Android Overview and Features

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Information about Android Overview and Features

Published on March 19, 2014

Author: ArcadianLearning



Android an operating system. For more details, visit:

Android : An operAting SyStem

Overview  About Android  Android Feature  Android Architecture  Android APP  Application Component  Challenges  Opportunities

About Android . . .  Android's mobile operating system is based on the Linux kernel and is the world's best-selling Smartphone.  There are currently over 200,000 apps available for Android that are made accessible through the Android Market, which is the online app store run by Google.  The apps are primarily written in Java and XML for Layout.  The Android operating system, including the Linux kernel, contains approximately 12 million lines of code.  In this there are: 3 million lines of XML, 2.8 million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++.  Doesn’t support applications developed for other platforms

Android Features • Application Framework • Dalvik virtual machine • Integrated (web kit) browser • 2D and 3D graphics APIs with HW • SQLite • Video and audio codecs, OpenGL ES • Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and Wi-Fi • Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer • Open source under the Apache 2 license

Linux Kernel • Device drivers • Memory management • Process management • Networking

Libraries • C/C++ libraries • Interface through Java • Surface manager – Handling UI Windows • 2D and 3D graphics • Media codecs, SQLite, Browser engine

Android Runtime • Dalvik VM – Dex files – Compact and efficient than class files – Limited memory and battery power • Core Libraries – Java 7 Std edition – Collections, I/O etc.

Application Framework • API interface • Activity manager – manages application life cycle.

Applications • Built in and user apps • Can replace built in apps

Android Apps  Apps are written in Java  Bundled by Android Asset Packaging Tool  Every App runs its own Linux process  Each process has it’s own Java Virtual Machine  Each App is assigned a unique Linux user ID  Apps can share the same user ID to see each other’s files

Application Component  Activity ◦ Present a visual user interface for one focused endeavor the user can undertake ◦ Example: a list of menu items users can choose from  Services ◦ Run in the background for an indefinite period of time ◦ Example: calculate and provide the result to activities that need it  Broadcast Receivers ◦ Receive and react to broadcast announcements ◦ Example: announcements that the time zone has changed  Content Providers ◦ Store and retrieve data and make it accessible to all applications ◦ Example: Android ships with a number of content providers for common data types (e.g., audio, video, images, personal contact information, etc.)  Intents ◦ Hold the content of a message ◦ Example: convey a request for an activity to present an image to the user or let the user edit some text

Challenges • CPU typically runs 500-600 Mhz • RAM available to an App may only be a few megabytes • Disk (flash) access is very slow • Lifecycle - apps must pause/quit often, and restore to give the illusion that they are always running • UI design o typical screen may be HVGA (320x480) o may be in portrait or landscape o very high DPI - small text may not be readable o touch resolution is very low (~25 pixel) • Network access may be slow and (very) intermittent

Opportunities • 100s of millions of mobile phone users • Very high growth, esp. in Asia • "Wild wild west" of application development o think 1985 on the desktop (if you were born by then) o no dominant 3rd party developers.... yet o what will the killer app categories be? o what does it mean to have any app + the internet in your pocket? • You can develop for it today! For more updates, join us @: For Trainings and Workshops, Contact us @:

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