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Andean America

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Information about Andean America

Published on October 21, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Andean America, with particular focus on the Inca empire
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Andean America The Inca and Their Descendants

The Inca: An Introduction One of the world’s largest empires Lacked writing An administrative socialistic economy Stone architecture without pulleys, draft animals, or metal tools Longest highway in the ancient world

One of the world’s largest empires

Lacked writing

An administrative socialistic economy

Stone architecture without pulleys, draft animals, or metal tools

Longest highway in the ancient world

Location of Inca Empire In South America (Inset): The empire extended from the Pacific coast Through the Andes into Amazon forest It extended from Colombia in north To Chile in south.

In South America (Inset):

The empire extended from the Pacific coast

Through the Andes into Amazon forest

It extended from Colombia in north

To Chile in south.

Map of Inca Empire The capital, Cuzco, was in the center of the empire Machu Picchu, the sacred center, was northeast of Cuzco The empire was 2800 miles long Tiahuanaco was the main city of the minority Aymara Other centers: Moche, Chan Chan, Nazca, Huari

The capital, Cuzco, was in the center of the empire

Machu Picchu, the sacred center, was northeast of Cuzco

The empire was 2800 miles long

Tiahuanaco was the main city of the minority Aymara

Other centers: Moche, Chan Chan, Nazca, Huari

Inca: Road System The road system kept the empire together Extent: Quito to north to Santiago to the south Runners maintained communication in the empire Tampus (garrisons) spaced one day apart enforced central control

The road system kept the empire together

Extent: Quito to north to Santiago to the south

Runners maintained communication in the empire

Tampus (garrisons) spaced one day apart enforced central control

Ecological Map of Central Inca Empire The empire covered diverse ecological zones: Light orange: dry coastal area Purple: foothill forests Yellow: Andes highlands Green: Amazonian rainforest Empire exploited resources of each ecological zone

The empire covered diverse ecological zones:

Light orange: dry coastal area

Purple: foothill forests

Yellow: Andes highlands

Green: Amazonian rainforest

Empire exploited resources of each ecological zone

Andean Region: Coastal Climate Coastal regions were extremely dry Inversion prevented rainfall on the coastal plains Most of rainfall occurred in Andes 10% rainfall drained in coastal rivers, only source of water on coast The southward current produced an upwelling of coastal Pacific, yielding Rich plankton and other nutrients, which Sustained a rich supply of fish and shellfish First settlements began on the coast

Coastal regions were extremely dry

Inversion prevented rainfall on the coastal plains

Most of rainfall occurred in Andes

10% rainfall drained in coastal rivers, only source of water on coast

The southward current produced an upwelling of coastal Pacific, yielding

Rich plankton and other nutrients, which

Sustained a rich supply of fish and shellfish

First settlements began on the coast

Andean Regions: Mountains Andes Mountains comprises: Peaks of mountains and Valleys, including with grassy flatlands ( punas) Andes received most of the rainfall Snowmelt watered both interior habitations and coast Wet, vegetated montaňas were on the eastern side of the Andes Amazonia; tributaries received most of the rainfall

Andes Mountains comprises:

Peaks of mountains and

Valleys, including with grassy flatlands ( punas)

Andes received most of the rainfall

Snowmelt watered both interior habitations and coast

Wet, vegetated montaňas were on the eastern side of the Andes

Amazonia; tributaries received most of the rainfall

Plant and Animal Domestication Plants: Potatoes: a tuber highly adapted to cold climates Quinoa: a grain made into breads Maize introduced about 4,000 BC Animals Llama: Beast of burden, also used for wool and meat Alpaca : Valued mainly for its wool Site : Telemarchay rock shelter shows sequence from hunting to animal domestication

Plants:

Potatoes: a tuber highly adapted to cold climates

Quinoa: a grain made into breads

Maize introduced about 4,000 BC

Animals

Llama: Beast of burden, also used for wool and meat

Alpaca : Valued mainly for its wool

Site : Telemarchay rock shelter shows sequence from hunting to animal domestication

Pre-Inca Regional Empires The Andes were dominated by regional empires Chan Chan and Moche were dominant in the northern Andes Sipán and Chan Chan were coastal empires Nazca and the Aymara Tiahuanaco dominated the southern Andes

The Andes were dominated by regional empires

Chan Chan and Moche were dominant in the northern Andes

Sipán and Chan Chan were coastal empires

Nazca and the Aymara Tiahuanaco dominated the southern Andes

Inca Empire Expansion In the heart of the empire, Cuzco started as village ca AD 1000 Probably developed into Inca capital around 1440 When troops under the first emperor Pachakuti (map) defeated the rival Chanca state Incas then expanded northward and southward As they defeated each state, the Inca , Allowed the people to retain their organization and culture Map shows three phases of Inca expansion

In the heart of the empire,

Cuzco started as village ca AD 1000

Probably developed into Inca capital around 1440

When troops under the first emperor Pachakuti (map) defeated the rival Chanca state

Incas then expanded northward and southward

As they defeated each state, the Inca ,

Allowed the people to retain their organization and culture

Map shows three phases of Inca expansion

Road System: Transportation and Communication Andean America: A well-developed highway system Covered the 2600 mile length of empire Access controlled by emperor and imperial administrators Tampus (storehouses, garrisons, and lodging) constructed a day’s travel apart (see map) Beasts of burden (llamas) carried up to 100 pounds of cargo Most carriers were human Communication maintained by runners

