Animal_Reproduction..by Dr. Dhiren Bhoi

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Information about Animal_Reproduction..by Dr. Dhiren Bhoi
Education

Published on February 8, 2009

Author: aSGuest12587

Source: authorstream.com

Animal Reproduction : Animal Reproduction Conditions for Fertilization : Conditions for Fertilization Anatomy of Male & Female must be compatible Female must be in Heat Egg must be mature What is the function of the Male? : What is the function of the Male? produce large numbers of live sex cells/gametes (spermatozoa) contribute 1/2 chromosomes What are the Male Reproductive Organs? : What are the Male Reproductive Organs? Testicles - produce spermatozoa & male hormone Testosterone Scrotom - sack which carries testicles functions as a heat regulator Monorchid - one fertile testicle Cryptorchid - both testes remain in body cavity (sterile) Castration - removal of testicles lack sex drive (libido) gain weight quicker What are the Male Reproductive Organs? : What are the Male Reproductive Organs? Epididymis - tube connects to testes storage of spermatozoa (200 billion at a time) spermatozoa mature as they migrate through Vas Deferens - tube connects to epididymus if removed, can't reproduce = vasectomy What are the Male Reproductive Organs? : What are the Male Reproductive Organs? Urethra - begins at bladder and continues through penis Sigmoid Flexure - "S" shape in urethra allows for extension of penis outside of body for reproduction Male Accessory Sex Glands : Male Accessory Sex Glands Prostate 2 Seminal Vesicles 2 Cowper’s glands What is the function of the Accessory Sex Glands? : What is the function of the Accessory Sex Glands? provide medium for transporting sperm adds volume provides nutrients cleans & flushes urinary tract Artificial Insemination : Artificial Insemination Required Equipment A.I. Rod Semen Straw Lube Genetic Diversity Select the bulls you want to use based on EPDs Compared to Natural Mating Artificial Insemination vs.. Natural Mating : Artificial Insemination vs.. Natural Mating Pros - More Genetic Diversity - Don’t Have To Maintain A Bull - More Controlled Breeding Season - More Cost Effective - More Hygienic - Easier To Determine Calving Date Cons - More Equipment Required - Heat Watch Required - Experienced A.I. Technician - More Labor Intensive - More Time Consuming Take out a Piece of Paper : Take out a Piece of Paper Quiz 1. What are the main structures of the Male Reproductive Tract? List at least 4 2. What are the advantages of Artificial Insemination? List at least 3 What is the function of the female? : What is the function of the female? contribute 1/2 chromosomes care for young in uterus and after birth until weaning What are the Female Reproductive Organs? : What are the Female Reproductive Organs? Vulva - exterior portion of reproductive tract provides visual signs of heat Vagina - between vulva & cervix Cows & Ewes: semen is deposited here Mares & Sows: semen is deposited in the cervix What are the Female Reproductive Organs? : What are the Female Reproductive Organs? Cervix - "Mouth of the womb" opening into uterus at birth cervix stretches to allow baby to pass during pregnancy cervix becomes blocked with a mucous plug to prevent infection What are the Female Reproductive Organs? : What are the Female Reproductive Organs? Uterine Horns - two branches of uterus Fallopian Tube - uterine horn becomes a small tube Site of fertilization lined with cilia which aid in egg migration Ovaries : Ovaries located at end of fallopian tubes possesses large number of eggs in all stages of development this is all the eggs she will ever have, unlike the male very few eggs reach maturity if not fertilized, the egg is reabsorbed by the body Reproduction in Males : Reproduction in Males After sexual maturity, sperm production is continuous Testosterone is responsible for: growth, development & activity of accessory glands survival of spermatozoa secondary sex characteristics:male voice, sex drive Reproduction in Males : Reproduction in Males Semen - collective term for all fluid ejaculated sperm and fluid from accessory glands Reproduction in Females : Reproduction in Females Farm animals reach sexual maturity at 4 months (sow) to 24 months (mare), then Female comes in heat (estrus) Egg released by ovary Egg travels down tube until fertilized by sperm Estrogen - female hormone which regulates estrus What does "in heat" mean? : What does "in heat" mean? Heat is the time when a female is receptive to the male and will allow breeding to take place Heat is actually divided into 4 phases of the cycle. Estrous Cycle: : Estrous Cycle: Proestrus: ovary is about to release an egg Estrus: female receptivity Metestrus: uterus prepares for pregnancy fertilized egg attaches to uterus Diestrus: longest period of cycle inactive Estrous Cycles stop after conception, and begin soon after Parturition (birth) Females also show external signs of "Heat" : Females also show external signs of "Heat" aggressive behavior swelling and/or color change of vulva Slide 25: A Mature Male is called a: Bull A Mature Female is called a: Cow The act of Giving Birth is called: Calving A Castrated Male is called a: Steer An Immature Female is called a: Heifer Beef (Bovine) Terms Slide 26: What do you call a mature male hog? Boar What do you call a mature female hog? Sow What do you call the act of giving birth? Farrowing What do you call a castrated male hog? Barrow What do you call an young female hog? Gilt Pig (Porcine) Terms Slide 27: What do you call a mature male? Rooster What do you call a mature female? Hen What do you call a young female? Pullet What do you call a castrated male? Capon Poultry (Ovine) Terms Slide 28: What do you call a mature male horse? Stallion What do you call a mature female horse? Mare What do you call a castrated male horse? Gelding What do you call a young horse? Foal or Colt What do you call an immature female horse? Filly What do you call the act of giving birth for horses? Foaling Horse (Equine) Terms Any questions? : Any questions?

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