Published on March 18, 2014
Anatomy Skeletal/Muscular System
Warm Up Label the Long bone • epiphysis • spongy bone • articular cartilage • diaphysis • compact bone • bone marrow • Marrow cavity • blood vessel • periosteum I
Answers • A-diaphysis • B-epiphysis • C-spongy bone • D-articular cartilage • E- spongy bone • F-compact bone • G- Bone marrow • H- periosteum • I- Marrow cavity
The Skeletal System: divided into two groups, the axial and appendicular skeleton for a total of 206 bones in the body. I. The Axial Skeleton: consists of 80 bones that revolve around the vertical axis of the skeleton. *skull, ribs, sternum and vertebral column
A. Bones of the Axial Skeleton 1. The Skull A. Cranial bones (8): *frontal (1) *parietal (2) *temporal (2) *sphenoid (1) *ethmoid (1) *occipital (1) http://www.learnbones.com/skull-cranial-and-facial-bones-anatomy
A. Bones of the Axial Skeleton B. Facial Bones (14): *mandible (1) *maxilla (2) *zygomatic bone (2) *nasal bone (2) *lacrimal (2) *palatine (2 *inferior nasal concha (2) *volmer (1)
A. Bones of the Axial Skeleton 2. Thoracic cage (25): *sternum (1) *true ribs (14) articulate with the sternum directly. *false ribs (6) *floating ribs (4)
A. Bones of the Axial Skeleton 3. Vertebral Column (26): *cervical vertebrae (7) *thoracic vertebrae (12) *lumbar vertebrae (5) *sacrum (5 fused) *coccyx (4 fused)
II. The Appendicular Skeleton: consists of 126 bones that append to the axial skeleton. A. Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton 1. Pectoral girdle (4) *clavicle (2) *scapula (2)
A. Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton 2. The Upper Limb (60) *humerus (2) *radius (2) *ulna (2) *carpals (16) *metacarpals (10) *phalanges (28)
A. Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton 3. Pelvic Girdle (2) 3 fused pairs *ilium *ischium *pubis
A. Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton 4. Lower limb (60) *femur (2) *patella (2) *tibia (2) *fibula (2) *tarsal (14) *metatarsals (10) *phalanges (28)
III. Functions of the Skeletal System A. Axial Skeleton Functions: *protects the brain and internal organs. *provides structure and support *attachment for muscles
III. Functions of the Skeletal System B. Appendicular Skeleton Functions: *protection *attachment for muscles *support and movement *blood cell formation
IV. Types of Bones 1. Long Bones: those that are longer than they are wide. *femur, tibia, fibula *humerus, radius, ulna *clavicle *metacarpals *metatarsals *phalanges
2. Short Bones: are as wide as they are long. *tarsals of the foot *carpals of the hand
3. Flat Bones: broad flat plates used for protection and muscular attachment. Most RBC’s are produce in flat bones. *skull *rib cage *sternum *scapula *pelvis *os coxae (hip bone)
4. Irregular Bones: have peculiar shapes and cannot be grouped in the other bone categories. *verterbrae *sacrum *coccyx *mandible *maxilla *hyoid
long bone structure
V. Anatomical Terminology
V. Anatomical Terminology 1. Anterior: towards the front. 2. Posterior: towards the back. 3. Superior: towards the head. 4. Inferior: towards the feet. 5. Proximal: nearest; closer to any point of reference. 6. Distal: remote; farther from any point of reference. 7. Lateral: point that is more distant from the median plane. 8. Medial: point that is closer to the median plane
Food for Thought • http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/ver
VI. Connective Tissue 1. Cartilage: a flexible connective tissue found between the bones of joints. It acts as a cushion between joints and reduces friction in movement.
VI. Connective Tissue 2. Ligament: dense, flexible tissue that connects bone to bone at a joint.
VI. Connective Tissue 3. Tendon: consists of dense collagen fibers and connect muscle to bone.
VII. Joint: point where two or more bones articulate allowing movement and mechanical support. A. Types of Joints 1. Fibrous: held together by fibrous connective tissue. Usually immovable or slightly moveable. Ex. Suture joints between cranial bones and distal joint of tibia and fibula.
2. Cartilaginous: joints held together by cartilage. May be immovable or slightly movable.
3. Synovial: freely movable joints characterized by a synovial cavity (joint cavity) containing synovial fluid. Features of Synovial Joints: a. Articular cartilage: (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones. b. Synovial membrane: surrounds the synovial cavity.
c. Articular Capsule: is composed of the synovial membrane and the fibrous capsule. d. Bursae: fluid filled sac that cushions and reduces friction between moving structures. e. Meniscus: disperses the weight of the body and reduces friction in the joint.
Types of Synovial joints 1. Hinge: allow flexion and extension along one plane. *elbow *knee *ankle *joints in the fingers
Types of Synovial joints 2. Ball and Socket: allow all movements except gliding. *hip *shoulder
Types of Synovial joints 3. Condyloid: allow flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction. *wrist *between the metacarpals and phalanges.
Types of Synovial joints 4. Pivot: one bone rotates about another. *the neck *radius and ulna
Types of Synovial joints 5. Gliding: permit sliding and gliding movements. *spine *wrist *ankles *clavicle
Types of Synovial joints 6. Saddle: same movement as condyloid joints. *thumb
Write a 1 page essay outlining the function of connective tissue. Discuss the role played by cartilage, ligaments and tendons citing examples from specific joints.
The Muscular System I. Characteristics of muscle tissue *contractibility-ability of the muscle to shorten. *extensibility: ability of the muscle to lengthen. *elasticity: ability of the muscle to return to it’s normal size.
I. Characteristics of muscle tissue * atrophy-a decrease in the size of muscle tissue. * hypertrophy-an increase in the size of muscle tissue. * Controlled by nerve tissue and fed by capillaries.
II. Types of Muscle Tissue A. Smooth: Involuntary muscle that lines the walls of hollow organs, blood vessels and the digestive tract.
II. Types of Muscle Tissue B. Cardiac: involuntary striated muscle responsible for rhythmic contractions of the heart.
II. Types of Muscle Tissue C. Skeletal: Voluntary striated muscle that is responsible for movement.
III. Structure of Skeletal Muscle
III. Structure of Skeletal Muscle
IV. Muscle Attachment 1. Origin: the point of attachment of a muscle tendon to a stationary bone. 2. Insertion: point of attachment of a muscle tendon to a movable bone.
Muscles of the anterior portion of the body Deltoid http://www.getbodysmart.com/
Abdominus rectus and External obliques
Muscles of the posterior portion of the body
Gastrocnemius and Soleus
Calcification Inhibitors in CKD and Dialysis Patients
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