Andries 3 matter and materials

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Information about Andries 3 matter and materials
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Published on September 6, 2013

Author: LKOTZE

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Matter and Materials - Chemistry for grade 9's. Source: Andries Olivier. Atoms and molecules, Acids and bases.

Matter and materials

Particle model of matter in chemical reactions Andries p 87

Andries p 87 The particles in solids, liquids, and gases:

Andries p 87 Everything in the universe consists of matter.

Andries p 87 Three phases of matter

⚖Andries p 87 Matter takes up space and has mass.

The particle model of matter Small particles Spaces Continuous motion Forces Andries p 87

Phase change Absorbs energy Releases energy Releases energy Absorbs energy Solidification Melting Evaporation Condensation Sublimation Andries p 87 - 89

Atomsand molecules Andries p 93

The Periodic Table of the elementsAndries p 93

Names of the first 20 elements 1.H – Hydrogen 2.He – Helium 3.Li – Lithium 4.Be – Beryllium 5.B – boron 6.C – carbon 7.N – nitrogen 8.O – oxygen 9.F – fluorine 10. Ne – neon Andries p 93

11. Na – sodium 12. Mg – magnesium 13. Al – aluminium/aluminum 14. Si – silicon 15. P – phosphorous 16. S – sulphur 17. Cl – chlorine 18. Ar – argon 19. K – potassium 20. Ca – calcium Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Hydrogen Hydrogen is used in rocket fuel. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Helium,NeonandArgon Helium is used as a flotation device, because it is the second least dense gas, and more stable than hydrogen. Neon is used in neon lights. Argon is used as an inert, or non- reactive gas in welding and in the old 60 watt globes. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Lithium,sodium,potassium Lithium is used in batteries. Sodium in streetlights Potassium in fertiliser. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Beryllium,CalciumandMagnesium Beryllium is used in rocket construction. Magnesium in the sparkles at Spur. Calcium is found in your bones and teeth, and is a key component in your plaster cast when you break your arm.Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Boron Boron is an important part of boric acid, which is used in tanneries. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Carbon Diamonds, charcoal and the lead in pencils are all made of carbon. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Nitrogen Nitrogen is used in the production of explosives and fertiliser. It is the most common element in the atmosphere at 78%.Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Oxygen Oxygen supports combustio n, and takes up 21% of the atmospher e. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Fluorine,ChlorineandBromine Fluorine is an important component of toothpaste. Chlorine is a greenish-yellow poisonous gas. It was used in WWI as a chemical warfare agent. Bromine is an extremely toxic reddish-brown liquid at room temperature. It is used in photographic film. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Aluminium Aluminium is used in aircraft constructio n. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Silicon The glass in the inverted pyramids at the Louvre in France is made of silicon, the metal support structure is made of the same material as airplanes. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Phosphorous Phosphorou s is used in detergents, fireworks, fertiliser and matches. It reacts spontaneou sly in air, and has to be stored under water. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Sulphur Sulphur is used in dermatolog ical medication and in the production of fireworks. Andries p 93

Other important elements 24. Cr – chrome 25. Mn – manganese 26. Fe – iron 29. Cu – copper 30. Zn – zinc 35. Br – bromine 47. Ag – silver 53. I – iodine 79. Au - gold 80. Hg – mercury

Click icon to add picture Chrome Chrome is used to plate other metals, especially the finishes on cars. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Manganese Manganese is used in flashlight batteries. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Iron Alloys of iron are used everywhere in our environment. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Copper Copper is used daily for household wiring. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Zinc Zinc is used for roofing and as a component of sunscreen. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Silver Silver is used in jewellery and as the backing of mirrors. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Iodine Iodine is used as an antiseptic when it is dissolved. It is a dark purple crystal that sublimates to a purple gas when heated. Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Gold Gold is used for jewelery Andries p 93

Click icon to add picture Mercury Mercury is the only metal that is in the liquid phase at room temperature. Mercury is very dangerous and affects the brain. Today we very rarely use it. We do use it in thermometers. Andries p 93

The Periodic table - groups Andries p 93 A B D C

Periodic Table – groups (II) A. Alkali metals, or group 1 i.Very soft metals ii.Reacts with oxygen and water iii.Stored under paraffin B. Alkali-earth metals, or group 2 C. Halogens, or group 7 i.Poisonous gases D. Noble gases, or group 8 ● Very stable, do not react with other elements Andries p 93

Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken into simpler matter through chemical processes. Andries p 94

⚛Andries p 94 Atoms Smallest building blocks of elements Smallest particle Identical in a specific element Differ in size, mass and properties in different

Compounds Compounds are pure substances that can be broken/separated into simpler matter through chemical processes. Andries p 94

⚛⚛Andries p 94 Molecules Smallest particles of a compound Two or more atoms that are chemically bonded together Molecules of the same compound are identical Atoms in molecules are in a

FeAndries p 94 Iron The symbol denotes: ● The element iron ● One atom of iron

When +⚛ ⚛ bond or when -⚛ ⚛ break away from one another. Andries p 94 Reaction

Formula of a compound Andries p 94

H2 O Andries p 94 Water The formula denotes: ● Name of the compound ● Elements from which the compoud is made ● The ratio of the atoms in the compound ● One molecule and one mole

(NH4 )2 CO3 Andries p 95 Ammonium carbonate The formula denotes: ● Name of the compound ● Elements from which the compoud is made ● The ratio of the atoms in the compound ● One molecule and one mole ● The 2 after the brackets show that two groups of NH4 is present in the molecule

Molecular models Andries p 95

Andries p 96 elements compounds atoms molecules of compounds molecules of elements made up of made up of bonding chemical bonding Relationship between atoms and molecules

Chemical reactions magnesium + oxygen → magnesium oxide CHEMICAL EQUATION: 4Mg + 2O2 → 4MgO 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO Reactants Products Andries p 96

Balancing chemical equations Every chemical reaction has to be recorded. This is done by writing down an equation. Andries p 97

Remember! All elements on the right of the arrow also have to be present on the left of the arrow. No atoms in a chemical reaction can be created, or destroyed. Which means that you have to have the same amount of everything on the left, on the right as well. Andries p 97

Let us look at the chemical reactions you will investigate over the course of the year. S + O2 → SO2 1 2 1 2 Andries p 97

CuCO3 → CO2 + CuO C + PbO2 → CO2 + Pb 1 1 2 11 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 Andries p 97

HCl + Zn → H2 + ZnCl2 2HCl + Zn → H2 + ZnCl2 HCl + CaCO3 → CO2 + CaCl2 + H2 O 2HCl + CaCO3 → CO2 + CaCl2 + H2 O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 11 3 2 2 1 Andries p 97

HCl + CuO → CuCl2 + H2 O 2HCl + CuO → CuCl2 + H2 O HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2 O 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 11 Andries p 97

Certain important chemical reactions Andries p 97

Elements are substances made up of 11type of ⚛only. Andries p 97

Andries p 97 Metals ● Conduct ♨ and  ● Solid at room temperature, except Hg. ● Malleable and ductile Non metals- ● Poor conductors of ♨ and  ● Low melting points ● Brittle

Compounds are formed by elements that combine. Andries p 97

Andries p 97 Water Hydrogen and oxygen Ethanol Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Carbon dioxide Carbon and oxygen O H H CO O C C OH H H H H H H2 O CO2 C2 H5 OH

Combustion of substances Andries p 106

Reaction with oxygen. Andries p 106 Substance formed is called an oxide. Combustion

Reaction with oxygen. Andries p 106 Oxygen reacts because it easily combines with other elements. Combustion

Reaction with oxygen. Andries p 106 Some chemical potential energy is changed into ♨ and  energy – it burns. Combustion

Indicators Andries p 106

Characteristics of the oxides assist us further in arranging the elements. Andries p 106 Solubility in water Acidity when dissolved Alkalinity when dissolved

Andries p 106

Andries p 106 Litmus Red in acid Blue in base

Andries p 106 Bromothymol blue Yellow in acid Blue in base

Andries p 106 Phenolphtalein Colourless in acid Pink in base

Reactions of metals with oxygenAndries p 106

Andries p 106

Andries p 107

Andries p 108

Reactions of non metals with- oxygenAndries p 109

Andries p 109

Andries p 109

Andries p 109

Andries p 109

Energy changes in chemical reactions Andries p 111

Reaction that releases heat. Andries p 111 Exothermic reaction definition All combustion reactions are exothermic. Some reactions require heat to start. Activation energy

