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Ancient Egypt Chapter 2 Section

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Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Tito1

Source: authorstream.com

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Ancient Egypt :  Ancient Egypt The Nile Valley Chapter 2, Section 1 World History Mrs. Thompson Slide2:  Egypt was ruled by all-powerful rulers called pharaohs. Slide3:  The history of Egypt is divided into 3 periods: Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Egypt’s Old Kingdom began in 2600 B.C. and lasted until 2300 B.C. Egypt grew and prospered during the Old Kingdom:  Egypt grew and prospered during the Old Kingdom Egyptians Built Cities Expanded Trade Set up a Strong Government “Pharaoh” is a Greek term which means “great house” Egypt was ruled by kings called pharaohs The pharaohs’ word was law and had to be obeyed:  The pharaohs’ word was law and had to be obeyed Jobs of appointed officials: make sure crops were planted make sure irrigation canals and grain storehouses were built control trade and collect tax payments of grain from farmers Slide6:  Believed unity of kingdom depended on a strong leader 2. they considered the pharaoh to be the son of the god Re – the sun god and a god on earth Slide7:  To show the Pharaoh honor and respect in public playing music on flutes and cymbals bowing down to smell the earth or touch their heads to the ground Slide8:  The pharaoh carried out ritual ceremonies that Egyptians believed helped control their welfare such as: Riding a sacred bull around the capital city of Memphis to ensure fertility of the soil (bull = symbol of fertility) 2. cutting the first ripe grain to ensure a good harvest. Let’s Review…All about pharaohs:  Details about Egyptian pharaohs Lived in palaces Were all-powerful Considered to be gods on Earth Carry-out Religious rituals Appointed Government officials Let’s Review…All about pharaohs Slide10:  Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. Slide11:  Religion was deeply woven into Egyptian culture Egyptians believed many deities or gods and goddesses controlled the forces of nature and human activities Slide12:  The main Egyptian gods included: 1. Re, the sun god who ruled over the rising and setting of the sun, represented the importance of a sunny climate for good harvests Slide13:  2. Hapi was ruler of the Nile River who represented the importance of water for growing crops. Slide14:  3. Isis represented the loyal wife and mother who ruled over the dead with her husband Osiris, god of the underworld and afterlife. THE FAMILY OF THE EGYPTIAN GODS :  THE FAMILY OF THE EGYPTIAN GODS RA SHU TEFNUT GEB HATHOR NUT RA OSIRIS HORUS NEPHTHYS ANUBIS SET ISIS OSIRIS NEKHEBET Let’s Review…Egyptians’ beliefs:  Egyptian Beliefs Belief in many gods hopeful view of life after death Pharaoh needed body for afterlife for centuries, believed only elite had afterlife Magic spells needed to gain life after death Let’s Review…Egyptians’ beliefs Slide17:  Egyptian Gods & Goddesses: “The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus Slide18:  Egyptian Creation Myth The Goddess Nut Slide19:  Unlike the Mesopotamians, who imagined a gloomy life after death, the Egyptians thought the afterlife would be a place of peace and plenty Slide20:  Journey to the Underworld A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb. The dead travel on the “Solar Bark.” Slide21:  Egyptian Book of the Dead Slide22:  Book of the Dead was a collection of spells and prayers that Egyptians studied to obtain life after death. Egyptians believed they must lead a good life and know the magic spells to gain the afterlife. Egyptian Book of the Dead Slide23:  Osiris met the dead in the next world and judged whether to grant them life after death. The Underworld:  The Underworld This scene shows what Egyptians believed happened to the soul after it descended into the Underworld. Slide25:  The Final Judgement Osiris Anubis Horus Slide26:  Egyptians believed it was vital for the pharaoh’s spirit to reach the next world where he could continue to care for Egypt. Through the embalming process, Egyptians prepared the pharaoh’s body to accept his spirit in the afterlife Slide27:  Shabtis: The Pharaoh’s Servants in the Afterlife Slide28:  Steps to making a mummy: 1. remove the brain remove the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines and place in canoptic jars 3. wash the body with wine 4. salt the body with natron and store it in the desert sands to dry Slide29:  5. remove the body from the sands, fill it with spices and perfumes, and stitch it closed. 6. cleanse the body with oils 7. wrap the body with long strips of cotton-linen cloth 8. place inside a wooden coffin and put it into a sarcophagus Slide30:  Materials Used in Mummification 1. Linen 6. Natron 2. Sawdust 7. Onion 3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud 4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads 5. Resin 10. Frankinsense Slide32:  Preparation for the Afterlife Slide33:  Egyptian Mummies Seti I 1291-1278 B. C. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. Slide34:  Preparations for the Underworld Priests protected your KA, or soul-spirit ANUBIS weighs the dead person’s heart against a feather. Slide35:  Egyptian doctors used herbs and drugs to treat many different illnesses specialists to treat particular parts of the body world’s first medical books on papyrus scrolls became skilled at sewing up cuts and setting broken bones Slide36:  The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs. Slide38:  Egyptians built mountain-like pyramids, entirely of stone, as tombs for the pharaohs They were the size of several city blocks and were meant to protect the dead bodies of pharaohs from: floods wild animals grave robbers Slide39:  Pyramids were filled with supplies that the pharaoh might need in the spirit world such as: clothing furniture jewelry food Slide40:  Thousands of people and many years to build the pyramids Most of the builders were farmers Surveyors, engineers, carpenters, and stonecutters also lent skills to pyramid building Slide41:  Each pyramid sat on a square base with entrance facing north Egyptians used astronomy to determine true north Egyptians developed 365 day/12 month calendar which is basis for modern calendar Slide42:  Egyptian advances in Math helped them determine angle measurements and amount of stone needed for pyramids Slide43:  Advances in Mathematics System of written numbers based on 10 Creation of fractions and using them with whole numbers to add, subtract, & divide Slide45:  About 2540 B.C., Egyptians built the largest and grandest of the pyramids known as the Great Pyramid Slide46:  Located about 10 miles from Cairo and stands in Giza on the west bank of the Nile River Rises nearly 5oo ft. above desert and covers an area about 9 football fields Contains more than 2 million stone blocks, each about 2.5 tons Slide47:  Tallest structure on the world for more than 4,000 years and is equal to size of a 48 story building Largest of about 80 pyramids found in Egypt

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