Animal APBio

60 %
40 %
Information about Animal APBio

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

The Animal Kingdom

What Is an Animal? Multicellular heterotrophs Lack a cell wall Motile during some stage in life Able to respond rapidly to external stimuli Able to reproduce sexually

Multicellular heterotrophs

Lack a cell wall

Motile during some stage in life

Able to respond rapidly to external stimuli

Able to reproduce sexually

Animal Evolution Most animal phyla currently populating the Earth were present by the Cambrian period (544 million years ago) The scarcity of pre-Cambrian fossils led systematists to search for clues about the evolutionary history of animals by examining features of Anatomy Embryological development DNA sequences

Most animal phyla currently populating the Earth were present by the Cambrian period (544 million years ago)

The scarcity of pre-Cambrian fossils led systematists to search for clues about the evolutionary history of animals by examining features of

Anatomy

Embryological development

DNA sequences

Animal Evolution Certain features represent evolutionary milestones The appearance of tissues The appearance of body symmetry Protostome and deuterostome development These features mark major branching points on the animal evolutionary tree

Certain features represent evolutionary milestones

The appearance of tissues

The appearance of body symmetry

Protostome and deuterostome development

These features mark major branching points on the animal evolutionary tree

The Appearance of Body Symmetry Symmetrical animals have an upper (dorsal) surface and a lower (ventral) surface Animals with tissues exhibit either radial or bilateral symmetry Animals with radial symmetry can be divided into roughly equal halves by any plane that passes through the central axis

Symmetrical animals have an upper (dorsal) surface and a lower (ventral) surface

Animals with tissues exhibit either radial or bilateral symmetry

Animals with radial symmetry can be divided into roughly equal halves by any plane that passes through the central axis

Body Symmetry and Cephalization Central Axis A Radial Plane Another Radial Plane (a) Radial Symmetry Sagittal Plane Anterior Posterior (b) Bilateral Symmetry

Body Cavities Acoelomate animals lack a body cavity e.g. flatworms

Acoelomate animals lack a body cavity

e.g. flatworms

Body Cavities: The Acoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria

Body Cavities Pseudocoelomate animals possess a pseudocoelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm) e.g. nematodes (roundworms)

Pseudocoelomate animals possess a pseudocoelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm)

e.g. nematodes (roundworms)

Body Cavities: The Pseudocoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda

Body Cavities Coelomate animals possess a coelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm) e.g. annelids, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, chordates

Coelomate animals possess a coelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm)

e.g. annelids, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, chordates

Body Cavities: The True Coelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida

Embryological Development Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development Protostomes Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks Deuterostomes Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity e.g. echinoderms, chordates

Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development

Protostomes

Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity

e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks

Deuterostomes

Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity

e.g. echinoderms, chordates

Evolutionary Tree of Major Animal Phyla Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilateral symmetry Platyhelminthes No body cavity Body cavity Pseudocoel Nematoda Rotifera Coelom Protostome development Annelida Mollusca Insecta Deuterostome development Mammalia Echino- dermata

The Invertebrate Phyla: Porifera Phylum Porifera: the sponges Simple single-celled organisms living together Low specialization of cells; no tissue level Asymmetrical ::::: Reproduce by budding Three major types of cells Epithelial cells (cover outer body surface) Some are modified into pore cells (regulate flow of water through pores) Collar cells (flagellated cells that maintain water flow through the sponge) Amoeboid cells (motile cells that digest and distribute nutrients, produce reproductive cells, and secrete spicules )

Phylum Porifera: the sponges

Simple single-celled organisms living together

Low specialization of cells; no tissue level

Asymmetrical ::::: Reproduce by budding

Three major types of cells

Epithelial cells (cover outer body surface)

Some are modified into pore cells (regulate flow of water through pores)

Collar cells (flagellated cells that maintain water flow through the sponge)

