An introduction to M2M / IoT technologies

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Information about An introduction to M2M / IoT technologies
Technology

Published on March 15, 2014

Author: PascalBodin

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This 2 x 3-hour course was recently taught to Electronics, Systems and Telecommunications "Master 2" students, at University of Nice.

M2M / IoT / devices An introduction 15-Mar-2014 V1.0 https://creativecommons.org/

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 2/141 Contents Definitions A few examples Functional view Physical architecture Networks Connected devices Middleware Application layer Ecosystem Standardization Want to play? Conclusion functional technical business

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 3/141 About the author Pascal Bodin 2004 - today: Orange ● M2M Senior Software Developer ● Orange Expert – software ● domain: M2M systems and services ● co-founder of a company building home computing systems (1990)1993 – 2004: ● co-founder of a company building real-time M2M systems – mostly for connected vehicles ● manager of a France Telecom R&D Unit 1983 – 1993: ● software development (developer + project leader) 1982 – 1983: French Navy Reserve Officer, onboard oceanographic ship “D'Entrecasteaux” 1982: Master of Engineering from Telecom Bretagne, a French Graduate Engineering School – Telecommunications and Computer Science Contact: ● personal web site: http://www.monblocnotes.com ● Twitter: @PascalBod06 ● LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/pascalbodin

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 4/141 Definitions – 1/2 M2M ● Wikipedia: Machine to machine (M2M) refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same type. [Def1] ● Digi: Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology allows organizations to gather data from the edge of the enterprise and apply it in ways that positively impact the business. [Def2] ● Orange: Exchange of information between machines that is established between the central control system (server) and any type of equipment, through one or several communication networks. [Def3]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 5/141 IoT ● Wikipedia: The Internet of Things (or IoT for short) refers to uniquely identifiable objects and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure. [Def4] ● Cisco: The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects accessed through the Internet, as defined by technology analysts and visionaries. These objects contain embedded technology to interact with internal states or the external environment. In other words, when objects can sense and communicate, it changes how and where decisions are made, and who makes them. [Def5] Definitions – 2/2

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 6/141 M2M, IoT are acronyms invented by people trying to create new trends without trying to really understand user needs. M2M, IoT do not exist. Only user needs and systems trying to fulfill those needs exist. M2M, IoT may have very different meanings Always ask the person in front of you what (s)he means with those acronyms. Definitions – summary

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 7/141 Examples - container tracking [Exa1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 8/141 Examples - environmental monitoring [Exa2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 9/141 Examples - transport of persons [Exa3]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 10/141 Examples - SCADA [Exa4] SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 11/141 Examples - logistics [Exa5]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 12/141 Examples – home automation [Exa8]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 13/141 Examples – smart grid [Exa9]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 14/141 Examples – remote monitoring of copy machines [Exa6]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 15/141 Examples – taxi dispatch [Exa7]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 16/141 Myriads of different requirements Consequently, myriads of different systems Mix of three main technology domains: ● electronics + embedded computing ● communications ● application software • embedded • back office / front office Examples - summary

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 17/141 Two examples: copy machines maintenance, taxi dispatch Requirements Functional proposals Vocabulary is mine! Vocabulary will be consistent throughout the slides Functional view - table of contents

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 18/141 Domain: ● multifunction copy machines (copy, print, scan, fax) ● machines are rented by companies ● in large premises, it happens that machines are moved Requirements: ● inform about required maintenance operation (toner, internal disk, etc.) ● inform about new location in renting company premises ● do not use renting company network facilities Functional view - copy machines maintenance - requirements

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 19/141 Functional view - copy machines maintenance - architecture 1 machine remote system communication network communication network central system enterprise information system useradministrator remote side central side

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 20/141 Functional view - copy machines maintenance - architecture 2 gateway communication network communication network central system enterprise information system useradministrator communication network

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 21/141 Functional view - copy machines maintenance - remote side application communication with central side / gateway communication with machine events archiving positioning mandatory optional management misc.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 22/141 Functional view - copy machines maintenance - central side application communication with remote side / gateway communication with user events archiving management communication with EIS misc.: GIS, etc. positioning GIS: Geographic Information System EIS: Enterprise Information System

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 23/141 how to get information from the copy machine? which type(s) of network(s)? how to locate copy machines? is some local, dedicated storage required? which functions will be required for next version? etc. answers impact physical architecture... Functional view - copy machines maintenance - questions

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 24/141 Copy machine example is very simple, at an application-level point of view Taxi dispatch system is much more fun Functional view - taxi dispatch example

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 25/141 Taxi request dispatch ● customer request allocated to the best taxi Taxi request follow-up ● to anticipate request dispatch, when heavy traffic Credit card payments General messages (e.g. « speed camera at... ») Personal messages (e.g. « call your wife back ») Security alarm, with audio monitoring Taxi locating Information about distribution of taxis over the city Information about distribution of customer requests Etc. Functional view - taxi dispatch - requirements - 1/3

