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Published on October 31, 2007

Author: Carlton

Source: authorstream.com

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World History: Connections to Today:  Copyright, 2001 © Prentice Hall World History: Connections to Today C H A P T E R 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (509 B.C.–A.D. 476) C H A P T E R 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (500 B.C.–A.D. 476):  C H A P T E R 6 Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity (500 B.C.–A.D. 476) SECTION 1 The Roman World Takes Shape SECTION 2 From Republic to Empire SECTION 3 The Roman Achievement SECTION 4 The Rise of Christianity SECTION 5 The Long Decline Chapter 6 S E C T I O N 1 The Roman World Takes Shape:  Chapter 6, Section 1 S E C T I O N 1 The Roman World Takes Shape Two geographic factors—central location and lack of geographic barriers—played a major role in the growth of Rome. After they drove out their Etruscan king, the Romans set up a republic, in which officials were chosen by the people. Over time, the government became more democratic as the common people gained access to power and won safeguards for their rights. An efficient, well-disciplined army combined with skillful diplomacy helped the Romans extend their rule over the Italian peninsula and then into other areas of the Mediterranean. By 133 B.C., Roman territory extended from Spain to Egypt, and Rome was the undisputed leader of the Mediterranean world. S E C T I O N 2 From Republic to Empire:  S E C T I O N 2 From Republic to Empire Conquest of an empire created strains and conflicts in Roman society, and various factions vying for power plunged Rome into a series of civil wars. After the civil wars ended, Rome was ruled by emperors who exerted absolute power, and the 500-year-old Roman republic came to an end. During the Pax Romana, Roman emperors brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to the lands under their control. Chapter 6, Section 2 S E C T I O N 3 The Roman Achievement:  Chapter 6, Section 3 S E C T I O N 3 The Roman Achievement Rome blended Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman achievements to produce Greco-Roman civilization. The Romans excelled in the practical arts of building, perfecting their engineering skills as they built roads, bridges, and harbors throughout the empire. Rome’s greatest legacy was its commitment to the rule of law—a principle that continues to shape western civilization today. S E C T I O N 4 The Rise of Christianity:  S E C T I O N 4 The Rise of Christianity A new religion, Christianity, emerged in Roman-held lands in the Middle East. Jesus, the founder of Christianity, called himself the Son of God and said his mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who would believe in him. Despite Roman persecution of Christians, Christianity spread rapidly throughout Roman lands. In time, the emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire. Chapter 6, Section 4 S E C T I O N 5 The Long Decline:  S E C T I O N 5 The Long Decline After the Pax Romana ended, political, economic, and social problems created turmoil in the Roman empire. Reforming emperors tried to reverse the decline, but in the end, internal problems combined with foreign invasion to bring about the “fall” of Rome. Historians identify a number of causes for Rome’s downfall: Military causes include German invasions and lack of discipline among the empire’s soldiers. Political causes include an increasingly authoritarian and corrupt government and division of the empire into two parts. Economic causes include heavy taxation, diminishing wealth of the empire’s citizens, reliance on slave labor, and a population decline. Social causes include a decline in moral values, a devotion to luxury and self-interest among the upper classes, and a loss of self-reliance among the masses. Chapter 6, Section 5

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