Amoeboid cells (motile cells that digest and distribute nutrients, produce reproductive cells, and secrete spicules )

The Body Plan of Sponges Osculum Epithelial Cell Spicules Amoeboid Cells Pore Cell Collar Cell Pore Water Flow

The Invertebrate Phyla: Cnidaria Phylum Cnidaria: the hydra, anemones, & jellyfish – Radial symmetry Cells organized into distinct tissues Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue No true organs Two distinct body plans: Polyp, attached Medusa, free swimming One digestive opening Reproduce sexually and asexually

Phylum Cnidaria: the hydra, anemones, & jellyfish – Radial symmetry

Cells organized into distinct tissues

Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue

No true organs

Two distinct body plans:

Polyp, attached

Medusa, free swimming

One digestive opening

Reproduce sexually and asexually

Cnidarian Body: The Polyp Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity Foot Column

Cnidarian Body: The Medusa Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity

Cnidarian Weaponry: The Cnidocyte Armed Cnidocyte Body Wall Water Filament Trigger Nuclei Spent Cnidocyte

The Invertebrate Phyla: Platyhelminthes The flatworms Development of bilateral symmetry Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia True organs begin to evolve Most are hermaphroditic (can self-fertilize) Many are free living—planarians Some are parasitic—tapeworm and fluke

The flatworms

Development of bilateral symmetry

Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia

True organs begin to evolve

Most are hermaphroditic (can self-fertilize)

Many are free living—planarians

Some are parasitic—tapeworm and fluke

Flatworm Organ Systems (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Nervous System Nerve Cord Brain

Life Cycle of Human Pork Tapeworm Measly pork marketed for human consumption. Larvae migrate through vessels to pig muscles & encyst there. Larvae hatch in pig intestine Pig eats food contaminated by infected feces Adult tapeworm Human eats poorly cooked pork with live cysts. Larval tapeworm liberated by digestion & attaches to human intestine. Head with hooks & suckers Tapeworm matures in human intestine, producing a series of reproductive segments. Egg-filled segments are shed from worm & passed in human feces.

The Invertebrate Phyla: Nematoda (Round Worms) Advanced gastrovascular cavity (are bilateral) Tubular Two openings Advanced sensory "ganglionic brain" Lack circulatory and respiratory systems Depend on diffusion for gas exchange Sexual reprouction Most are harmless - Some parasitic

Advanced gastrovascular cavity (are bilateral)

Tubular

Two openings

Advanced sensory "ganglionic brain"

Lack circulatory and respiratory systems

Depend on diffusion for gas exchange

Sexual reprouction

Most are harmless - Some parasitic

Heartworms in the Heart of a Dog Open heart of dog Female heartworms

The Invertebrate Phyla: Annelida (Segmented Worms) Bilateral symm. Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia Excretory structures Advanced locomotion ability Fluid-filled body cavity—coelom; involved in locomotion (hydrostatic skeleton) Sexual Repro. Some hermaphrodites Closed circulatory system Evolved many rudimentary organ systems Nervous, excretory, circulatory, muscular Compartmentalized digestive tract

Bilateral symm.

Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia

Excretory structures

Advanced locomotion ability

Fluid-filled body cavity—coelom; involved in locomotion (hydrostatic skeleton)

Sexual Repro. Some hermaphrodites

Closed circulatory system

Evolved many rudimentary organ systems

Nervous, excretory, circulatory, muscular

Compartmentalized digestive tract

An Annelid: the Earthworm Mouth Brain Pharynx Ventral Vessel Ventral Nerve Cord Hearts Esophagus Crop Gizzard Intestine Ventral Nerve Cord Anus Coelom Intestine Excretory Pore Nephridia Coelom

The Invertebrate Phyla: Arthropoda The most numerous in numbers & species Evolutionary adaptations allow them to reside in diverse environments Paired, Jointed legs Exoskeleton for water conservation and support Segmentation Well-developed sensory and nervous systems Efficient gas-exchange (gills, trachea, book lungs) Well-developed (open) circulatory systems Sense organs – compound eyes Reside in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats