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 26/141 Functional view - taxi dispatch - requirements - 2/3 Taxis waiting at taxi stand Cruising taxi Central dispatch office Simplified dispatch algorithm · city is divided in sectors · one taxi stand at most per sector · taxis can be waiting at a stand, or cruising · taxi request dispatch: • sector is selected (depending on customer address) • if taxis waiting at stand, first taxi complying with services requirements is selected • if stand is empty, a cruising taxi is selected (usually the nearest one) • if no cruising taxi in sector, search is broadened to neighbouring sectors • etc. · selected taxi driver must acknowledge the request Sector 1 Sector 2

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 27/141 Functional view - taxi dispatch - requirements - 3/3 To taxi: are you really here? If yes, here is a request for your driver From taxi to dispatch office: yes, I'm here Displayed to driver: Services requirements. Do you accept them? Displayed to driver: Address. Do you accept the request? From driver to dispatch office: yes, I accept the request Request allocated to taxi 1 Taxi 1 To other taxis at same stand: request allocated to taxi 1

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 28/141 Functional view - taxi dispatch - remote side application

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 29/141 same questions than for copy machines (interface with taximeter, type(s) of network(s), taxi positioning, etc.) additionally: ● how to send “asynchronous” downlink messages? ● optimized way to “broadcast” messages to groups of taxis? ● how to mix data and voice (for alarms)? ● how to ensure that taxis can still receive missions if network is shared with some other users? ● etc. Functional view - taxi dispatch - questions

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 30/141 Application on remote side and on central side ● example of a dispatch system for taxis. On remote side (in taxi): • list previous missions • check number of taxis waiting in each station • etc. Application depends on end-user: ● maintenance of copy machines ● taxi dispatch ● container tracking ● environmental monitoring ● transport of persons ● SCADA ● logistics ● etc. Functional view - application - 1/2

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 31/141 Application is distributed over remote side and central side ● Back to mission dispatch - on central side: • central side selects taxi • it checks it is still available • it transmits mission • it checks that taxi driver accepted it • etc. ● On remote side (taxi): • remote side receives mission and displays it to taxi driver • it updates taxi status and mission status • etc. Functional view - application - 2/2

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 32/141 Functions on central side Functions on remote side High-level functions (application) depends heavily on end-user needs High-level functions have usually to be distributed over central side and remote side Functional view - summary

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 33/141 Physical architecture - table of contents global architecture ● copy machines maintenance ● taxi dispatch software architecture

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 34/141 central side: ● well-known technical elements: computers (PC, servers, network equipments, etc.) ● interface with communication network remote side: ● remote system hidden inside copy machine ● processor + memory (ROM and RAM) ● physical interface(s) with the copy machine ● communication module depending on network type ● location system ● simple user interface (LED, reset button) ● if gateway: 2 x communication modules + processor + memory + software Physical architecture - copy machines maintenance

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 35/141 Physical architecture - copy machines maintenance - remote side communication module processor + memory remote system interfaces location system user interface communication network

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 36/141 Physical architecture - copy machines maintenance - network communication network see Networks section

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 37/141 central side: ● well-known technical elements: computers (PC, servers, network equipments, etc.) ● interface with communication network (PMR, PLMN) ● Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) ● Geographical Information System (GIS) functions ● etc. ● software PMR: Private / Professional Mobile Radio PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network Physical architecture - taxi dispatch - central side

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 38/141 remote side: ● example of remote system: • hidden on-board device • device on the dashboard (e.g. touch screen) for GUI ● processor + memory (ROM and RAM) – on the two devices ● communication module in on-board device ● location system (usually GNSS) ● alarm button ● physical interface with the taximeter ● software Physical architecture - taxi dispatch - remote side GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 39/141 Physical architecture - taxi dispatch - network communication network see Networks section

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 40/141 Software architecture - 1/2 Central sideRemote side OS remote device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipheral devices communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services APIcommunication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer- dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 41/141 communication layer: ● bidirectional messaging ● file transfer ● roaming optimization ● etc. technical components layer (almost generic) ● mission dispatch handling ● alarm with end to end acknowledgement ● software odometer ● etc. application layer: ● adaptation to end-user needs This is an ideal view Software architecture - 2/2

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 42/141 hardware (on remote side): ● processing + interfacing + communication + ... ● embedded / on-board devices ● even if very simple, a user interface is a good thing ● can be quite costly – cost of installation to be considered as well network: ● various possible solutions, depending on needs / cost / etc. software: ● as for functions: distributed ● must support loss of connectivity when using wireless connectivity Physical architecture - summary

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 43/141 Networks - table of contents Overview Important characteristics for M2M Wireless networks ● PMR ● low power ● 2.5 G / 3G / 4G ● satellites ● Wi-Fi ● Bluetooth, ZigBee, Z-Wave ● RFId ● NFC Wired networks ● leased lines ● PSTN ● ADSL

