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Ancient Egypt Culture

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Published on November 26, 2008

Author: vampiremafia

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Ancient Egypt: Civilization and Culture

Ancient Egypt was an age of thriving life and new mindsets. With the Nile river as its blood, Egypt was the heart of the new world and engineering of magnitudes that were unimaginable for millennia afterwards.

Ancient Egypt was an age of thriving life and new mindsets. With the Nile river as its blood, Egypt was the heart of the new world and engineering of magnitudes that were unimaginable for millennia afterwards.

The Pyramids When, Who, and Where the Ancient Pyramids Were Built Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians from 3000-2500 bc. They were built by the villagers living in the area of the pyramids 1. Everyone was involved : A. women- made the food and clothed then men b. men- did the hard labor; make the pyramid build it Many of the Royal Pyramids were built in Nubia along the Nile The Pyramids When, Who, and Where the Ancient Pyramids Were Built Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians from 3000-2500 bc. They were built by the villagers living in the area of the pyramids 1. Everyone was involved : A. women- made the food and clothed then men b. men- did the hard labor; make the pyramid build it Many of the Royal Pyramids were built in Nubia along the Nile Were built as tombs and for the pharaohs a way to the heavens The pyramids played a huge role in holding information of Ancient Egyptian life. It showed off the many characteristics of a once prosperous civilization, which is important for other generations to come.

When, Who, and Where the Ancient Pyramids Were Built

Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians from 3000-2500 bc.

They were built by the villagers living in the area of the pyramids

1. Everyone was involved : A. women- made the food and clothed then men

b. men- did the hard labor; make the pyramid build it

Many of the Royal Pyramids were built in Nubia along the Nile

Hieroglyphics Type of record keeping used by the Egyptians for keeping track of taxes, laws, and stories . They were carved along the walls of the pyramids. These were called sunk relief and raised relief. Were also written on loose leafy paper called papyrus were ink from soot or ochre Told stories and facts about the pharaoh and his/her people. Only about 1% of the Egyptian people knew how to write in this calligraphy. They were called scribes Scribes were boys of wealthy families which were taught how to read and write at an early age. You were kept close to the pharaoh if you were one.

Art: Carvings Just as cave men did, the Egyptians carved their greatest stories on the walls. Stories about conquer and rule and especially about the gods In the pyramid there would be a portrait of the pharaoh him/herself, It was believed that the portrait would serve as a home/shelter for the ka, pharaoh's soul

Just as cave men did, the Egyptians carved their greatest stories on the walls.

Stories about conquer and rule and especially about the gods

In the pyramid there would be a portrait of the pharaoh him/herself, It was believed that the portrait would serve as a home/shelter for the ka, pharaoh's soul

Structure and Meaning Egyptian pyramids modeled the pyramid with the point at the top called a benben. Benben- symbolized the rays of the sun ancient texts claimed that pharaohs reached the heavens through this way- hence sunbeams

Egyptian pyramids modeled the pyramid with the point at the top called a benben.

Benben- symbolized the rays of the sun

ancient texts claimed that pharaohs reached the heavens through this way- hence sunbeams

Engineering Memphis: Ju st south of the apex of the Nile’s Delta. I t was the capital city of Egypt. T h e Nile was dammed just south of the building site so that Memphis could be built. Ev ery year the Persians strengthened the dam so that it would not break. The Step Pyramid of Saqqara: Re cognized today as the first stone building in the world. De signed by Djoser ’s vizier, Imhotep. Or iginally just one mastaba, but then had several major enlargements, finally becoming 6 unequal steps rising 204 ft (62 m). The Two Pyramids of Snefru: The Bent Pyramid: As sumed to have been built first, it ’s angle changes radically from 54 degrees to 43 degrees as it gets to the top. It has 2 entrances, one at the northern side of the base, the other opening high at up at the west face. The “ Re d” Pyramid: Th e first “ tr ue” pyramid, with at single continuous angle of 43 degrees. Mo st likely where the king Snefru was buried. To day, the descending tunnels are rubble-filled and inaccessible. The Great Sphinx, with Khefren's Pyramid in the background.

Memphis:

Ju st south of the apex of the Nile’s Delta.

I t was the capital city of Egypt.