The most numerous in numbers & species

Evolutionary adaptations allow them to reside in diverse environments

Paired, Jointed legs

Exoskeleton for water conservation and support

Segmentation

Well-developed sensory and nervous systems

Efficient gas-exchange (gills, trachea, book lungs)

Well-developed (open) circulatory systems

Sense organs – compound eyes

Reside in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats

Major Arthropod Classes: Insecta 800,000 species Have three pairs of legs Usually two pairs of wings Make escape from predators easier Metamorphosis eliminates competition for food between generations The importance of insects

800,000 species

Have three pairs of legs

Usually two pairs of wings

Make escape from predators easier

Metamorphosis eliminates competition for food between generations

The importance of insects

Major Arthropod Classes: Arachnida 50,000 species Spiders Mites Ticks Scorpions Eight walking legs Carnivorous Simple eyes with a single lens

50,000 species

Spiders

Mites

Ticks

Scorpions

Eight walking legs

Carnivorous

Simple eyes with a single lens

Major Arthropod Classes: Crustacea 30,000 aquatic species Crabs Crayfish Lobster Shrimp Barnacles Size varies from microscopic to 12 feet (3.7 m) Vary in number of appendages Have two pairs of antennae Generally with compound eyes Exchange gases using gills

30,000 aquatic species

Crabs

Crayfish

Lobster

Shrimp

Barnacles

Size varies from microscopic to 12 feet (3.7 m)

Vary in number of appendages

Have two pairs of antennae

Generally with compound eyes

Exchange gases using gills

Insect Body Plan Wing Abdomen Thorax Head Antennae Compound Eyes Mouth Parts

The Invertebrate Phyla: Mollusca (Snails & Clams) Bilateral Symmetry Coelomate Moist muscular body without a skeleton Found in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats Body protected by limy shell or obnoxious taste Complex, concentrated, ganglionic brain Open circulatory system Classes Gastropoda—snails and sea slugs Pelecypoda— scallops, oysters, mussels, & clams Cephalopoda—octopuses, squid, nautiluses

Bilateral Symmetry Coelomate

Moist muscular body without a skeleton

Found in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats

Body protected by limy shell or obnoxious taste

Complex, concentrated, ganglionic brain

Open circulatory system

Classes

Gastropoda—snails and sea slugs

Pelecypoda— scallops, oysters, mussels, & clams

Cephalopoda—octopuses, squid, nautiluses

A Generalized Mollusk Tentacle Eye Mouth Radula Foot Ganglia (brain) Digestive Tract Gonad Nerve Cords Heart Coelom Shell Mantle Anus Gill

The Invertebrate Phyla: Echinodermata (Sea Stars, Urchins) Bilateral as larvae – Radial as adult Deuterostome development Coelomate Possesses an endoskeleton of CaCO 3 Lack a head and circulatory system Simple nervous system; no distinct brain Water-vascular system for slow movement Can regenerate lost parts

Bilateral as larvae – Radial as adult

Deuterostome development

Coelomate

Possesses an endoskeleton of CaCO 3

Lack a head and circulatory system

Simple nervous system; no distinct brain

Water-vascular system for slow movement

Can regenerate lost parts

Water-Vascular System of Echinoderms Ampulla Canals Plates of Endoskeleton Tube Feet Sieve Plate A Mussel (clam) Photo (ventral)

Key Features of Chordates Notochord Stiff flexible rod extending the length of the body Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Expands anteriorly to form brain Pharyngeal gill slits May form respiratory organs or may appear as grooves Post-anal tail Extends past the anus

Notochord

Stiff flexible rod extending the length of the body

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Expands anteriorly to form brain