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 44/141 central part of M2M systems wireless or wired a given system can use several network technologies ● to increase connectivity reliability ● to increase connectivity coverage ● to provide specific properties (low power, QoS, etc.) ● to support legacy equipments ● to lower operating costs / capital costs ● etc. QoS: Quality of Service Networks - overview - 1/4

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 45/141 Networks - overview - 2/4 communication network communication module processor + memory remote system interface with controlling equipment data transmission over network medium interfaces location system user interface

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 46/141 Networks - overview - 3/4 interface with controlling equipment ● often over a serial interface (V.24 / RS-232) • 3 wires minimum: RX / TX / GND ● data is transmitted in frames over the serial interface ● example (Digi XTend RF module): ● data transparency: escape reserved bytes ● data: command or event • transmit request, transmit status,received data, etc. 0x7E Start delimiter byte 1 MSB LSB Length bytes 2, 3 data Frame data bytes 4 - n CS Checksum byte n + 1 [V241] [Dig1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 47/141 Networks - overview - 4/4 ● another example: AT commands • very common – used for wired and wireless network equipments • human readable • command / response – intermediate result codes – unsolicited result codes • command example: define context for data communication over 3G: command: AT+CGDCONT=3,”IP”,”orange.m2m.sec” response: OK [3GP1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 48/141 shared or not geographic coverage + possibility to adapt it latency connectivity setup time addressability required power for transmission terminal cost communication cost throughput confidentiality reliability availability etc. (Wireless) networks - important characteristics for M2M

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 49/141 PMR = Professional Mobile Radio not accessible to general public frequency + associated bandwidth allocated to a user for a given period user: private or public organization (company, city, association, etc.) cost: annual fee (“license fee”) per terminal ● fee = I x bf x c x k4 + n x G • I: bandwidth, in MHz • bf: depends on frequency • c: depends on coverage • k4: constant • n: number of mobile users • G: constant Wireless networks - PMR - regulation (France) [ARC1] [ANF1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 50/141 Frequency (bands): ● 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 150 MHz, 400 MHz, etc. Channel spacing: ● 6,25 kHz, 12,5 kHz, 25 kHz, 200 kHz, etc. Technology: ● analog – voice + data (modem) – 6,25 or 12,5 kHz channels – 1200 b/s ● digital: • DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) – 2 slot TDMA over 12,5 kHz channels – 9000 kb/s for 2 slots • dPMR – FDMA over 6,25 kHz channels – 4800 b/s • TETRA (TErrestrial Trunk RAdio) – 4 slot TDMA over 25 kHz channels – 7200 b/s per slot – for shared networks • TETRAPOL – FDMA – for shared networks • etc. Coverage: ● from 30 km (mono-site) up to wide area coverage (multi-sites / trunk)⋍ Wireless networks - PMR - characteristics

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 51/141 analog: ● let's forget about it... digital: ● DMR: status messages (≤ 128 bytes) - short messages (≤ 36 bytes) – packet data ● dPMR: short messages (≤ 100 bytes) - packet data ● TETRA: short messages (≤140 bytes) – packet data - Peripheral Equipment Interface specified (AT commands) More information on other slide about integration Wireless networks - PMR – system integration [DMR1] [dPM1] [TET1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 52/141 in 2012: ● around 26.000 PMR networks in France users: ● taxis, public transports, ambulances, airports, highways, security, industry, constructions, etc. ● public organizations: cities, hospitals, etc. Wireless networks - PMR - France

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 53/141 AFP = Appareils de Faible Puissance et de Faible Portée freely accessible 6.8 MHz, 13.6 MHz, 27.0 MHz, 40.7 MHz, 433.0 MHz, 434.0 MHz, 863-868... MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.7-5.9 GHz, 24... GHz, 61 GHz, 122-123 GHz, 244-246 GHz ERP: depends on frequency - from 1 mW to 500 mW some restrictions on duty cycle, on channel spacing, etc. some other frequencies, for specific equipments usual range: up to a few kilometers, unobstructed LoS [ANF2] ERP: Effective Radiated Power LoS: Line of Sight Wireless networks - unlicensed - France

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 54/141 Radio modem Proprietary protocols: ● over network medium (radio): • transmitted packets format (preamble, address, payload, error detection code, error correction code) - open or not • data exchanges between a transmitter and a receiver (ack'ed or not, timed wakeup periods, etc.) - open or not ● with controlling equipment: • interface with a controlling equipment (serial cable + messages, USB cable + messages, etc.) - usually open (see previous slide) Throughput: several 1000s of b/s Examples: ● Digi, Wavenis, SATEL, etc. Wireless networks - unlicensed – system integration

