Anatomy Of Cardiocasvular System

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Anatomy of Cardiovasvular System

The Cardiovascular System

Your heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Your heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells.

Your heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system.

Your heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body.

Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells.

Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins.

Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries.

Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins.

If all the vessels of this network in your body were laid end-to-end, they would extend for about 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 kilometers), which is far enough to circle the earth more than twice!

If all the vessels of this network in your body were laid end-to-end, they would extend for about 60,000 miles (more than 96,500 kilometers), which is far enough to circle the earth more than twice!

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body.

This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation.

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched.

It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

Twenty major arteries make a path through your tissues, where they branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. Arterioles further branch into capillaries, the true deliverers of oxygen and nutrients to your cells. Most capillaries are thinner than a hair. In fact, many are so tiny, only one blood cell can move through them at a time.

Twenty major arteries make a path through your tissues, where they branch into smaller vessels called arterioles.

Arterioles further branch into capillaries, the true deliverers of oxygen and nutrients to your cells. Most capillaries are thinner than a hair. In fact, many are so tiny, only one blood cell can move through them at a time.

Once the capillaries deliver oxygen and nutrients and pick up carbon dioxide and other waste, they move the blood back through wider vessels called venules. Venules eventually join to form veins, which deliver the blood back to your heart to pick up oxygen.

Once the capillaries deliver oxygen and nutrients and pick up carbon dioxide and other waste, they move the blood back through wider vessels called venules.

Venules eventually join to form veins, which deliver the blood back to your heart to pick up oxygen.

Blood

The circulatory system is the route by which the cells in your body get the oxygen and nutrients they need, but blood is the actual carrier of the oxygen and nutrients. Blood is made mostly of plasma, which is a yellowish liquid that is 90% water.

The circulatory system is the route by which the cells in your body get the oxygen and nutrients they need, but blood is the actual carrier of the oxygen and nutrients.

Blood is made mostly of plasma, which is a yellowish liquid that is 90% water.

But in addition to the water, plasma contains salts, sugar (glucose), and other substances. And, most important, plasma contains proteins that carry important nutrients to the body’s cells and strengthen the body’s immune system so it can fight off infection.

But in addition to the water, plasma contains salts, sugar (glucose), and other substances. And, most important, plasma contains proteins that carry important nutrients to the body’s cells and strengthen the body’s immune system so it can fight off infection.

The average man has between 10 and 12 pints of blood in his body. The average woman has between 8 and 9 pints. To give you an idea of how much blood that is, 8 pints is equal to 1 gallon (think of a gallon of milk).

The average man has between 10 and 12 pints of blood in his body.

The average woman has between 8 and 9 pints. To give you an idea of how much blood that is, 8 pints is equal to 1 gallon (think of a gallon of milk).

What is blood? Blood is actually a tissue. It is thick because it is made up of a variety of cells, each having a different job. In fact, blood is actually about 80% water and 20% solid .

Blood is actually a tissue.

It is thick because it is made up of a variety of cells, each having a different job. In fact, blood is actually about 80% water and 20% solid .

We know that blood is made mostly of plasma. But there are 3 main types of blood cells that circulate with the plasma:

We know that blood is made mostly of plasma. But there are 3 main types of blood cells that circulate with the plasma:

Platelets, which help the blood to clot. Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein or artery is broken. Platelets are also called thrombocytes.

Platelets, which help the blood to clot. Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein or artery is broken. Platelets are also called thrombocytes.

Red blood cells, which carry oxygen. Of the 3 types of blood cells, red blood cells are the most plentiful. In fact, a healthy adult has about 35 trillion of them. The body creates these cells at a rate of about 2.4 million a second, and they each have a life span of about 120 days. Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes.

Red blood cells, which carry oxygen. Of the 3 types of blood cells, red blood cells are the most plentiful. In fact, a healthy adult has about 35 trillion of them. The body creates these cells at a rate of about 2.4 million a second, and they each have a life span of about 120 days. Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes.

 

White blood cells, which ward off infection. These cells, which come in many shapes and sizes, are vital to the immune system. When the body is fighting off infection, it makes them in ever-increasing numbers. Still, compared to the number of red blood cells in the body, the number of white blood cells is low. Most healthy adults have about 700 times as many red blood cells as white ones. White blood cells are also called leukocytes.