T h e Nile was dammed just south of the building site so that Memphis could be built. Ev ery year the Persians strengthened the dam so that it would not break.

The Step Pyramid of Saqqara:

Re cognized today as the first stone building in the world.

De signed by Djoser ’s vizier, Imhotep.

Or iginally just one mastaba, but then had several major enlargements, finally becoming 6 unequal steps rising 204 ft (62 m).

The Two Pyramids of Snefru:

The Bent Pyramid:

As sumed to have been built first, it ’s angle changes radically from 54 degrees to 43 degrees as it gets to the top.

It has 2 entrances, one at the northern side of the base, the other opening high at up at the west face.

The “ Re d” Pyramid:

Th e first “ tr ue” pyramid, with at single continuous angle of 43 degrees.

Mo st likely where the king Snefru was buried.

To day, the descending tunnels are rubble-filled and inaccessible.

Mythology The Egyptians had many gods and beliefs within there culture. Some of these gods were: Ra: God of the sun, he was believed to have been swallowed every night by the god of the sky, Nut. Then every morning he would be reborn. He often appeared as a man with a hawk’s head. Isis: The goddess of magic and protection, she was the husband of Osiris, the god of the dead, and the mother of Horus, god of the Pharaohs. She appears as a woman with a headdress or in the shape of a throne. Anubis: The god of embalming, he would lead the dead through the afterlife, and help to weigh a persons heart against the feather of Ma’at. If your heart was heavier than the feather, then it would be devoured by the demon Ammit, whereas if your heart was lighter, you would get to live forever. His appearance was that of a man’s body, and a jackal’s head.

The Egyptians had many gods and beliefs within there culture. Some of these gods were:

Ra: God of the sun, he was believed to have been swallowed every night by the god of the sky, Nut. Then every morning he would be reborn. He often appeared as a man with a hawk’s head.

Isis: The goddess of magic and protection, she was the husband of Osiris, the god of the dead, and the mother of Horus, god of the Pharaohs. She appears as a woman with a headdress or in the shape of a throne.

Anubis: The god of embalming, he would lead the dead through the afterlife, and help to weigh a persons heart against the feather of Ma’at. If your heart was heavier than the feather, then it would be devoured by the demon Ammit, whereas if your heart was lighter, you would get to live forever. His appearance was that of a man’s body, and a jackal’s head.

Government The Ancient Egyptian government was ruled by the Pharaoh, although, he wasn’t always the one in control. The government was a theocracy as well, and was controlled by the clergy, which nearly always consisted fully of priests. The priests were considered the only one worthy enough to carry out the will of the Pharaoh, and were considered as a higher status than normal citizens, a kind of nobility. Even though the majority of Egypt’s people were peasants and farmers, they still had no say in the government. Nobody questioned this either, since their religion backed it up. There were some times, too, that the Pharaohs wife, the Queen would be the one making all the orders. This would be in the case of the Pharaoh being sick, or in some cases, murdered.

The Ancient Egyptian government was ruled by the Pharaoh, although, he wasn’t always the one in control. The government was a theocracy as well, and was controlled by the clergy, which nearly always consisted fully of priests. The priests were considered the only one worthy enough to carry out the will of the Pharaoh, and were considered as a higher status than normal citizens, a kind of nobility. Even though the majority of Egypt’s people were peasants and farmers, they still had no say in the government. Nobody questioned this either, since their religion backed it up. There were some times, too, that the Pharaohs wife, the Queen would be the one making all the orders. This would be in the case of the Pharaoh being sick, or in some cases, murdered.

The Pharaohs Ancient Egypt was ruled by God-Kings called Pharaohs. In the Egyptian beliefs, the Pharaohs were put on the earth to rule by the gods, and were the god’s mortal vessels. Two of the most famous Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were Menes and Djoser. Menes (Hor-Aha) : 3000- 2938 B.C. The first Pharaoh of the first dynasty, Menes was also the first ruler of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. As a show of his unified country, Menes had the capital city, Memphis, built in the middle of the Nile. He had a long 62 year rule before he was carried off and killed by a hippo. Djoser: 2668- 2649 B.C. The second Pharaoh of the third dynasty, he was thought to be the brother of the Pharaoh Sanakhte, the first pharaoh of the third dynasty. He was the first Pharaoh to come up with the idea of a pyramid, and had his vizier, Imhotep, design the step pyramid Saqqara for him. He was also called Zoser, or for the majority of his rule, Netjerikhet, which was his Horus name. A statue of Menes, the first pharaoh of the first dynasty.