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 55/141 For a given radiated power and a given bit error rate, range can be increased: ● use lower bit rate for traditional modulation technologies. But this narrows spectrum => precise frequency reference is required to decode received modulation. ● use spread spectrum modulation. But processing is complex. Examples: ● SIGFOX (choice 1) - technology + network operator • range: documented as up to 40 km LoS ● LoRa (Semtech) (choice 2) - technology (chipsets) • range: documented as up to 15 km LoS [SIG1] [LoR1] Wireless networks - unlicensed - long range

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 56/141 PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) “public” networks: shared between anybody who subscribes broad coverage but target is population, not territory global (worldwide) standardization Wireless networks - 2.5G / 3G / 4G

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 57/141 Wireless networks - 2.5G / 3G / 4G Data services: ● CSD (Circuit Switched Data): obsolete ● SMS (Short Message Service) • 140 to 160 characters / bytes ● USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) • usually reserved to the operator ● packet data - IP compatible • throughputs (beware: uplink downlink):≪ • 2.5G: 8 to 40 kb/s (GPRS) – EDGE = GPRS x 3 • 3G: 2 Mb/s non-moving, 384 kb/s moving • 3.5G: 14.4 Mb/s (HSDPA) • 4G: 100 Mb/s and more (LTE)... GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access LTE: Long Term Evolution

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 58/141 Wireless networks - 2.5G / 3G / 4G APN (Access Point Name): ● name of gateway between 2.5G / 3G / 4G network and another network (usually the Internet) ● defined by the operator ● for the Internet, defines following gateway characteristics: • static or dynamic IP address • public or private IP address • allowed protocols (TCP, UDP, etc.) • allowed ports

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 59/141 Wireless networks - 2.5G / 3G / 4G – PPP session mobile network the Internet APN (GGSN) 1 - register 2 – define and activate context => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – start a PPP session => IP address assigned to remote system communication module remote system AT commands GGSN: Gateway GPRS Serving Node

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 60/141 Wireless networks - 2.5G / 3G / 4G – wireless router mobile network the Internet APN (GGSN) 1 - register 2 – define and activate context => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module communication module remote system AT commands 3 – define NAT / PAT rule => comm. module performs NAT / PAT

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 61/141 Wireless networks - satellites - 1/2 geostationary orbits ● characteristics: • 36.000 km above the Earth • satellite seen from Earth as stationary • coverage restricted to known zone • minimum end-to-end latency: 2 x 36.000 km / 300.000 km/s => 240 ms ● Inmarsat: • BGAN M2M: IP at up to 448 kb/s – latency from 800 ms – global coverage except polar regions • IsatM2M: messages of 25 (U) / 100 (D) bytes – latency 30 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions • IsatData Pro: messages of 6.4 (U) / 10 (D) kB – latency 15 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions ● Thuraya BGAN: Broadband Global Area Network [Inm1] [Thu1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 62/141 Wireless networks - satellites - 2/2 low earth orbit (LEO) ● characteristics: • satellites constantly in motion around the Earth • altitude: 170 – 2000 km => period: 90 – 130 min. • low power • higher latency ! ● Orbcomm: • messages of 6 to 30 bytes • average latency: 6 min. • global coverage ● Globalstar ● Iridium ● Argos [Orb1] [Glo1] [Iri1] [Arg1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 63/141 Wireless networks – short distance - 1/3 Wi-Fi ● wireless local area network (WLAN) technology based on IEEE802.11 standards ● Wi-Fi Alliance owns the brand (not an abbreviation...) ● range: usually up to 100 m outdoors Bluetooth ● originally designed to replace serial cables – personal area network (PAN) ● managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group ● range: less than 100 m ● many profiles ● Bluetooth Low Energy (part of V4.0) [WiF1] [Blu1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 64/141 Wireless networks – short distance - 2/3 ZigBee ● managed by ZigBee Alliance ● low-power ● range: up to 100 m ● mesh network => long distance by retransmitting data Z-Wave ● managed by Z-Wave Alliance - for home automation ● low-power ● range: around 30 m ● mesh network [Zig1] [Zig2] [ZWa1] [ZWa2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 65/141 Wireless networks – short distance - 3/3 RFId: ● Radio-Frequency Identification NFC: ● Near Field Communication That's more an identification technology than a network technology ● => see Devices section

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 66/141 Fixed networks - 1/2 Leased lines ● permanent connection between two locations ● analog or digital – symmetric throughput (unlike ADSL) ● example for France: • Orange Transfix: up to 2048 Kb/s ● for M2M: more or less obsolete Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ● requires a modem (modulator – demodulator) ● up to 56 Kb/s ● cost proportional to duration ● long setup time (up to 20 or 30 s) ● for M2M: more or less [Tra1] [Lea1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 67/141 Fixed networks - 2/2 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) ● pseudo permanent connection ● think about connection ownership. For instance, when used for home automation services, the connection owner is the home owner, not the service provider...

