Ann Dunn Mayans

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Information about Ann Dunn Mayans
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Published on December 19, 2007

Author: Soccergurl32705

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The Maya:  The Maya By: Ann Dunn Warfare :  Warfare Large Scale Wars:  Large Scale Wars Defend territories Collect slaves Determine boundaries Secure economic/social power Small Scale Wars:  Small Scale Wars Supplies Sacrifices Gathering slaves Settling rivalries Defense:  Defense Palisades Gateways Earthworks Wall within outer wall Post-Classic Effects:  Post-Classic Effects Internal warfare Mercenaries hired Armies grew Urban centers destroyed Military Organization :  Military Organization Ruler of city was Commander in Chief Usually mantillas or core warriors Militias led by nacoms In larger wars, civilians were used Highlands, women able to fight in wars Tactics:  Tactics Would retreat to known territory Siege Alliance with weaker cities Burning Attacks from canoes Tactics:  Tactics Would retreat to known territory Siege Alliance with weaker cities Burning Attacks from canoes Religion of War:  Religion of War Rituals of War:  Rituals of War War sanctioned by gods Military leaders also religious leaders Armies would call upon gods before battle Carried religious idols Believed death on battlefield sent you to heaven Capture by enemy was worse than any death Weapons:  Weapons Spear thrower (atlatls) Blowguns Obsidian spiked clubs Spears Axes Knives tipped with flint or obsidian Rarely used bows and arrows Slide14:  The Gods The Gods:  The Gods Hunab Ku – creator god Cizin – death, sacrifice, and decapitation Chac – rain and lightning Itzamna – aged god (priestly knowledge, divination, and writing) The Gods II:  The Gods II Hun Hunahpu – maize god and one of the Hero Twins in the Popul Vuh Xbalarque – the other Hero Twin Ik – wind and hurricane Young Moon Goddess – love and fertility Agriculture:  Agriculture Fertilization of Land:  Fertilization of Land Used small plots of land (milpa) Slash and burn to clear land Slash and burn can only be used in small populations May have used terracing along mountainsides and marshes Diet:  Diet Main food source is corn (maize) Planted beans, squash, and corn on same plot Corn, peppers, tomatoes, and chocolate were not discovered until the Mayans Pepper is also popular with the Maya Did not eat much meat After the Collection of Crops:  After the Collection of Crops When corn is ripe, Mayan women would bend the ears down The corn kernels were grounded by women Used stone pallet and long grinding stone Corn was used in everyday meals Sacrifice:  Sacrifice Reasons for Sacrifice:  Reasons for Sacrifice Offering to the gods Women and children sacrificed too Was considered better if young men were sacrificed Taking of human life most important aspect of worshiping their gods Ascendancy to throne by new leader Tough times Dedication of new building Help for an upcoming battle Thanks for a successful battle Modes of Sacrifice:  Modes of Sacrifice Hearts cut out Shot with arrows Sliced to death Stoned Crushed Skinned Buried alive Thrown from tops of temples Partial burnings Slit throats Had body parts eaten Enemy leaders decapitated in public Sacred Cenote Well Misunderstandings:  Misunderstandings Spaniards exaggerated brutality Exaggerated number sacrificed Wanted to make them seem horrible But was still very bloody Political Structures:  Political Structures Ajawil:  Ajawil A small kingdom in Classic Period Headed by hereditary ruler (ajaw) Usually just a capital city Surrounded by other city-states Name of each city corresponded to ruler Usually controlled by larger territories Ajaw = today’s mayor Larger Territories:  Larger Territories Usually controlled smaller city-states Extensive systems controlled by a king Only kings and royal family members allowed to talk to priests King ruled for life When he died his son would take over Nobles/High Class:  Nobles/High Class Kings, royal family, their retainers, courtiers, priests, skilled architects, merchants, and craftsmen Royal family was all heredity Kings and their sons ruled for life Kings were also judges and gave out punishments for crimes Middle/Lower Class:  Middle/Lower Class Expected to make jewels for upper class Not allowed to keep their crafts for themselves When upper class traveled, they carried them in litters Social Structure :  Social Structure Warriors:  Warriors Separate from upper and lower class Main goal was to capture enemy prisoners Captured soldiers became slaves Officers became sacrifices Extensive religious process before any fighting Wore feathered headdresses and bright pendants Shields made from thick animal hides Warriors II:  Warriors II Fought with wooden clubs Flint knives Spears Slingshots Hornet bombs Fighting stopped at every evening until morning If a commander was injured or killed the battle ended Architecture:  Architecture Beginning of Mayan dynasty, temples very simple Structures built so there was no space between the stones As Mayans grew, tops of temples became more complex The Yucatan and Tikal were major cities Cities usually focused around a central focal point, usually a temple Economics:  Economics Necessities for Trade:  Necessities for Trade Certain cities were often used as “middlemen” Trade structure of Tikal was similar to other items like salt When Mayans stopped using land trading some major cities died out Obsidian :  Obsidian Mayans had large obsidian workshops It was only traded among the elite Transport and treatment of obsidian was very hard Ownership and trading power of obsidian was a signature of political and social power Geography:  Geography Lowlands and Highlands :  Lowlands and Highlands Lowlands had more fertile soil Able to produce agricultural goods Highlands able to gather salt, obsidian, jade etc. Able to produce more items for warfare and decoration Usually cities in the middle of these two types of land were central hub for trade These trade centers usually safer from attack Slide39:  The Lowlands Slide40:  The Highlands Feeding of the People:  Feeding of the People Taxes:  Taxes Citizens had to give taxes to the king Collected by king’s servants or trusted vassals After taxes, normal Mayans able to buy and trade for other items Through taxes writing was born Trading in the Classic Period enabled people to gather more raw and rare materials Writing:  Writing Hieroglyphs:  Hieroglyphs This was the Mayan writing system Pictures representing animals and people Have a shallow resemblance to Egyptian hieroglyphs Is a combination of symbols and logograms 500 commonly used glyphs 200 of these glyphs used as phonetic or syllabic interpretation History of Mayan Writing:  History of Mayan Writing Can date back to 200-300 BC Pre-Maya writing known as “Epi-Olmec script” This the most complex and full writing to have ever come to the Americas Few natives who still know language 10,000 texts have been found Writing was not destroyed by Spanish army There have been found attempts of the language from commoners Kings could at least write in the language Scribes were held in high honor in the courts Writing Utensils:  Writing Utensils Wrote on stone monuments, lintels, stelae, and ceramic pottery Used Ficus cotinifolia and Ficus padifolia as paper Brushes made of animal hair Used black and red ink Numbers:  Numbers Their system went by 5’s Used 20 as a base Came up with calendar 365 days long Falls behind every four years Slide48:  And Remember… The End

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