Ancient Egypt was ruled by God-Kings called Pharaohs. In the Egyptian beliefs, the Pharaohs were put on the earth to rule by the gods, and were the god’s mortal vessels. Two of the most famous Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were Menes and Djoser.

Menes (Hor-Aha) : 3000- 2938 B.C.

The first Pharaoh of the first dynasty, Menes was also the first ruler of both Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. As a show of his unified country, Menes had the capital city, Memphis, built in the middle of the Nile. He had a long 62 year rule before he was carried off and killed by a hippo.

Djoser: 2668- 2649 B.C.

The second Pharaoh of the third dynasty, he was thought to be the brother of the Pharaoh Sanakhte, the first pharaoh of the third dynasty. He was the first Pharaoh to come up with the idea of a pyramid, and had his vizier, Imhotep, design the step pyramid Saqqara for him. He was also called Zoser, or for the majority of his rule, Netjerikhet, which was his Horus name.

Mummification All Egyptians were mummified no matter what their social class was in society They mummified their people because Egyptians believe that everyone's soul was with the body throughout their life. After the person dies the soul (ka) leaves the body Egyptians would mummify bodies so that the soul could return to it later Mummifications was a essential part of Egyptian afterlife

All Egyptians were mummified no matter what their social class was in society

They mummified their people because Egyptians believe that everyone's soul was with the body throughout their life. After the person dies the soul (ka) leaves the body

Egyptians would mummify bodies so that the soul could return to it later

Mummifications was a essential part of Egyptian afterlife

Mummification Pt. 2 All internal organs were removed from the body, aside from the heart The brain was removed by an iron hook that would go up the nose of the corpse. Once in the brain, the hook would be swirled around to liquefy the brain so that when the head is tipped forward everything would pour out. With a sharp tool, the side of the body was cut and the rest of the organs were removed Embalmers filled the belly of the dead with myrrh, cassia, and other “perfumes”. This helped against decay Soaked the body in mineral salt for 70 days. The mineral salt absorbed the moisture, shrank, and darkened the body After 70 days the body would then be wrapped in waxen cloth

All internal organs were removed from the body, aside from the heart

The brain was removed by an iron hook that would go up the nose of the corpse. Once in the brain, the hook would be swirled around to liquefy the brain so that when the head is tipped forward everything would pour out.

With a sharp tool, the side of the body was cut and the rest of the organs were removed

Embalmers filled the belly of the dead with myrrh, cassia, and other “perfumes”. This helped against decay

Soaked the body in mineral salt for 70 days. The mineral salt absorbed the moisture, shrank, and darkened the body

After 70 days the body would then be wrapped in waxen cloth

Where the mummies lie Mummies were put in an underground burial chamber called a mastaba, this is where the common Egyptians were buried Royal Egyptians like Pharaohs, were buried in their own tomb. Like pyramids Canopic jars contained the mummies internal organs and were buried along with the mummy Filled the tomb with things the deceased could use in the afterlife (i.e. clothing jewelry, food, etc) Servants, pets, and horses were also buried with the mummy A false door was made so the soul could travel in and out of the chamber

Mummies were put in an underground burial chamber called a mastaba, this is where the common Egyptians were buried

Royal Egyptians like Pharaohs, were buried in their own tomb. Like pyramids

Canopic jars contained the mummies internal organs and were buried along with the mummy

Filled the tomb with things the deceased could use in the afterlife (i.e. clothing jewelry, food, etc)

Servants, pets, and horses were also buried with the mummy

A false door was made so the soul could travel in and out of the chamber

The Egyptian Afterlife When the person died, Egyptians believed that they made their way from the netherworld to the Hall of Judgment Parts from the “Book of the Dead”, the “Book of the Two Ways”, and the “Book of the Netherworld” were put on objects that were buried with the dead to protect them on their journey A priest performed the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony over the body so that once in the netherworld all of the bodies senses were restored Once in the Hall of Judgment, Osiris (god of the netherworld) would weigh the persons heart against a feather. If the heart was heavy with sin, their soul would be eaten by a beast known as the Devourer of souls If not heavy with sin, the soul would live forever in the “Other World”

