not including 14 m 14 m up to not Including 16 m Up to but not including 15 m 15 m up to but not including 24 m 24 m up to but not Including 36 m 36 m up to but not including 52 m 52 m up to but not including 65 m 65 m up to but not Including 80 m A B C D E F Less than 800 m 800 m up to but not including 1 200 m 1 200 m up to but not including 1 800 m 1 800 m and over 1 2 3 4 Outer main gear wheel span (5) Wing span (4) Code letter (3) Aeroplane reference field length (2) Code number (1) Code element 2 Code element 1

Non-Instrument Runway (NI) A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures

A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures

Non-Precision Runway (NP) An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least lateral guidance adequate for a straight-in approach

An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least lateral guidance adequate for a straight-in approach

Precision Runway (P) Category I An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range (RVR) not less than 550 m

An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range (RVR) not less than 550 m

Precision Runway (P) Category I Lateral and vertical guidance Down to 60 m (DH) Operating visibility not less than 880 m or RVR 550 m Most common of P runways

Lateral and vertical guidance

Down to 60 m (DH)

Operating visibility not less than 880 m or RVR 550 m

Most common of P runways

Precision Runway (P) Cat II - III Same as Cat I except Cat II has DH down to 30 m (100 ft) with visibility not less than RVR 350 m Same as Cat I except Cat III has DH and visibility from an RVR of 200 m (600 ft) down to no visual range limitations

Same as Cat I except Cat II has DH down to 30 m (100 ft) with visibility not less than RVR 350 m

Same as Cat I except Cat III has DH and visibility from an RVR of 200 m (600 ft) down to no visual range limitations

The Second Premise: The Type of Approach The SARPs translate the combination of the Aerodrome Reference Code and the type of approach procedure available for the runway (Ex. 3C NP) into specific aerodrome physical requirements The safety margin is increased as the approach minima is lowered

The SARPs translate the combination of the Aerodrome Reference Code and the type of approach procedure available for the runway (Ex. 3C NP) into specific aerodrome physical requirements

The safety margin is increased as the approach minima is lowered

Review What differentiates a non-instrument runway from a non-precision runway? What two factors establish the rationale behind the SARPs? Aerodrome reference codes are based on two elements. What are they? How do SARPs change with lower approach minima?

What differentiates a non-instrument runway from a non-precision runway?

What two factors establish the rationale behind the SARPs?

Aerodrome reference codes are based on two elements. What are they?

How do SARPs change with lower approach minima?

Physical Characteristics and Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Part II

Physical Characteristics and Obstacle Limitation Surfaces

(OLS)

Part II

Part II Outline Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Displaced Threshold The strip and the inner edge Stopway Runway end safety area (RESA) Clearway Declared distances

Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS)

Displaced Threshold

The strip and the inner edge

Stopway

Runway end safety area (RESA)

Clearway

Declared distances

Runway Characteristics Primary runway should be adequate to meet operational requirements of critical aircraft Length of runway corrected for elevation, temperature, slope, humidity and surface Length or runway need not be for maximum mass operations of critical aircraft Similar rationale for secondary runway

Primary runway should be adequate to meet operational requirements of critical aircraft

Length of runway corrected for elevation, temperature, slope, humidity and surface

Length or runway need not be for maximum mass operations of critical aircraft

Similar rationale for secondary runway

Runway Strip Defined in Annex 14 A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended: To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway ; and To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations

Defined in Annex 14

A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended:

To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway ; and

To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations

Graded Area Not defined in Annex 14 Included in the strip Intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running off the runway Obstacle free and free of ditches, holes Supportive of vehicles and aircraft

Not defined in Annex 14

Included in the strip

Intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running off the runway

Obstacle free and free of ditches, holes

Supportive of vehicles and aircraft

Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Purpose To define the airspace around aerodromes to be maintained free of obstacles so as to permit safe aerodrome operations and to prevent the growth of obstacles around aerodromes

To define the airspace around aerodromes to be maintained free of obstacles so as to permit safe aerodrome operations and to prevent the growth of obstacles around aerodromes

