Analytical Paragraph Structure

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Information about Analytical Paragraph Structure
Business-Finance

Published on August 20, 2008

Author: avgs

Source: authorstream.com

Building Analysis or Argument Paragraphs: Building Analysis or Argument Paragraphs (To move forward or backward in this presentation, use the arrows in the bottom left corner of the page.) Types of Paragraphs: Types of Paragraphs As you know, a paragraph is a group of sentences focused on one idea or purpose. Paragraphs allow a writer to break complex ideas into smaller parts for easier explanation to readers. There are many types of paragraphs writers can use in academic writing. The three primary types are Introductory paragraphs Body paragraphs Conclusion paragraphs Body Paragraphs: Body Paragraphs Of these three primary types, the body paragraphs are the most flexible. Body paragraphs in an academic essay can have many different purposes and methods of organization depending on what the writer wants them to do and where they are in the essay Some of the most common purposes for body paragraphs include Describing a person, place, event, or idea Narrating a story or example Defining a concept Comparing or contrasting things or ideas Arguing a claim Analysis or Argument Paragraphs: Analysis or Argument Paragraphs One of the most common types of body paragraphs is the paragraph that uses analysis of evidence to make an argument or provide analysis. This is the type of paragraph we are going to focus on. This type of body paragraph has a clear structure that writers can use when they are experimenting with creating arguments or analysis for academic writing. This structure includes the following elements: Claim Evidence Explanation Closing Making Claims: Making Claims Begin the paragraph with what is called a claim . The claim can be in the topic sentence of the paragraph. The topic sentence is the sentence that tells the main idea of the paragraph. A claim is an arguable statement. It is something the writer claims to be true, but that another reasonable person might disagree with. A claim is not a statement of fact. For example, “The earth revolves around the sun” is not a claim because at this time it is a statement of fact that no reasonable person would disagree with. A good way to test a claim is to see if you can create a reasonable opposing claim . If you can, then you probably have successfully created a claim for your paragraph Making Claims (continued): Making Claims (continued) Here is an example of a possible claim : Often Gloria Anzaldúa makes it easy for English-only readers to understand her Spanish in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” but even in these moments she is resisting being tamed or changed by English. Is this a claim or a statement of fact? If you can think of an opposing claim , then the one above is probably a claim too; can you think of a claim that disagrees with this one? Making Claims (continued): Making Claims (continued) One possible opposing claim might argue Anzaldúa is actually allowing her tongue to be tamed when she translates her Spanish for an English-only audience; therefore these are not moments of resistance at all. So, the original claim Often Gloria Anzaldúa makes it easy for English-only readers to understand her Spanish in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” but even in these moments she is resisting being tamed or changed by English. is a good one. Offering Evidence: Offering Evidence We have our claim , now we need evidence . After deciding on a claim, a writer needs to find evidence to support that claim. Evidence in academic writing functions much like we think of it in legal cases. The purpose of the evidence is to help convince the reader that the writer’s claim is true, or at least reasonable. Claim Evidence Explanation Closing Offering Evidence (continued): Offering Evidence (continued) Evidence in academic writing can include many different types of information, such as Examples Quotes Facts Statistics Stories Descriptions Definitions Offering Evidence (continued): Offering Evidence (continued) Using evidence clearly in academic writing involves several aspects: A signal phrase or sentence that introduces the evidence The context of the evidence (sometimes included as part of the signal phrase) Where/When is it from Who is responsible for it A citation of some kind that explains the exact source of the information (in English and Humanities classes this is usually done using guidelines created by a group called the Modern Language Association) Offering Evidence (continued): Offering Evidence (continued) As suggested, evidence should always work to support the paragraph’s claim . Here is an example of evidence connected to the previous claim about Gloria Anzaldúa’s essay “How to Tame a Wild Tongue”: Sometimes Anzaldúa chooses to translate her non-English sentences. For example, she writes, “ En boca cerrada no entran moscas . ‘Flies don’t enter a closed mouth’” when she explains how she was encouraged to silence as a child (76). Other times she uses words in Spanish that are very similar to English words; she writes of people who speak “a language with terms that are neither espa ñ ol ni ingles , but both” (77). The next page analyzes (breaks down) this evidence to show how it meets academic expectations. PowerPoint Presentation: Often Gloria Anzaldúa makes it easy for English readers to understand her Spanish in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” but even in these moments she is resisting being tamed or changed by English . Sometimes Anzaldúa chooses to translate her non-English sentences. For example, she writes, “ En boca cerrada no entran moscas . ‘Flies don’t enter a closed mouth’” when she explains how she was encouraged to silence as a child (76). Other times she uses words in Spanish that are very similar to English words; she writes of people who speak “ a language with terms that are neither español ni ingles, but both” (77). Here are the signals that let us know evidence is coming; they also offers some context Here are the citations (in Modern Language Association format) that let us know exactly what page the evidence comes from Offering Evidence (continued) Here is the evidence; in this case it is quotes from an essay Here is our claim. Explaining Evidence: Explaining Evidence We have a claim and some evidence that we think supports that claim . Now we need to add the explanation that connects the claim to the evidence . The writer needs to show the reader the thought process that makes the claim true, or at least reasonable. The evidence can’t support the claim on its own; the writer must explain the connection to the reader even if it seems obvious to the writer. Claim Evidence Explanation Closing Explaining Evidence (continued): Explaining Evidence (continued) Often Gloria Anzaldúa makes it easy for English readers to understand her Spanish in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” but even in these moments she is resisting being tamed or changed by English. Sometimes Anzaldúa chooses to translate her non-English sentences. For example, she writes, “ En boca cerrada no entran moscas . ‘Flies don’t enter a closed mouth’” when she explains how she was encouraged to silence as a child (76). Other times she uses words in Spanish that are very similar to English words; she writes of people who speak “a language with terms