When the person died, Egyptians believed that they made their way from the netherworld to the Hall of Judgment

Parts from the “Book of the Dead”, the “Book of the Two Ways”, and the “Book of the Netherworld” were put on objects that were buried with the dead to protect them on their journey

A priest performed the “Opening of the Mouth” ceremony over the body so that once in the netherworld all of the bodies senses were restored

Once in the Hall of Judgment, Osiris (god of the netherworld) would weigh the persons heart against a feather. If the heart was heavy with sin, their soul would be eaten by a beast known as the Devourer of souls

If not heavy with sin, the soul would live forever in the “Other World”

Conclusion Ancient Egypt was a time of religion, prosperity, poverty, downfalls, uprisings, and engineering, the likes of which that were not repeated for millennia. Still today people learn from Egypt’s culture, how they lived, and what they believed. If not for Ancient Egypt’s engineering breakthroughs, the world’s technology as we know it would be set back decades, possibly even centuries. It is without a doubt that mankind can say the world has come so far because of the help of Ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egypt was a time of religion, prosperity, poverty, downfalls, uprisings, and engineering, the likes of which that were not repeated for millennia. Still today people learn from Egypt’s culture, how they lived, and what they believed. If not for Ancient Egypt’s engineering breakthroughs, the world’s technology as we know it would be set back decades, possibly even centuries. It is without a doubt that mankind can say the world has come so far because of the help of Ancient Egypt.

Bibliography Chronicle of the Pharaohs by Peter A Clayton World History: Patterns of Interaction by McDougal Littell Egypt: Engineering an Empire http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/jo/egypt/index. htm http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/explore/main.html http://students.missouri.edu/~sa-en-ra/menes2.jpg http://www.geocities.com/athens/2962/colourbook/ra.gif http://library.thinkquest.org/3011/egypt3. htm http://www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/Lectures/Hum1/030910/030910social.gif &quot;Ancient Egyptians.&quot; All About History . 2002-2008. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.allabouthistory.org/ancient-egyptians-faq.htm>. &quot;Ancient Egypt:The Egyptian Afterlife.&quot; Museum of Science . 2003. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.mos.org/quest/afterlife.php>. &quot;Ancient Egypt: Mummification in Ancient Egypt.&quot; Museum of Science . 2003. 22 Nov 2008 <http://www.mos.org/quest/mummyegypt.php>.

Beck, Roger b., et al eds. World History . Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell 1999 Fig. 1. http://www. flickr .com/photos/ pfcarballada /1672977079/sizes/l/ Fig. 2. http://www. flickr .com/photos/ nord _modular/2570850027/ Fig. 3. http://www. flickr .com/photos/82211994@N00/2892326455/ http://www. crystalinks .com/ pyramidsudan .html http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/pyramids.html http://users.hal-pc.org/~farleycw/ZImages/Travel/Egypt/Details/PyramidCplx.jpg http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/architecture/pyramids.htm http://www.aldokkan.com/art/hieroglyphics.htm Book: museum guides for kids Egyptian art http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/photos/photo_egypt_egypt.html http://lifepsychologyandalotmore.blogspot.com/2008/06/aliens-myth-or-reality_30.html http://egyptian12.blogspot.com/2008_07_29_archive.html http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html

Beck, Roger b., et al eds. World History . Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell 1999

Fig. 1. http://www. flickr .com/photos/ pfcarballada /1672977079/sizes/l/

Fig. 2. http://www. flickr .com/photos/ nord _modular/2570850027/

Fig. 3. http://www. flickr .com/photos/82211994@N00/2892326455/

http://www. crystalinks .com/ pyramidsudan .html

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/pyramids.html

http://users.hal-pc.org/~farleycw/ZImages/Travel/Egypt/Details/PyramidCplx.jpg

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/architecture/pyramids.htm

http://www.aldokkan.com/art/hieroglyphics.htm

Book: museum guides for kids Egyptian art

http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/photos/photo_egypt_egypt.html

http://lifepsychologyandalotmore.blogspot.com/2008/06/aliens-myth-or-reality_30.html

http://egyptian12.blogspot.com/2008_07_29_archive.html

http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html

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