Obstacles Limitation Surfaces (OLS) Requirements For NI, NP & P runways (4.2) Inner horizontal surface Conical surface Approach surface Transitional surfaces

For NI, NP & P runways (4.2)

Inner horizontal surface

Conical surface

Approach surface

Transitional surfaces

Figure 4-1 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (1)

Figure 4-1 Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (2)

Obstacle… For Cat II-III runways (4.2) Conical surface Inner horizontal surface Approach surface & inner approach surface Transitional surface Inner transitional surface Balked landing surface

For Cat II-III runways (4.2)

Conical surface

Inner horizontal surface

Approach surface & inner approach surface

Transitional surface

Inner transitional surface

Balked landing surface

Figure 4-2 OLS for Cat II-III Runways

Dimensions of OLS-Approach Runways

Dimensions of OLS…

Dimensions of OLS for Runways Meant for Take-Off RUNWAYS MEANT FOR TAKE-OFF All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise. The take-off climb surface starts at the end of the clearway if the clearway length exceeds the specified distance. 1 800 m when the intended track includes changes of heading greater than 15 for operations conducted in IMC, VMC by night. See 4.2.24 and 4.2.26. 180 m 60 m 12.5% 1 200 m 1 800 m 15 000 m 2% 80 m 60 m 10% 580 m 2 500 m 4% 60 m 30 m 10% 380 m 1 600 m 5% TAKE-OFF CLIMB Length of inner edge Distance from runway end Divergence (each side) Final width Length Slope 3 or 4 (4) Code number 2 (3) 1 (2) Surface and dimensions (1)

All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise.

The take-off climb surface starts at the end of the clearway if the clearway length exceeds the specified distance.

1 800 m when the intended track includes changes of heading greater than 15 for operations conducted in IMC, VMC by night.

See 4.2.24 and 4.2.26.

Displaced Threshold Defined in Annex 14: A threshold not located at the extremity of a runway Provides obstacle free approach slope May be used for take-off Affects LDA Temporary or permanent Specific markings

Defined in Annex 14: A threshold not located at the extremity of a runway

Provides obstacle free approach slope

May be used for take-off

Affects LDA

Temporary or permanent

Specific markings

Diagram of Displaced Threshold Markings

Relocation of a Threshold Not defined in Annex 14 Pre-threshold usually not suitable for a/c Affects all declared distances Specific markings: chevrons (7.2), closed runway markings (7.1)

Not defined in Annex 14

Pre-threshold usually not suitable for a/c

Affects all declared distances

Specific markings: chevrons (7.2), closed runway markings (7.1)

The Strip & the Inner Edge Strip provides protection for a/c on the ground & in flight Usually slope of OLS starts at outer edge of strip In a displaced threshold, the inner edge of OLS is at the point of displacement The inner edge is the point at which the approach surface commences So, strip end & inner edge are not always co-located

Strip provides protection for a/c on the ground & in flight

Usually slope of OLS starts at outer edge of strip

In a displaced threshold, the inner edge of OLS is at the point of displacement

The inner edge is the point at which the approach surface commences

So, strip end & inner edge are not always co-located

Questions If a runway is 1000 m long, how long is the strip? Runway 06/24 is 2500 m long. Threshold of 06 is displaces 300 m and the threshold of runway 24 is displaced 250 m. How long is the strip? Where is the inner edge on runway 06?

If a runway is 1000 m long, how long is the strip?

Runway 06/24 is 2500 m long. Threshold of 06 is displaces 300 m and the threshold of runway 24 is displaced 250 m. How long is the strip?

Where is the inner edge on runway 06?