that are neither español ni ingles , but both” (77). It is not difficult here to understand that the words in English would be Spanish nor English based on the similarity to English and on the neither/nor sentence structure that is also similar in Spanish and English. In the moments when she makes the Spanish words clear to English only readers, Anzaldúa wants us to understand exactly what she is saying even as she uses the language she has so often been told not to use. She is showing the flexibility of language and sharing part of her personality and history as she can only do in Spanish. Here is the explanation for the evidence. On the next page, we will analyze this in more detail. Here are the claim and the evidence as discussed earlier Explaining Evidence (continued): Explaining Evidence (continued) It is not difficult here to understand that the words in English would be Spanish nor English based on the similarity to English and on the neither/nor sentence structure that is also similar in Spanish and English. In the moments when she makes the Spanish words clear to English- only readers, Anzaldúa wants us to understand exactly what she is saying even as she uses the language she has so often been told not to use. She is showing the flexibility of language and sharing part of her personality and history as she can only do in Spanish. The explanation in this case has two parts that function in two different ways. The first section of the explanation looks specifically at the immediately preceding quote and shows why that quote (“a language with terms that are neither español ni ingles, but both”) is in fact easy for English-only readers to understand. This supports a part of the main claim of the paragraph but not the entire idea that Anzaldúa is resisting being changed or tamed. The second section of the explanation does not only focus on one quote but tries to show how all of the evidence supports the main claim of the paragraph that Anzaldúa is resisting being changed or tamed. Explanation does not always have two parts. It may have one part, three parts, or more. The purpose is to try to explain the writer’s ideas to the reader in the most clear way. Closing a Paragraph: Closing a Paragraph The closing always comes at the end of the paragraph. In one or two sentences the closing should Provide a logical and emotional closure to the paragraph Reconnect the ideas in the explanation clearly to the ideas in the claim Possibly provide a connection for a transition at the beginning of the following paragraph Claim Evidence Explanation Closing Closing a Paragraph (continued): Closing a Paragraph (continued) Often Gloria Anzaldúa makes it easy for English-only readers to understand her Spanish in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” but even in these moments she is resisting being tamed or changed by English. Sometimes Anzaldúa chooses to translate her non-English sentences. For example, she writes, “ En boca cerrada no entran moscas . ‘Flies don’t enter a closed mouth’” when she explains how she was encouraged to silence as a child (76). Other times she uses words in Spanish that are very similar to English words; she writes of people who speak “a language with terms that are neither español ni ingles , but both” (77). It is not difficult here to understand that the words in English would be Spanish nor English based on the similarity to English and on the neither/nor sentence structure that is also similar in Spanish and English. In the moments when she makes the Spanish words clear to English-only readers, Anzaldúa wants us to understand exactly what she is saying even as she uses the language she has so often been told not to use. She is showing the flexibility of language and sharing part of her personality and history as she can only do in Spanish. Though she is not being completely wild in these moments , she is pushing the boundaries of clarity for English-only readers and exerting her independence, Here are the claim, evidence, and explanation as discussed earlier Here is the closing. Notice how it offers a final statement on the claim and echoes some words in the claim while simultaneously adding new ideas to the argument Building Analysis or Argument Paragraphs: Building Analysis or Argument Paragraphs Thus we have the four primary parts of paragraphs that make arguments or provide analysis in academic writing. Once a writer has grown accustomed to this type of writing and thinking, the writer can experiment with using these parts in different ways within one paragraph or across multiple paragraphs in an essay Claim Evidence Explanation Closing Reading Practice: Reading Practice With your newfound knowledge of academic writing, practice finding the claim, evidence, explanation , and closing in the following paragraph. It is the paragraph that follows the one we have been reading throughout this discussion. At other times, Anzaldúa leaves words untranslated in order to emphasize their meaning and to move beyond the boundaries of tame language. For instance, she says, “Even our own people, other Spanish speakers nos quieren poner candados en la boca . They would hold us back with their bag of reglas de academia ” (76). Roughly translated, the first Spanish phrase says they want to put padlocks on our mouths and the second just means academic rules . By writing these words in Spanish, Anzaldúa is exactly not letting a padlock be put on her mouth; she is not changing her language to English, nor even translating it for English-only readers. She is exerting her wildness, her willingness to be unknown and difficult for her English-only readers, and in doing so she is willfully breaking the academic rules that she feels others are trying to impose on her. These are just a few moments that reveal the way that Anzaldúa’s very purposeful decisions to translate or not translate feed into her larger project to make this essay an example of the freedom she wants to create for all language. After reading the paragraph, take a moment to decide where the different parts of the structure are. See the next page to check your response. Reading Practice: Reading Practice At other times, Anzaldúa leaves words untranslated in order to emphasize their meaning and to move beyond the boundaries of tame language. For instance, she says, “Even our own people, other Spanish speakers nos quieren poner candados en la boca . They would hold us back with their bag of reglas de academia ” (76). Roughly translated, the first Spanish phrase says they want to put padlocks on our mouths and the second just means academic rules . By writing these words in Spanish, Anzaldúa is exactly not letting a padlock be put on her mouth; she is not changing her language to English, nor even translating it for English-only readers. She is exerting her wildness, her willingness to be unknown and difficult for her English-only readers, and in doing so she is willfully breaking the academic rules that she feels others are trying to impose on her. These are just a few moments that reveal the way that Anzaldúa’s very purposeful decisions to translate or not translate feed into her larger project to make this essay an example of the freedom she wants to create for all language. If you have any questions about this paragraph or any of the information in this presentation, please be sure to talk with your instructor. Claim Explanation Evidence Closing

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