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 68/141 Networks - summary - 1/3 Techno Shared Range Latency Setup time PMR no from 30 km up to wide area depends on architecture 0 low power yes up to 10 (40) km depends on architecture 0 2.5G/3G yes wide area from 100 ms up to 1 s from 2 s to 5 s 4G yes wide area 50 ms 1 s satellites geo yes global 800 ms to 60 s satellites LEO yes global min Wi-Fi yes local ms s

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 69/141 Networks - summary - 2/3 Techno Addressability TX power Equipment cost Comm. cost PMR full W 100s € 0 € low power full mW 10s € 0 € 2.5G/3G restricted W 100s € flat rate 4G restricted W 100s € --> 10s € flat rate satellites geo restriced W 1000s € high satellites LEO restricted W 100s € high Wi-Fi full mW 10s € 0 €

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 70/141 Networks - summary - 3/3 Many different technologies Understanding real user needs is important, to choose the right network technology ● example of a fixed network technology used for a mobile application! Perhaps the most important part of an M2M system, as it transmits data between the two sides of a system Perhaps the most difficult part of an M2M system, at a technical point of view

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 71/141 Connected devices - contents Introduction Processor + memory Interfaces with machine Communication with central side Storage Positioning Identification Typology Software

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 72/141 Connected devices - introduction - 1/2 What we saw in previous sections: communication module processor + memory remote system interfaces location system user interface communication networkConnectivity is usually intermittent

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 73/141 Connected devices - introduction - 2/2 processor + memory communication module location system analog inputs digital I/O Example: [COO1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 74/141 Connected devices - processor + memory - 1/3 usually: microcontroller legacy microcontroller - example: Freescale 68HC11E1 ● 8 bits ● 3 MHz ● RAM: 512 bytes - EEPROM: 512 bytes ● 38 General Purpose I/O (GPIO) ● 1 x Asynchronous Serial Communications Interface (SCI) ● 1 x Synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) ● 8 x 8-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) ● 16-bit Timer System ● address / data bus for external memory ● bootstrap mode ● price: US$7 (10.000)⋍

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 75/141 Connected devices - processor + memory - 2/3 recent microcontroller - example: Microchip PIC16F1705 ● 8 bits ● 32 MHz ● RAM: 1 KB - Flash: 14 KB ● 2 x Capture / Compare / Pulse Width Modulation ● 1 x Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) ● 1 x SCI - 1 x Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) ● 8 x 10-bit ADC ● timers: 4 x 8-bit, 1 x 16-bit ● price: US$0.73 (10.000)⋍

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 76/141 Connected devices - processor + memory - 3/3 recent microcontroller - example: NXP LPC1837JET256 ● 32 bits - ARM Cortex-M3 core ● 3-stage pipeline, modified Harvard architecture ● 180 MHz ● RAM: 136 KB - Flash: 1024 KB ● 6 x PWM ● 4 x UART - 2 x I2C - 2 x SPI ● 2 x CAN - 2 x USB - 1 x Ethernet ● 8 x 10-bit ADC ● 4 x 32-bit timers ● price: ⋍ US$8.30 (unit) CAN: Controller Area Network USB: Universal Serial Bus

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 77/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - digital input Hardware: ● two main types: • read a voltage (high / low) • check open / closed circuit ● use GPIO ● an optocoupler may be required Software: ● configure chosen pin ● use interrupt routine ● debounce may be required (a hardware debouncer is sometimes provided by the microcontroller)

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 78/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - digital output Hardware: ● two main types: • set a voltage (high / low) • close / open a circuit ● use GPIO ● an optocoupler may be required ● a relay may be required Software: ● configure chosen pin

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 79/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - analog input Hardware: ● use ADC ● signal conditioning may be required ● some microcontrollers provide integrated Op Amp (e.g. PIC16F527) ● important parameters: resolution and sampling rate Software: ● configure chosen pin ● use interrupt routine (end of conversion) ADC: Analog-to-Digital Conversion

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 80/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - long distance - V.24 Serial interface - V.24 (+ V.28 + ISO/IEC 2110) ● for every direction, bytes are serialized and transmitted over one wire ● minimum 3 wires: transmitted data, received data, signal ground ● additional wires for control signals (request to send, ready for sending, data set ready, calling indicator, etc.) ● bit to 1: -15 V < voltage < -3 V ● bit to 0: +3 V > voltage > +15 V Max. length: usually < 15 m Connection between DTE (PC) and DCE (modem). For other configurations, you usually have to think twice Connectors: DB-25, DB-9 USA: RS-232 (TIA-232) [V241] [FAR1] DTE: Data Terminal Equipment [TIA1] DCE: Data Circuit-terminating Equipment

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 81/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - short distance - serial - 1/2 For a V.24 link: ● 1. bytes are serialized using an UART ● 2. voltage levels are shifted from TTL/CMOS to V.28 UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter UART Address bus Control bus RX TTL TX TTL GND level shifter TX V.24 RX V.24 GND CPU For short distances, level shifting may be omitted