Stopway Defined in annex 14 & explained (3.6) A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of the take-off run available (TORA) prepared as a suitable area in which an a/c can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off Within the strip & has the width of the runway Included in ASDA Width equal to runway Expensive

Defined in annex 14 & explained (3.6)

A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of the take-off run available (TORA) prepared as a suitable area in which an a/c can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off

Within the strip & has the width of the runway

Included in ASDA

Width equal to runway

Expensive

Runway End Safety Area (RESA) Defined in Annex 14 & Explained (3.4) At each end of runway strip Purpose: to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway Not included in declared distances Minimum length: 90 m Width: twice that of runway

Defined in Annex 14 & Explained (3.4)

At each end of runway strip

Purpose: to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway

Not included in declared distances

Minimum length: 90 m

Width: twice that of runway

Clearway Defined in Annex 14 & explained (3.5) A defined area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height Commences at the end of TORA, may extend beyond the strip Included in TODA Length: not more than 50% of TORA Width: 75 m on each side of extended centre line Inexpensive & common

Defined in Annex 14 & explained (3.5)

A defined area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height

Commences at the end of TORA, may extend beyond the strip

Included in TODA

Length: not more than 50% of TORA

Width: 75 m on each side of extended centre line

Inexpensive & common

`Declared Dstances TORA & TODA TORA: Take-off run available. The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking-off TODA: Take-off distance available. The length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the length of the clearway, if provided

TORA: Take-off run available. The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking-off

TODA: Take-off distance available. The length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the length of the clearway, if provided

ASDA & LDA ASDA: Accelerate-stop distance available. The length of the take-off available (TODA) plus the length of the stopway, if provided LDA: Landing distance available. The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. LDA is TORA less any displacement of the threshold

ASDA: Accelerate-stop distance available. The length of the take-off available (TODA) plus the length of the stopway, if provided

LDA: Landing distance available. The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing. LDA is TORA less any displacement of the threshold

Diagrams of Declared Distances

Exercise <<ABC International Airport>> Declared Distances

Exercise

<<ABC International Airport>>

Declared Distances

Declared Distances of <<ABC International Airport>> Runway 09/27 is 200 m long Rwy 09: clearway 580 m, stopway 300m, displaced threshold 150 m Rwy 27: stopway 350 m, clearway 350 m What are the declared distances for this airport?

Runway 09/27 is 200 m long

Rwy 09: clearway 580 m, stopway 300m, displaced threshold 150 m

Rwy 27: stopway 350 m, clearway 350 m

What are the declared distances for this airport?

Runway Diagram of <<ABC International Airport>>

Declared distances 2000 2350 2350 2000 27 1850 2580 2300 2000 09 m m m m LDA TODA ASDA TORA RWY

End of Parts 1 and 2

End of Parts 1 and 2

Visual Aids and Other SARPs Part III

Visual Aids and Other SARPs

Part III

Outline of Part 3 Markings Lighting Signs Secondary power supply Fencing Maintenance Appendices and attachments

Markings

Lighting

Signs

Secondary power supply

Fencing

Maintenance

Appendices and attachments

Visual Aids

Foreword The longest chapter in Annex 14 Visual aids increase in number and complexity as aerodrome code number increases and approach minima decreases The presentation will be centered on markings, lights and signs Visual aids require daily inspections and proper maintenance by specialized personnel

The longest chapter in Annex 14

Visual aids increase in number and complexity as aerodrome code number increases and approach minima decreases

The presentation will be centered on markings, lights and signs

Visual aids require daily inspections and proper maintenance by specialized personnel

Markings Order of importance: P, NP, NI Colour of runway: white Colour of taxiway and a/c stands: yellow Outlining in black of white markings For night operations: reflective materials Markings: solid areas or series of longitudinal stripes

Order of importance: P, NP, NI

Colour of runway: white

Colour of taxiway and a/c stands: yellow

Outlining in black of white markings

For night operations: reflective materials

Markings: solid areas or series of longitudinal stripes

Runway Markings Rwy designation: two-digit, magnetic, letter for parallel rwys (L,C,R) Runway Centre line Threshold markings Transverse stripe Arrows Aiming point Touchdown zone Side stripe

Rwy designation: two-digit, magnetic, letter for parallel rwys (L,C,R)

Runway Centre line

Threshold markings

Transverse stripe

Arrows

Aiming point

Touchdown zone

Side stripe

Diagram of runway markings

Other markings Taxiway centre line, (de-icing, apron) Runway holding position Aircraft stand Apron safety lines and passenger safety lines Road holding position Mandatory instruction Information