Reaction that gets cold. Andries p 111 Endothermic reaction definition Important to industry: Decompostion of chalk Decomposition = Break down When the heat is removed the reaction stops. CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2

Acidsand basesAndries p 117

AcidsAndries p 117

properties Andries p 117 Sour taste Corrosive Dissolve in water Cause indicators to change colour Neutralise a base

BaseAndries p 117

properties Andries p 117 Feel soapy/smooth Dissolve readily in water Dissolve many non-metals and organic substances Cause indicators to change colour Neutralise an acid

Neutral substancesAndries p 117

Neither acid, nor base Andries p 117 Water Tablesalt Sugar solution

The products of a reaction between an acid and a base are neutral. Andries p 117 Neutralisation reaction

Solutions Andries p 117

Mixture of two substances in which both substances have become evenly distributed in the other substances. Andries p 117

Indicators Andries p 117

Pigments which are sensitive with regards to acids and bases. They have one colour in an acid, and another in a base. Andries p 117

Andries p 117 Litmus Red in acid Blue in base Bromothymol blue Yellow in acid Blue in base Phenolphtalein Colourless in acid Pink in base

Strength of acids and bases Andries p 118

Andries p 118

Reaction of acids with metals Andries p 118

When acid reacts with metals, gas formation occurs. Bring a burning match close, the gas will explode and burn with a small popping noise. Andries p 118

Andries p 118

metal + acid → salt + hydrogen Andries p 118

Reactionof acids with metal oxides Andries p 118

The salt dissolves in acid. After it completely dissolves, leave to dry. Salt is formed. Andries p 119

Andries p 119

metal oxide + acid → salt + water Andries p 119

Reaction of acids with hydroxides Andries p 118

Hydroxides – group of soluble bases. No visible reaction occurs. Andries p 119

Andries p 119

base + acid → salt + water Andries p 119

Reaction of acids with carbonates Andries p 118

Calcium carbonate = marble chips. Gas is immediately visible. Clear lime water turns milky. Andries p 119

Andries p 119

carbonate + acid → salt + water + CO2 Andries p 119

Used in fire extinguishers, antacids and effervescent drinks. Andries p 119

HCl forms chloride salts H2 SO4 forms sulfate salts Andries p 120

Metals in a reactivity series Andries p 111

Reactive and non reactive metals- Andries p 133

When a metal reacts with something, it is reactive. Andries p 133

When a metal does not react with something, it is non-reactive. Andries p 133

Reactions of metals with dilute acids. Andries p 133

Andries p 133

Reactions of metals with oxygen. metal + oxygen → metal oxide Andries p 133

Andries p 133

Reactions of metals with water. metal + water → metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas Andries p 133

Andries p 133

Rust – iron oxide iron + oxygen → iron oxide iron oxide + water → iron hydroxide Andries p 134

Andries p 134

Reactions of metals with dilute acidic solutions. metal + dilute acid → metal salt + hydrogen Andries p 134

Andries p 134

Reactivity of metals Andries p 135

Andries p 135

Chemical reactions in mining Andries p 135

Andries p 135 Rocks consist of minerals. Gold, copper and iron. Ores = metals mixed into rocks Separate metal from rock =

Andries p 135 Chemical reaction needed to yield copper in the form of atoms The more reactive metals will displace less reactive metals from the compounds All metals above copper will displace

Andries p 135

Slide 1 – cairoo software Slide 3 – heldex.org Slide 4 – foundwalls.com Slide 5a – idlcoyote.com Slide 5b – telegraph.co.uk Slide 5c – treehugger.com Slide 12 – theagecases.blogspot.com Slide 15 – 27 – cairoo software Slide 29 – 34 – cairoo software Slide 35 – Lily Kotze Textbook: Andries Olivier, Grade 9 workbook, 2012 Images: attempt has been made to cknowledge all sources, it an image's source could not be found, it was acknowledged as such.

Slide 42 – TedED.com Slide 50a – chemistry-reference.com Slide 50b – id.wikipedia.org Slide 58 - khanacademy Slide 70 – Lily Kotze Slide 99 – monarchknoghts.com Slide 102 – cairoo software Slide 106 – cairoo software Slide 110 – cairoo software Slide 124 – cairoo software Slide 126 – Lily Kotze Slide 128 – youtube Slide 130 – googSlide 99 – monarchknoghts.comleplus Slide 132 – cairoo software

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