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 82/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - short distance - SPI - 1/2 SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) MOSI: Master Output, Slave Input SCLK: Serial Clock [SPI1] MISO: Master Input, Slave Output SS: Slave Select [SPI2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 83/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - short distance - SPI - 2/2 Defined by Motorola (now Freescale) Full duplex, clock up to a few MHz One master, one chip select per slave 4 wires Applications: ● short distance communication (in main board vicinity) ● exemples: • sensors (temperature, pressure, etc.) • memory (EEPROM, etc.) • LCD • etc.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 84/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - short distance - I2 C - 1/2 I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) [I2C1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 85/141 Connected devices - interfaces with machine - serial buses - short distance - I2 C - 2/2 Defined by Philips (now NXP) Multi-master Clock up to a few MHz 2 wires Applications: ● same than SPI

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 86/141 Connected devices - communication with central side See Networks section

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 87/141 Connected devices - storage Flash memory: ● important parameters: • max number of Program / Erase cycles (e.g. 3 000, 100 000) • write time (e.g. page erase - word / page write) ● soldered IC: • 512 Kb (<=> 64 KB) - 8 pins - SPI - 0,50 € • 16 Gb (<=> 2 GB) - 48 pins - multiplexed A/D buses - 13 € ● memory card: • MMC, SD, miniSD, microSD, etc. • ex.: microSD 1 GB 39 €

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 88/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning - GNSS - 1 Global Navigation Satellite System ● mostly for outdoor use ● working principles: • constellation of satellites • every satellite sends messages: satellite position, message time • satellite time is very accurate (atomic clock) • listening to 3 satellites, the GNSS receiver estimates its location on earth (distance = difference of time x speed of light) • that's only an estimate (the receiver does not have an atomic clock) • using a 4th satellite, the receiver synchronizes its clock • => real location can be computed ● satellite orbits: MEO (20 000 km), GEO (36 000 km) ● speed of light (approx.) : 3 x 108 m / s : 10 m <=> 33 ns ● fix: position

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 89/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – GPS – 1/2 GPS: USA system 31 operational satellites (24-Dec-2013) MEO orbit: 20 200 km at any time, any point on Earth can see 4 satellites accuracy: ● depends on receiver quality, on satellites being used, etc. ● documented as better than 8 m with 95% confidence level ● usual accuracy: 20 m – see next slide for real-life example Dilution of Precision (DOP – PDOP/HDOP/VDOP): ● how error in measures impact error in computed location ● good when < 6 [GPS1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 90/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – GPS – 2/2 example of accuracy: ● GPS receiver indoor, not far from a window => lower reception quality ● one location every 2 s, for 15 minutes ● several locations are more than 60 m far from the real location

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 91/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – other GNSS GLONASS: Russia (formerly USSR) system ● 23 operational satellites (22-Feb-2014) ● MEO: 19 100 km Galileo: Europe ● target: 30 satellites – MEO: 23 200 km ● currently: 4 satellites (12-Dec-2013: first airborne tracking) BeiDou ( 北斗 ): China ● target: 5 GEO satellites + 30 MEO satellites ● currently: 10 satellites – operational over China Japan (QZSS), India (IRNSS) [GLO1] [Bei1] [Gal1] [GNS1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 92/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – augmentation systems – 1/2 To increase accuracy (and integrity): ● differential GPS • a GPS receiver placed at a location known with very good accuracy is used to generate corrections send to other GPS receivers • another receiver is required • => ⋍ 3 – 5 m accuracy ● SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems) • additional satellites broadcast corrections • no other receiver required • => ⋍ 1 – 3 m accuracy • USA: WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) • Europe: EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) • India: GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation • Japan: MSAS (Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System)

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 93/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – augmentation systems – 2/2 A-GPS (Assisted GPS) ● mainly for PLMN terminals (your mobile phone...) ● almanac (coarse orbit and status information for all satellites) and ephemeris (precise orbit for one satellite) data are sent to the GPS receiver using the mobile network ● this reduces TTFF (Time To First Fix) ● data generated by mobile operators, or by OTT players (Google, etc.) RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) ● signal phase is used, to get an accuracy up to a few centimeters ● fix computation can be quite long OTT: Over The Top

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 94/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – GNSS integration – 1/2 communication module processor + memory remote system interfaces location system user interface controlling interface