Taxiway centre line, (de-icing, apron)

Runway holding position

Aircraft stand

Apron safety lines and passenger safety lines

Road holding position

Mandatory instruction

Information

Apron Safety Lines and Passenger Path Lines

Lights: General Comments Lights which may cause confusion Frangibility Surface lights Intensity and control Emergency lighting Aerodrome beacon Identification beacon Maintenance

Lights which may cause confusion

Frangibility

Surface lights

Intensity and control

Emergency lighting

Aerodrome beacon

Identification beacon

Maintenance

Approach Lighting Systems Simple approach lighting system Precision approach lighting system Precision approach category I-II lighting system

Simple approach lighting system

Precision approach lighting system

Precision approach category I-II lighting system

Visual Approach Slope Indicators When: turbojet service, inadequate visual guidance, misleading ground information, obstacles, slope of runway or terrain Suitability for day and night operations Obstacle protection surface & slope of rwy T-V ASIS, AT-VASIS PAPI, APAPI Maintenance and calibration

When: turbojet service, inadequate visual guidance, misleading ground information, obstacles, slope of runway or terrain

Suitability for day and night operations

Obstacle protection surface & slope of rwy

T-V ASIS, AT-VASIS

PAPI, APAPI

Maintenance and calibration

Diagram of Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems

Runway Lights Runway Threshold Lights (RIL) Runway edge lights: white, 60m spacing for instrument rwy and 100m for NI rwy Runway threshold lights: min. of 6, green Runway end lights: min. of 6, red Runway centre lights: Cat.II-III, for take-off Rwy tdz lights: Cat.II-III Stopway lights: red Figure 5-19, p.79

Runway Threshold Lights (RIL)

Runway edge lights: white, 60m spacing for instrument rwy and 100m for NI rwy

Runway threshold lights: min. of 6, green

Runway end lights: min. of 6, red

Runway centre lights: Cat.II-III, for take-off

Rwy tdz lights: Cat.II-III

Stopway lights: red

Figure 5-19, p.79

Other Lights Taxiway centre line ( on taxiway, on exit) Taxiway edge lights: blue Taxiway stop bars: red Runway guard lights: yellow, fig.5-23 p.86 Apron floodlighting Visual docking system Figure 5-20 p.80 Inspection and maintenance

Taxiway centre line ( on taxiway, on exit)

Taxiway edge lights: blue

Taxiway stop bars: red

Runway guard lights: yellow, fig.5-23 p.86

Apron floodlighting

Visual docking system

Figure 5-20 p.80

Inspection and maintenance

Signs Purpose: to convey mandatory instructions, information on a specific location or destination and other information Characteristics: Frangible Clear of props & engine pods Rectangular Red for mandatory instructions Illuminated: instrument rwy/ cat. 3-4 NI rwy

Purpose: to convey mandatory instructions, information on a specific location or destination and other information

Characteristics:

Frangible

Clear of props & engine pods

Rectangular

Red for mandatory instructions

Illuminated: instrument rwy/ cat. 3-4 NI rwy

Mandatory Signs White on red background Identifies a position not to proceed beyond unless authorized or cleared Runway designation Co-location with holding position markings No entry

White on red background

Identifies a position not to proceed beyond unless authorized or cleared

Runway designation

Co-location with holding position markings

No entry

Information Signs Black on yellow Includes direction, destination and runway exit signs Provided where there is an operational need

Black on yellow

Includes direction, destination and runway exit signs

Provided where there is an operational need

Location Signs Yellow on black Indicates location on an aerodrome Only sign which may be located with a mandatory instruction sign Outboard of a runway designation sign Where signs are combined to form an array, the individual signs are delineated by a black stripe

Yellow on black

Indicates location on an aerodrome

Only sign which may be located with a mandatory instruction sign

Outboard of a runway designation sign

Where signs are combined to form an array, the individual signs are delineated by a black stripe