White blood cells, which ward off infection. These cells, which come in many shapes and sizes, are vital to the immune system. When the body is fighting off infection, it makes them in ever-increasing numbers. Still, compared to the number of red blood cells in the body, the number of white blood cells is low. Most healthy adults have about 700 times as many red blood cells as white ones. White blood cells are also called leukocytes.

 

Blood also contains hormones, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and gases.

Blood also contains hormones, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and gases.

What does blood do? Blood carries oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to the body’s cells. It also carries away carbon dioxide and all of  the waste products that the body does not need. (The kidneys filter and clean the blood.)

Blood carries oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to the body’s cells. It also carries away carbon dioxide and all of  the waste products that the body does not need. (The kidneys filter and clean the blood.)

Blood also Helps keep your body at the right temperature Carries hormones to the body’s cells Sends antibodies to fight infection Contains clotting factors to help the blood to clot and the body’s tissues to heal

Blood also

Helps keep your body at the right temperature

Carries hormones to the body’s cells

Sends antibodies to fight infection

Contains clotting factors to help the blood to clot and the body’s tissues to heal

Blood types There are 4 different blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Genes that you inherit from your parents (1 from your mother and 1 from your father) determine your blood type.

There are 4 different blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Genes that you inherit from your parents (1 from your mother and 1 from your father) determine your blood type.

Blood is always being made by the cells inside your bones, so your body can usually replace any blood lost through small cuts or wounds. But when a lot of blood is lost through large wounds, it has to be replaced through a blood transfusion (blood donated by other people).

Blood is always being made by the cells inside your bones, so your body can usually replace any blood lost through small cuts or wounds. But when a lot of blood is lost through large wounds, it has to be replaced through a blood transfusion (blood donated by other people).

In blood transfusions, the donor and recipient blood types must be compatible. People with type O blood are called universal donors, because they can donate blood to anyone, but they can only receive a transfusion from other people with type O blood.

In blood transfusions, the donor and recipient blood types must be compatible. People with type O blood are called universal donors, because they can donate blood to anyone, but they can only receive a transfusion from other people with type O blood.

Blood tests and cardiovascular conditions Certain blood tests can be performed to see if there is a problem with your heart, lungs, or blood vessels.

Certain blood tests can be performed to see if there is a problem with your heart, lungs, or blood vessels.

Cardiac enzyme tests, which measure the cardiac enzyme levels in the blood. Certain enzymes will be present if the heart muscle (myocardium) has been damaged by a heart attack, because damaged heart cells release these enzymes into the blood. The most common cardiac enzyme that is released is creatine kinase.

Cardiac enzyme tests, which measure the cardiac enzyme levels in the blood. Certain enzymes will be present if the heart muscle (myocardium) has been damaged by a heart attack, because damaged heart cells release these enzymes into the blood. The most common cardiac enzyme that is released is creatine kinase.

Troponin tests, which measure the amount of troponin (a type of protein) in the blood. Troponin affects how the heart muscle contracts. If there are high levels of troponin in the blood (troponin T or troponin I), there is most likely damage to the heart muscle. The amount of troponin released into the blood correlates with the degree of damage to the heart muscle.

Troponin tests, which measure the amount of troponin (a type of protein) in the blood. Troponin affects how the heart muscle contracts. If there are high levels of troponin in the blood (troponin T or troponin I), there is most likely damage to the heart muscle. The amount of troponin released into the blood correlates with the degree of damage to the heart muscle.

 

Arterial blood gas studies, which measure how well the blood is being oxygenated in the lungs.

Arterial blood gas studies, which measure how well the blood is being oxygenated in the lungs.

Lipoprotein (cholesterol) profile, which measures how much fat or lipid is in the blood.

Lipoprotein (cholesterol) profile, which measures how much fat or lipid is in the blood.

Blood cultures, which can be used to determine if there are microorganisms (like the bacteria that causes endocarditis) in the body’s system. After the blood is drawn, it is placed on a culture, which helps the bacteria grow. The bacteria is then analyzed to determine what type it is and what medicines can be used to kill it.

