Published on March 11, 2014
Android Course Amira Elsayed Ismail 1
Agenda • Why Learn Android? • Prerequisites. • Android History. • What is Android? • Android Architecture. 2
Why Learn Android? • Run your applications on 59% of the smartphones worldwide (Jul - 2012). • Join in 600,000 applications for android (Jul - 2012). • Not just smartphone, Android OS is being used in, TVs, Microwaves, Car Tapes. Etc… • High job success rates. • Create app sell to market very easily. 3
Prerequisites • Object-oriented programming. • You must understand terms like (Class, Instance, Method, Superclass and Subclass). • Installation of Eclipse IDE & Android SDK Tools. • Install all SDKs preferably (2.1, 2.2 & 4.x). • An android device. (Optional but highly recommended). 5
Android History • Started by Android Inc. in 2005, which had been financed by Google. • In 2007 Google bought Android Inc. • Android beta was released in Nov 2007. • Android v1.0 was released in Sep 2008. • Latest android version is 4.4 (Kitkat). 6
What is Android? Android is an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android has beaten Apple iOS, being the leading mobile operating system from first quarter of 2011 9
Android Architecture Android system is composed of following items: Linux Kernel. Libraries. Applications Framework. Applications. 10
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Linux Kernel Its customized Linux kernel with a lot more android specific code to support devices. One of the kernel's main function is to control hardware. 12
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries Webkit Modern web browser engine used in both web view as well as native browser. Support CSS, Java script, DOM, Ajax etc. 13
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries Media framework PacketVideo, openCORE platform. Support Audio, Video, Still-frame formats. 14
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries SQLite Self-contained. Serverless. Zero-configuration. SQL Database. 15
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries OpenGL|ES(openGL for EmbeddedSystems) Standard specification for 2D/3D graphics. Can simulate physics. Complex 3D scenes can be drawn. Used in (Virtual reality, Augmented reality, Game programming, Scientific visualization and Flight simulation). 16
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries Surface Manager Manages access to display subsystem. Seamlessly composites graphic layers 2D/3D layers from different applications. 17
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries SGL (Skia graphic library) An underlying 2D graphics engine. Used to draw text, geometries & images. 18
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) Cryptographic protocol to provide information security over internet. 19
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Libraries FreeType Bitmap and vector font rendering. 20
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Android Runtime Dalvik Virtual Machine Provides application portability and runtime consistency. Runs optimized file format (.dex) and Dalvik bytecode. 21
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Android Runtime Core Libraries Data structures File Access Graphics Network Access Utilities 23
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Activity Manager Interact with overall activities running in the system. Manage lifecycle of activities. Manage stacking of activities. 24
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Window Manager Dispatch input events to clients. Transition animation. Create layout/surfaces (using SurfaceManager). 26
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Content Providers Manage access to structured access of data. Mainly used for data sharing purposes. 27
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework View System Basic building block for UI components. Can be extended to build custom UI components. 29
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Package Manager Provides methods for querying and manipulating installed packages. 30
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Telephony Manager Provides access to telephony services on android. Can monitor telephone state changes. 31
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Location Manager Provide access to system location services. Able to track location periodically or one- time. 32
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Resource Manager Link external resources to native app at build time. Resources may include XML Layouts, Bitmaps, raw files etc. 33
Android Architecture (Cont’d) Applications Framework Notification Manager Notify users about events. 34
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