Diagram of Mandatory Instruction Signs

Information and Location Signs

 

Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles Aim: reduce hazards to a/c by indicating the presence of obstacles (lights &/or markings) Responsibility: CAA, airport authority Sensitive areas: approach surfaces, climb surfaces, obstacle protection surfaces, airport vicinity Obstacles reported in Aerodrome Manual Colours: checkered pattern Orange & white or red & white

Aim: reduce hazards to a/c by indicating the presence of obstacles

(lights &/or markings)

Responsibility: CAA, airport authority

Sensitive areas: approach surfaces, climb surfaces, obstacle protection surfaces, airport vicinity

Obstacles reported in Aerodrome Manual

Colours: checkered pattern

Orange & white or red & white

Examples of Marking & Lighting of Tall Structures

Lighting of Buildings

Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings Markings displayed for permanently closed and temporarily closed (RP) rwy & twy: X Location: at each end or portion and interval between markings <300m Colour: white for rwy, yellow for twy Permanently closed rwy & twy: markings to be obliterated Closed rwy & twy: lighting off

Markings displayed for permanently closed and temporarily closed (RP) rwy & twy: X

Location: at each end or portion and interval between markings <300m

Colour: white for rwy, yellow for twy

Permanently closed rwy & twy: markings to be obliterated

Closed rwy & twy: lighting off

Closed Runway and Taxiway Markings

Unsuitable Pre-Threshold Area Condition: paved & > 60m Pre-threshold area: chevron markings

Condition: paved & > 60m

Pre-threshold area: chevron markings

Unserviceable Areas Condition: any portion of rwy, twy, apron unfit for a/c movement but still possible for a/c to bypass area safely Markers: flags, cones, marker boards and red lights for night operations

Condition: any portion of rwy, twy, apron unfit for a/c movement but still possible for a/c to bypass area safely

Markers: flags, cones, marker boards and red lights for night operations

Secondary Power Supply For medium & major aerodromes Facilities: signaling lamps, obstacle lights, approach, rwy, twy lighting, essential equipment Source of supply: same source but different substation and routing, or standby power units. Testing of generators Switch-over time: 1 second to 2 minutes depending on runway category (NI, NP, P) Monitoring of visual aids

For medium & major aerodromes

Facilities: signaling lamps, obstacle lights, approach, rwy, twy lighting, essential equipment

Source of supply: same source but different substation and routing, or standby power units. Testing of generators

Switch-over time: 1 second to 2 minutes depending on runway category (NI, NP, P)

Monitoring of visual aids

Fencing Aim: to prevent the entrance to the movement area of large animals and unauthorized persons Includes ducts, tunnels, sewers, overpass Patrols on perimeter road inside of fences Security lighting of fencing area

Aim: to prevent the entrance to the movement area of large animals and unauthorized persons

Includes ducts, tunnels, sewers, overpass

Patrols on perimeter road inside of fences

Security lighting of fencing area

Maintenance A maintenance plan should be prepared: Short term Long term Preventive maintenance is less costly Pavements: daily inspections, special attention to cracks and friction Visual aids: daily inspections, maintenance often by specialized personnel, many SARPs aimed at lighting systems

A maintenance plan should be prepared:

Short term

Long term

Preventive maintenance is less costly

Pavements: daily inspections, special attention to cracks and friction

Visual aids: daily inspections, maintenance often by specialized personnel, many SARPs aimed at lighting systems

Appendices and Attachments Appendices 1 to 6 : Mostly for engineers, land surveyors and technical personnel Attachment A Guidance material: very informative texts on 18 topics such as stopways, clearways, declared distances, strips, AFF, vehicle operations… Attachment B obstacle limitation surfaces diagram: an overall view Index: where to look for information

Appendices 1 to 6 : Mostly for engineers, land surveyors and technical personnel

Attachment A Guidance material: very informative texts on 18 topics such as stopways, clearways, declared distances, strips, AFF, vehicle operations…

Attachment B obstacle limitation surfaces diagram: an overall view

Index: where to look for information

Conclusion What have we learned?

What have we learned?

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