Published on March 10, 2014
Android OS by Serhan Özbey A project submitted in requirements for EENG 363 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Department of Engineering YAŞAR UNIVERSITY 21.01.14
INTRODUCTION World is contracting with the growth of mobile phone technology. As the number of users is increasing day by day, facilities are also increasing. Starting with simple regular handsets which were used just for making phone calls, mobiles have changed our lives and have become part of it.
INTRODUCTION Now they are not used just for making calls but they have innumerable uses and can be used as a Camera , Music player, Tablet PC, T.V. , Web browser etc. And with the new technologies, new software and operating systems are required.
INTRODUCTION Mobile OS has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in 2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android.
INTRODUCTION One of the most widely used mobile OS these days is ANDROID. Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and key applications.
HISTORY Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin , Rich Miner , Nick Sears , and Chris White to develop, in Rubin's words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences"
HISTORY The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, when it was realised that the market for the devices was not large enough, and diverted their efforts to producing a smartphone operating system to rival those of Symbian and Windows Mobile.
Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005; key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move
On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.
ANDROID vs. iOS As iOS is getting a lot of nice reviews and improving everytime than it’s old versions . But it still falls short of Android in several areas like freedom of open-source editing and third-party applications in Android made it one-step forward from iOS in a short time .
If you want to customize your smartphone, the sky's the limit with Android. End-users can alter whatever they want. Visible file system of Android unsures end-users a comfortable file transferring system . It's as easy as drag-and-drop. Apple doesn't give you that kind of access to all your files .
Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. DEVELOPEMENT & UPDATES
Android is developed in private by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available publicly.. This source code will only run without modification on select devices, usually the Nexus series of devices.
The source code is, in turn, adapted by OEMs to run on their hardware. Android's source code does not contain the often proprietary device drivers that are needed for certain hardware components
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest released version is 4.4.2 KitKat, which was released on 9 December 2013.
For devices not under the Nexus brand, updates often arrive months from the time the given version is officially released. This is caused partly due to the extensive variation in hardware of Android devices, to which each update must be specifically tailored, as the official Google source code only runs on their flagship Nexus devices.
Google Nexus is a line of mobile devices co- developed by Google and several OEM partners, that run the Android operating system. Devices in the Nexus series do not have manufacturer or wireless carrier modifications to Android (such as custom graphical user interfaces), and have an unlockable bootloader to allow further development and end-user modification.
FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS Android is a powerful Operating System supporting a large number of applications in Smart Phones. These applications make life more comfortable and advanced for the users. Hardwares that support Android are mainly based on ARM architecture platform.
Components of Android Architecture • Applications • Apps Framework • Libraries • Android Runtime ( Dalvik ) • Kernel ( Linux )
KERNEL As of January 2014, current Android versions consist of a kernel based on the Linux kernel's longterm 3.4 branch, varying in version numbers depending on the actual Android device. Android versions older than 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich were based on the Linux kernel versions 2.6.x.
LIBRARIES Some of the common libraries available in Android are media libraries, libc, SQLite, Surface Manager, webkit, etc. LibC includes all the major System C library files. SQLite features all the relational database system files.
On top of Linux kernel , there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework . Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in- time compilation to run Dalvik "dex-code" (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from the Java bytecode. SOFTWARE STACK
Android applications are written in java programming language. Android is available as open source for developers to develop applications which can be further used for selling in android market. There are around 200000 applications developed for android with over 3 billion+ downloads.
Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. For software development, Android provides Android SDK (Software development kit).
Android comes with an Android market ( now Google Play ) which is an online software store. It was developed by Google. It allows Android users to select, and download applications developed by third party developers and use them. There are around 2.0 lack+ games, application and widgets available on the market for users.
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