Published on March 19, 2014
Android : An operAting SyStem www.arcadianlearning.com
Overview About Android Android Feature Android Architecture Android APP Application Component Challenges Opportunities www.arcadianlearning.com
About Android . . . Android's mobile operating system is based on the Linux kernel and is the world's best-selling Smartphone. There are currently over 200,000 apps available for Android that are made accessible through the Android Market, which is the online app store run by Google. The apps are primarily written in Java and XML for Layout. The Android operating system, including the Linux kernel, contains approximately 12 million lines of code. In this there are: 3 million lines of XML, 2.8 million lines of C, 2.1 million lines of Java, and 1.75 million lines of C++. Doesn’t support applications developed for other platforms www.arcadianlearning.com
Android Features • Application Framework • Dalvik virtual machine • Integrated (web kit) browser • 2D and 3D graphics APIs with HW • SQLite • Video and audio codecs, OpenGL ES • Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, and Wi-Fi • Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer • Open source under the Apache 2 license www.arcadianlearning.com
Linux Kernel • Device drivers • Memory management • Process management • Networking www.arcadianlearning.com
Libraries • C/C++ libraries • Interface through Java • Surface manager – Handling UI Windows • 2D and 3D graphics • Media codecs, SQLite, Browser engine www.arcadianlearning.com
Android Runtime • Dalvik VM – Dex files – Compact and efficient than class files – Limited memory and battery power • Core Libraries – Java 7 Std edition – Collections, I/O etc. www.arcadianlearning.com
Application Framework • API interface • Activity manager – manages application life cycle. www.arcadianlearning.com
Applications • Built in and user apps • Can replace built in apps www.arcadianlearning.com
Android Apps Apps are written in Java Bundled by Android Asset Packaging Tool Every App runs its own Linux process Each process has it’s own Java Virtual Machine Each App is assigned a unique Linux user ID Apps can share the same user ID to see each other’s files www.arcadianlearning.com
Application Component Activity ◦ Present a visual user interface for one focused endeavor the user can undertake ◦ Example: a list of menu items users can choose from Services ◦ Run in the background for an indefinite period of time ◦ Example: calculate and provide the result to activities that need it Broadcast Receivers ◦ Receive and react to broadcast announcements ◦ Example: announcements that the time zone has changed Content Providers ◦ Store and retrieve data and make it accessible to all applications ◦ Example: Android ships with a number of content providers for common data types (e.g., audio, video, images, personal contact information, etc.) Intents ◦ Hold the content of a message ◦ Example: convey a request for an activity to present an image to the user or let the user edit some text www.arcadianlearning.com
Challenges • CPU typically runs 500-600 Mhz • RAM available to an App may only be a few megabytes • Disk (flash) access is very slow • Lifecycle - apps must pause/quit often, and restore to give the illusion that they are always running • UI design o typical screen may be HVGA (320x480) o may be in portrait or landscape o very high DPI - small text may not be readable o touch resolution is very low (~25 pixel) • Network access may be slow and (very) intermittent www.arcadianlearning.com
Opportunities • 100s of millions of mobile phone users • Very high growth, esp. in Asia • "Wild wild west" of application development o think 1985 on the desktop (if you were born by then) o no dominant 3rd party developers.... yet o what will the killer app categories be? o what does it mean to have any app + the internet in your pocket? • You can develop for it today! www.arcadianlearning.com
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