Blood cultures, which can be used to determine if there are microorganisms (like the bacteria that causes endocarditis) in the body’s system. After the blood is drawn, it is placed on a culture, which helps the bacteria grow. The bacteria is then analyzed to determine what type it is and what medicines can be used to kill it.

 

Blood clotting tests, which measure the blood’s ability to clot. Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein or artery is broken.

Blood clotting tests, which measure the blood’s ability to clot. Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein or artery is broken.

Heart Anatomy

The heart weighs between 7 and 15 ounces (200 to 425 grams) and is a little larger than the size of your fist. By the end of a long life, a person's heart may have beat (expanded and contracted) more than 3.5 billion times. In fact, each day, the average heart beats 100,000 times, pumping about 2,000 gallons (7,571 liters) of blood.

The heart weighs between 7 and 15 ounces (200 to 425 grams) and is a little larger than the size of your fist.

By the end of a long life, a person's heart may have beat (expanded and contracted) more than 3.5 billion times.

In fact, each day, the average heart beats 100,000 times, pumping about 2,000 gallons (7,571 liters) of blood.

 

Your heart is located between your lungs in the middle of your chest, behind and slightly to the left of your breastbone (sternum). A double-layered membrane called the pericardium surrounds your heart like a sac.

Your heart is located between your lungs in the middle of your chest, behind and slightly to the left of your breastbone (sternum).

A double-layered membrane called the pericardium surrounds your heart like a sac.

The outer layer of the pericardium surrounds the roots of your heart's major blood vessels and is attached by ligaments to your spinal column, diaphragm, and other parts of your body.

The outer layer of the pericardium surrounds the roots of your heart's major blood vessels and is attached by ligaments to your spinal column, diaphragm, and other parts of your body.

The inner layer of the pericardium is attached to the heart muscle. A coating of fluid separates the two layers of membrane, letting the heart move as it beats, yet still be attached to your body.

The inner layer of the pericardium is attached to the heart muscle.

A coating of fluid separates the two layers of membrane, letting the heart move as it beats, yet still be attached to your body.

Your heart has 4 chambers. The upper chambers are called the left and right atria, and the lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles. A wall of muscle called the septum separates the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.

Your heart has 4 chambers.

The upper chambers are called the left and right atria, and the lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles.

A wall of muscle called the septum separates the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.

The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in your heart. The left ventricle's chamber walls are only about a half-inch thick, but they have enough force to push blood through the aortic valve and into your body.

The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in your heart.

The left ventricle's chamber walls are only about a half-inch thick, but they have enough force to push blood through the aortic valve and into your body.

The Heart Valves

Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart: The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle.

Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart:

The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle.

 

The pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

The pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

 

The mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

 

The aortic valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of the body.

The aortic valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of the body.

 

The Conduction System

 

Electrical impulses from your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to beat (contract). This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located at the top of the right atrium. The SA node is sometimes called the heart's "natural pacemaker."

Electrical impulses from your heart muscle (the myocardium) cause your heart to beat (contract).

This electrical signal begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located at the top of the right atrium.

The SA node is sometimes called the heart's "natural pacemaker."

When an electrical impulse is released from this natural pacemaker, it causes the atria to contract. The signal then passes through the atrioventricular (AV) node. The AV node checks the signal and sends it through the muscle fibers of the ventricles, causing them to contract.

When an electrical impulse is released from this natural pacemaker, it causes the atria to contract.

The signal then passes through the atrioventricular (AV) node.

The AV node checks the signal and sends it through the muscle fibers of the ventricles, causing them to contract.

The SA node sends electrical impulses at a certain rate, but your heart rate may still change depending on physical demands, stress, or hormonal factors.

The SA node sends electrical impulses at a certain rate, but your heart rate may still change depending on physical demands, stress, or hormonal factors.

The Coronary Arteries

 

Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other organ or tissue in your body, needs oxygen-rich blood to survive. Blood is supplied to the heart by its own vascular system, called coronary circulation.

The heart muscle, like every other organ or tissue in your body, needs oxygen-rich blood to survive.

Blood is supplied to the heart by its own vascular system, called coronary circulation.

The aorta (the main blood supplier to the body) branches off into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle.

The aorta (the main blood supplier to the body) branches off into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries).

These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the entire heart muscle.

The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart. The right side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs.

The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart.