Andean America: A well-developed highway system

Covered the 2600 mile length of empire

Access controlled by emperor and imperial administrators

Tampus (storehouses, garrisons, and lodging) constructed a day’s travel apart (see map)

Beasts of burden (llamas) carried up to 100 pounds of cargo

Most carriers were human

Communication maintained by runners

Administrative Economy: Prototype of Socialism? Emperors had a dual system of inheritance First born became emperor Others royalty inherited property Emperor thus depended on mitá , or labor tax Every adult provided labor after meeting subsistence needs of clan ( allyu ) Clans provided labor for public works, state-owned lands, army manpower, and road/bridge construction Rewards: chicha, entertainment, textiles

Emperors had a dual system of inheritance

First born became emperor

Others royalty inherited property

Emperor thus depended on mitá , or labor tax

Every adult provided labor after meeting subsistence needs of clan ( allyu )

Clans provided labor for public works, state-owned lands, army manpower, and road/bridge construction

Rewards: chicha, entertainment, textiles

Making a Living The Inca had no large draft animals except for the llama (a camelid) They tilled the soil using the foot plow (upper left) Staple crop was the potato; they also grew maize, quinoa (a grain), and others They raised duck, guinea pigs, and camelids (llama, alpaca, vicu ña for meat) The camelids were also sources of wool (lower left).

The Inca had no large draft animals except for the llama (a camelid)

They tilled the soil using the foot plow (upper left)

Staple crop was the potato; they also grew maize, quinoa (a grain), and others

They raised duck, guinea pigs, and camelids (llama, alpaca, vicu ña for meat)

The camelids were also sources of wool (lower left).

Inca Warehouses and Accounting All products—potatoes to corn brew to meat—were warehoused Accounts were kept with quipus These were knotted cords that were used for: Population censuses Animals (llamas) Warehouse contents of each category

All products—potatoes to corn brew to meat—were warehoused

Accounts were kept with quipus

These were knotted cords that were used for:

Population censuses

Animals (llamas)

Warehouse contents of each category

Quipus: A Substitute for Writing There is no evidence of writing so far. They did have a numerical system: Quipu System: knotted twine suspended from main cord The further away the knot is from the cord, the lower the number is It is thought to be a decimal system Some experts think it might be a binary-based system

There is no evidence of writing so far.

They did have a numerical system:

Quipu System: knotted twine suspended from main cord

The further away the knot is from the cord, the lower the number is

It is thought to be a decimal system

Some experts think it might be a binary-based system

Quipu System Lowest: ones, at string farthest from cord That is 3 on the diagram Next: tens (40 in diagram) Next: hundreds (600) Next: thousands toward main cord (3000) Explain how you get the figure 3643 to the right

Lowest: ones, at string farthest from cord

That is 3 on the diagram

Next: tens (40 in diagram)

Next: hundreds (600)

Next: thousands toward main cord (3000)

Explain how you get the figure 3643 to the right

Quipus: Census by Color Code Color coding system counting : Population, one color Tributes of labor, another color Other forms of tribute Land distribution Military expenses There was a color for each category

Color coding system counting :

Population, one color

Tributes of labor, another color

Other forms of tribute

Land distribution

Military expenses

There was a color for each category

Sociopolitical Structure of the Inca The Inca had cobbled together smaller empires: Chanca, Nazca, Moche, and others Emperor was said to be descended from the Sun God Sun was the giver of all life Purity of the imperial lineage called for royal incest—a emperor married his sister Mobility was extremely limited if existent at all

The Inca had cobbled together smaller empires: Chanca, Nazca, Moche, and others

Emperor was said to be descended from the Sun God

Sun was the giver of all life

Purity of the imperial lineage called for royal incest—a emperor married his sister

Mobility was extremely limited if existent at all

Administrative Apparatus Inca: An structured administrative state Divided into four quarters (hence the name Tawanitimsuyu—Land of Four Quarters Further subdivided into waranqa of 1000 taxpayers (labor tax) Used a system of colonization called mitmaq to Exploit new resources, and to prevent revolts The empire was made up of diverse ethnic groups Administrative towns, such as Huanaco Pampa (left) also added centralized control

Inca: An structured administrative state

Divided into four quarters (hence the name Tawanitimsuyu—Land of Four Quarters

Further subdivided into waranqa of 1000 taxpayers (labor tax)

Used a system of colonization called mitmaq to

Exploit new resources, and to prevent revolts

The empire was made up of diverse ethnic groups

Administrative towns, such as Huanaco Pampa (left) also added centralized control

Public Architecture Stone architecture was widespread Inca and Predecessors used uneven blocks of stone without mortar (left) They were cut without metal tools and lifted into place without pulleys The blocks together so precisely that a coin could not be inserted between them Surface of Temple of the sun was covered with a gold frieze, or decorative plate.

Stone architecture was widespread

Inca and Predecessors used uneven blocks of stone without mortar (left)

They were cut without metal tools and lifted into place without pulleys

The blocks together so precisely that a coin could not be inserted between them

Surface of Temple of the sun was covered with a gold frieze, or decorative plate.

Conquest of the Inca Conquest preceded by spread of European disease (upper left) Pizarro, like Cortes in Mexico, used Indian allies to overthrow the Inca (lower left) Inca were already divided by war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the two sons of the deceased emperor, himself dead from smallpox

Conquest preceded by spread of European disease (upper left)

Pizarro, like Cortes in Mexico, used Indian allies to overthrow the Inca (lower left)

Inca were already divided by war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the two sons of the deceased emperor, himself dead from smallpox

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