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 95/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – GNSS integration – 2/3 interface: ● usually: serial (V.28 or TTL / CMOS) ● usually: implements subset of NMEA 0183 standard NMEA: National Marine Electronics Association [NME1] [NME2] $GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47 Where: GGA Global Positioning System Fix Data 123519 Fix taken at 12:35:19 UTC 4807.038,N Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N 01131.000,E Longitude 11 deg 31.000' E 1 Fix quality: 0 = invalid 1 = GPS fix (SPS) 2 = DGPS fix 3 = PPS fix 4 = Real Time Kinematic 5 = Float RTK 6 = estimated (dead reckoning) (2.3 feature) 7 = Manual input mode 8 = Simulation mode 08 Number of satellites being tracked 0.9 Horizontal dilution of position 545.4,M Altitude, Meters, above mean sea level 46.9,M Height of geoid (mean sea level) above WGS84 ellipsoid (empty field) time in seconds since last DGPS update

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 96/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – GNSS integration – 3/3 Interface (cont'd): ● most manufacturers provide their own protocol: • SiRF (then CSR, now Samsung) – u-blox - SkyTraq [on-going Indiegogo crowdfunded project] – ST – Broadcom – etc. • most receivers are multi-constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou) Important: antenna placement May be important: tamper protection ● antenna cable short circuit and antenna removal events [SiR1] [Sky1] [ubl1] [Ind1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 97/141 Connected devices – outdoor positioning – misc. Devices can be positioned by the network: ● trilateration (several time measures) ● triangulation (several angle measures) ● cell identification ● “fingerprinting” ● dead reckoning (inertial sensor fusion: accelerometer + magnetometer and filtering) ● more ? Position may be computed by / available at ● device side ● network side

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 98/141 Connected devices – indoor positioning All previously listed technologies may be used for indoor positioning, depending on constraints But no easy-to-integrate, generic system exists today Domain still waiting for more innovation

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 99/141 Connected devices – identification – 1/3 Some systems have to identify external objects: ● truck trailers ● shipping containers ● bottles of perfumes ● etc.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 100/141 Connected devices – identification – 2/3 RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): ● tag / label with (almost) unique identity • passive (no battery) or active (battery) • read-only or read/write ● reader: transmits (=> data over energy) ● a passive tag uses incoming energy to transmit back its data ● as usual, distance depends on power, antenna and frequency ● from a few tens of centimeters up to a few meters (more is possible) NFC (Near-Field Communication): ● purposely short distances only (a few centimeters) ● for secure applications (e.g., contactless payment)

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 101/141 Connected devices – identification – 3/3 Questions: how to identify objects on a global basis, and let every organization exchange object data? Part of the answer: GS1 ● international not-for-profit organization ● delivers standards, services and solutions ● standards: • barcodes • EPCglobal: tag data, tag protocols, reader protocols, ONS (Object Name Service), discovery services, etc. • etc. A world unto itself... [GS11]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 102/141 Connected devices – typology – 1/4 How two classify devices? One possible taxonomy: level of freedom for the integrator ● 1/ fully programmable device • write your own program and install it into the device ● 2/ customizable device • define, activate and combine several rules • ex.: if (input 10 is 1) and (distance to pos1 > 100) then send an alarm ● 3/ parameterizable device • define values for available parameters • ex.: address of server, period between two value transmissions

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 103/141 Connected devices – typology – 2/4 Another taxonomy: application software hosting ● 1/ microcontroller board with communication module • application software is run by the microcontroller • communication module is seen as a peripheral device

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 104/141 Connected devices – typology – 3/4 Application software hosting: ● 2/ programmable communication module • application software is run by the communication module • some additional interfaces may be required [Sie1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 105/141 Connected devices – typology – 4/4 Application software hosting: ● 3/ any other configuration • e.g., programmable GPS receiver [Ind1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 106/141 Connected devices – software What we saw in a previous section: OS remote device communication services - remote application software - remote peripheral devices software components - remote communication services API OS API components APIs ● application layer ● component layer ● communication layer ● OS layer ● hardware layer

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 107/141 Connected devices – software – OS layer – 1/4 Three possibilities: ● 1/ no OS • ISRs (Interrupt Service Routines) / interrupt handlers + background task • ISRs called on external events: byte received on serial input, byte sent on serial output, input goes from low to high, etc. • ISRs called on internal events: timer(s), end of A/D conversion, watchdog timeout, etc. • ISRs and background task communicates using flags and buffers • no software overhead, you know what you do • you must know what you do (synchronization, interrupt priorities, etc.)

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 108/141 Connected devices – software – OS layer – 2/4 ● 2/ RTOS • an RTOS has deterministic timing behavior • FreeRTOS • free, open source • minimum memory: 10 KB Flash (without libraries), a few KB RAM • ThreadX • open source, one license, royalty free • minimum memory: 2 KB Flash (without libraries), a few KB RAM • eCos • free, open source • minimum memory: ? • VxWorks • let's talk about business • minimum memory: ? • many, many other RTOS... [eCo1] [Fre1] [Thr1] [VxW1] [RTO1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 109/141 Connected devices – software – OS layer – 3/4 ● How to select an RTOS: • supported target microcontrollers • minimum requirements for Flash and RAM • technical requirements: interrupt latency, scheduling policy, synchronization facilities, inter-thread communication, etc. • development environment (IDE) • IP stack (TCP, UDP, SMTP, FTP, etc.) • file system (Flash) • source code availability • support • existing community • licensing scheme • etc. IDE: Integrated Development Environment