The right side of the heart is smaller because it pumps blood only to the lungs.

The left coronary artery, which branches into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery, supplies blood to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body.

The left coronary artery, which branches into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery, supplies blood to the left side of the heart.

The left side of the heart is larger and more muscular because it pumps blood to the rest of the body.

The Heart Valves

Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart: The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle.  

Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart:

The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle.  

 

The pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

The pulmonary valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.

 

The mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The mitral valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

 

The aortic valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of the body.

The aortic valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of the body.

 

The Heartbeat

A heartbeat is a two-part pumping action that takes about a second. As blood collects in the upper chambers (the right and left atria), the heart's natural pacemaker (the SA node) sends out an electrical signal that causes the atria to contract.

A heartbeat is a two-part pumping action that takes about a second.

As blood collects in the upper chambers (the right and left atria), the heart's natural pacemaker (the SA node) sends out an electrical signal that causes the atria to contract.

This contraction pushes blood through the tricuspid and mitral valves into the resting lower chambers (the right and left ventricles). This part of the two-part pumping phase (the longer of the two) is called  diastole .

This contraction pushes blood through the tricuspid and mitral valves into the resting lower chambers (the right and left ventricles).

This part of the two-part pumping phase (the longer of the two) is called  diastole .

The second part of the pumping phase begins when the ventricles are full of blood. The electrical signals from the SA node travel along a pathway of cells to the ventricles, causing them to contract. This is called systole .

The second part of the pumping phase begins when the ventricles are full of blood.

The electrical signals from the SA node travel along a pathway of cells to the ventricles, causing them to contract.

This is called systole .

As the tricuspid and mitral valves shut tight to prevent a back flow of blood, the pulmonary and aortic valves are pushed open. While blood is pushed from the right ventricle into the lungs to pick up oxygen, oxygen-rich blood flows from the left ventricle to the heart and other parts of the body.

As the tricuspid and mitral valves shut tight to prevent a back flow of blood, the pulmonary and aortic valves are pushed open.

While blood is pushed from the right ventricle into the lungs to pick up oxygen, oxygen-rich blood flows from the left ventricle to the heart and other parts of the body.

After blood moves into the pulmonary artery and the aorta, the ventricles relax, and the pulmonary and aortic valves close. The lower pressure in the ventricles causes the tricuspid and mitral valves to open, and the cycle begins again.

After blood moves into the pulmonary artery and the aorta, the ventricles relax, and the pulmonary and aortic valves close.

The lower pressure in the ventricles causes the tricuspid and mitral valves to open, and the cycle begins again.

This series of contractions is repeated over and over again, increasing during times of exertion and decreasing while you are at rest. The heart normally beats about 60 to 80 times a minute when you are at rest, but this can vary.

This series of contractions is repeated over and over again, increasing during times of exertion and decreasing while you are at rest.

The heart normally beats about 60 to 80 times a minute when you are at rest, but this can vary.

As you get older, your resting heart rate rises. Also, it is usually lower in people who are physically fit.

As you get older, your resting heart rate rises.

Also, it is usually lower in people who are physically fit.

Your heart does not work alone, though. Your brain tracks the conditions around you—climate, stress, and level of physical activity—and adjusts your cardiovascular system to meet those needs.

Your heart does not work alone, though. Your brain tracks the conditions around you—climate, stress, and level of physical activity—and adjusts your cardiovascular system to meet those needs.

The human heart is a muscle designed to remain strong and reliable for a hundred years or longer. By reducing your risk factors for cardiovascular disease, you may help your heart stay healthy longer.

The human heart is a muscle designed to remain strong and reliable for a hundred years or longer.

By reducing your risk factors for cardiovascular disease, you may help your heart stay healthy longer.

Vasculature of the Arm

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body.

This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation.

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched.

It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

Vasculature of the Head

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body.

This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation.

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched.

It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

Arteries of the Head and Upper Torso

Veins of the Head and Upper Torso

In the diagrams, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

In the diagrams, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

Vasculature of the Leg

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body.

This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation.

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched.

It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

Vasculature of the Torso

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body.

This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation.

Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched.

It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

In the diagram, the vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood are colored red, and the vessels that carry oxygen-poor blood are colored blue.

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