Pharyngeal gill slits

May form respiratory organs or may appear as grooves

Post-anal tail

Extends past the anus

Are Humans Chordates? Only one chordate characteristic, the nerve cord, is present in adult humans; however, human embryos exhibit all four… Tail will disappear completely Notochord is replaced by the backbone Gill slits (grooves) contribute to the formation of the lower jaw

Only one chordate characteristic, the nerve cord, is present in adult humans; however, human embryos exhibit all four…

Tail will disappear completely

Notochord is replaced by the backbone

Gill slits (grooves) contribute to the formation of the lower jaw

 

The Vertebrates: Chordata, Vertebrata Subphyla Invertebrates—lancelets and tunicates Lack a head and backbone marine habitat Vertebrates Only 2.5% of extant animals Backbone Seven Major Classes

Subphyla

Invertebrates—lancelets and tunicates

Lack a head and backbone

marine habitat

Vertebrates

Only 2.5% of extant animals

Backbone

Seven Major Classes

The Lancelet: An Invertebrate Chordate Notochord Nerve Cord Gill Slits Mouth Gut Muscle Segments Tail Anus

The Tunicate: An Invertebrate Chordate Gill Slits Brain Mouth Gut Heart Notochord Nerve Cord Water Exit ADULT LARVA

The Vertebrate Classes: Agnatha & Chondrichthyes Agnatha—jawless fish Skeleton of cartilage and eellike shape Unpaired fins, lack scales Slimy skin perforated by circular gill openings Chondrichthyes “ Cartilaginous fishes”—sharks, skates, & rays Leathery skin Respire by gills Two-chamber heart

Agnatha—jawless fish

Skeleton of cartilage and eellike shape

Unpaired fins, lack scales

Slimy skin perforated by circular gill openings

Chondrichthyes

“ Cartilaginous fishes”—sharks, skates, & rays

Leathery skin

Respire by gills

Two-chamber heart

A Hagfish

Lobe-Finned Fishes Lungfish are found in freshwater habitats Have both gills and lungs Tend to live in stagnant waters low in oxygen Lungs allow them to supplement their supply of oxygen by breathing air directly

Lungfish are found in freshwater habitats

Have both gills and lungs

Tend to live in stagnant waters low in oxygen

Lungs allow them to supplement their supply of oxygen by breathing air directly

Lobe-Finned Fishes Some species can survive even if the water dries up Burrow into mud, Seal themselves in a mucous-lined chamber and breathe through lungs as metabolic rate slows, Resume underwater life when rains return and pool refills

Some species can survive even if the water dries up

Burrow into mud, Seal themselves in a mucous-lined chamber and breathe through lungs as metabolic rate slows, Resume underwater life when rains return and pool refills

 

The Vertebrate Classes: Osteichthyes “Bony fishes” Varied forms Supplemental lungs for freshwater living Fleshy fins

“Bony fishes”

Varied forms

Supplemental lungs for freshwater living

Fleshy fins

The Vertebrate Classes: Amphibia Bony support for the body Waterproofing for the skin and eggs Moist protection of respiratory membranes Development of adult lungs Cold Blooded --- External Fertilization Still need aquatic habitat for reproduction 3 chambered heart

Bony support for the body

Waterproofing for the skin and eggs

Moist protection of respiratory membranes

Development of adult lungs

Cold Blooded --- External Fertilization

Still need aquatic habitat for reproduction

3 chambered heart

Amphibians Live a Double Life Include frogs, toads, and salamanders “ Double life” of amphibians Begin life adapted to aquatic environment (eg tadpoles have gills) Mature into semiterrestrial adult with lungs

Include frogs, toads, and salamanders

“ Double life” of amphibians

Begin life adapted to aquatic environment (eg tadpoles have gills)

Mature into semiterrestrial adult with lungs

 

The Vertebrate Classes: Reptilia Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, dinosaurs, birds Respire through Lungs Internal fertilization Shelled amniotic egg (encapsulates embryo in a liquid filled membrane, the amnion ) Skeleton modified for better support and locomotion

Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, dinosaurs, birds

Respire through Lungs

Internal fertilization

Shelled amniotic egg (encapsulates embryo in a liquid filled membrane, the amnion )

Skeleton modified for better support and locomotion

Birds Appeared in the fossil record about 150 million years ago Considered by modern systematists to be feathered reptiles The earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx

Appeared in the fossil record about 150 million years ago

Considered by modern systematists to be feathered reptiles

The earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx

 

Birds Distinctive group of “reptiles” adapted for flight Feathers (provide lift and control as well as insulation) Hollow bones (reduce weight of skeleton) Females have a single ovary Shelled egg (frees female from carrying developing offspring) Maintain a constant body temperature (warm-blooded)

Distinctive group of “reptiles” adapted for flight

Feathers (provide lift and control as well as insulation)

Hollow bones (reduce weight of skeleton)

Females have a single ovary

Shelled egg (frees female from carrying developing offspring)

Maintain a constant body temperature (warm-blooded)

The Vertebrate Classes: Mammalia Warm-blooded Four-chambered heart Fur for insulation and protection Legs for running fast to avoid predators Mammary glands to nurse live-born young Complex cerebral cortex—increased learning ability Includes Egg-laying monotremes (platypus) Marsupials (opossums, koalas, kangaroos) Placental mammals (most other mammals)

Warm-blooded

Four-chambered heart

Fur for insulation and protection

Legs for running fast to avoid predators

Mammary glands to nurse live-born young

Complex cerebral cortex—increased learning ability

Includes

Egg-laying monotremes (platypus)

Marsupials (opossums, koalas, kangaroos)

Placental mammals (most other mammals)

Mammals Appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago Did not diversify and dominate terrestrial habitats until the dinosaurs became extinct (65 million years ago)

Appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago

Did not diversify and dominate terrestrial habitats until the dinosaurs became extinct (65 million years ago)

Bats, the Only Flying Mammals

The End

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Animal Behaviors APBIO - YouTube

Animal Behaviors APBIO JackofHearts65. Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 9 9. Loading ... Chapter 25 Animal Behavior LECTURE - Duration: 37:29.
Read more

AP Biology Lecture Notes - Mrs. Chou's Classes - Google Sites

Information on Mrs. Chou's Classes. Mrs. Chou's Classes. Search this site. Welcome! ... Ch. 51 Animal Behavior 9e F14.ppt View Download: Chapter 51 (9e) ...
Read more

Unit 9: Animals AP Biology Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition ...

Unit 9: Animals AP Biology Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Reading Guide 2 10. List a few significant aspects of the stomach’s physiology. 11.
Read more

AP Biology Handouts - Mrs. Chou's Classes - Google Sites

Information on Mrs. Chou's Classes Mrs. Chou's Classes ... (Animal Behavior & Learning Lab) ... Sheep Brain Dissection APBio.pdf
Read more

Animal Behavior

Animal behavior is part of the ecology section of the AP Biology curriculum. Here are some videos, game links, and study assignments to help you get that 5!
Read more

Page Title

Unit 9 Animal Diversity: Reading Guide: Chapter 40 Chapter 41 Chapter 42 Chapter 43 Chapter 44
Read more

animals - SLUH | A Jesuit College Preparatory School ...

Animals examples symmetry / coelom food chain systems embryo layers; proto/deutero-stome features digestive openings other Molluscs chitons, gastropods
Read more

Animal Behavior - SLUH | A Jesuit College Preparatory ...

The Components of Behavior. Animal Movements with Substantial Genetic Input reflex behavior - automatic response to a stimulus kinesis = random movement ...
Read more

AP Bio Lab – Animal Behavior

Animal Behavior – AP Lab 11. OVERVIEW In this laboratory, you will observe the behavior of an insect and design an experiment to investigate its ...
Read more