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 110/141 Connected devices – software – OS layer – 4/4 ● 2/ OS • if you have “lot of” memory and processing power, you can consider a standard OS. • example: Linux • patches can transform Linux kernel into a real-time kernel • minimum memory: 256 KB Flash, 512 KB RAM • Free Electrons web site: lot of information • example: Android • Android is based on Linux • provides high level services (GUI, APIs for audio, video, GPS, file system, etc.) • Java language • BEWARE: Android can choose to kill your running application [Fre1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 111/141 Connected devices – software – programming languages Available languages ● depends on (RT)OS ● if you want to have fun: assembly language(s) ● very common: C / C++ ● Java (Android...) ● Python ● Lua ● etc.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 112/141 Middleware - contents Introduction Communication Device management Platforms

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 113/141 Middleware – definition – 1/2 Wikipedia: Middleware is computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. OS remote device communication services - remote application software - remote peripheral devices software components - remote communication services API OS API components APIs middleware

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 114/141 Middleware – definition – 2/2 We will focus on ● communication ● device management ● platforms

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 115/141 Middleware – communication - requirements Exchange data from one side to the other one ● reliably ● securely ● easily ● at low cost Applying web technologies to M2M / IoT communications is often not the right choice ● HTTP: request / response (=> polling), ASCII, complex parsing ● XML: verbose ● JSON: still too verbose [JSO1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 116/141 Middleware – communication - frames device generated data: binary data data sent to devices: binary as well data structures must be exchanged it should be possible to transmit new data structures to devices not yet configured to decode them it should be possible to exchange data between computers coding data in different ways (little endian, big endian) => ASN.1: defined 30 years ago by CCITT (now ITU-T) – not so used in M2M/IoT... Google re-invented a solution in 2008: Protocol Buffers – not so used either in M2M/IoT... libraries in various languages to encode / decode frames ASN.1: Abstract Syntax Notation One CCITT: Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union [End1] [ASN1] [Pro1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 117/141 Middleware – communication - protocols - MQTT MQTT acronym comes from Message Queue (not present in MQTT!) and Telemetry Transport (but MQTT is not restricted to telemetry) message transport publish / subscribe (one to many - application decoupling) based on TCP/IP (MQTT-SN for non TCP/IP networks) small transport overhead abnormal disconnection notification free open source implementations: ● Eclipse Mosquitto (server) ● Eclipse Paho (clients in various languages) [MQT1] [MQT2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 118/141 Middleware – communication - protocols - CoAP CoAP: Constrained Application Protocol protocol maintained by the IETF request / response – designed to easily interface with HTTP based on UDP or equivalent low transport overhead low parsing complexity resource discovery (a client queries a server) several free open source implementations of CoAP (client, server) IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force [CoA1] [CoA2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 119/141 Middleware – communication - protocols - proprietary Many device manufacturers developed their own protocols ● that's not difficult to do, for (really) experienced developers ● resulting protocol is often very well adapted to target use case ● there are many such proprietary protocols Question: ● will those solutions be migrated to standards?

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 120/141 Middleware – device management – OMA DM OMA DM: specified by Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) OMA DM Supports: ● device provisioning (device initialization and configuration) ● software updates (application and system software) ● fault management (reporting faults, querying status) For M2M: OMA Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) ● based on CoAP ● open source implementation: Eclipse Wakaama project proposal [OMA1] [OMA3] [OMA2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 121/141 Middleware – device management – proprietary Serious device manufacturers developed their own DM solutions, without waiting for standardization: ● Sierra Wireless ● Digi ● Mobile Devices ● etc. Question: ● proprietary solutions are often very efficient ● will manufacturers switch to standardized solutions? [PDM1] [PDM2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 122/141 Middleware – platforms – 1/5 What is an M2M / IoT platform? ● let's try a definition: • a platform provides a set of low level services, allowing rapid deployment of new applications. • provided low level services: • device connectivity • device management • application connectivity • should provide as well: • more reliability • scalability

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 123/141 Middleware – platforms – 2/5 Central sideRemote side OS remote device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipheral devices communication services - central software components - centralsoftware components - remote application software - central OS API communication services APIcommunication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer- dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 124/141 Middleware – platforms – 3/5 Many, many, many platforms ● Sierra Wireless AirVantage M2M Cloud ● Mobile Devices CloudConnect ● Digi Etherios Device Cloud ● Axeda Machine Cloud ● Xively Cloud Services ● ThingWorx ● Eurotech Everywhere Cloud ● etc., etc., etc. [PLA1] [PLA2] [PLA3] [PLA4] [PLA5] [PLA6] [PLA7]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 125/141 Middleware – platforms – 4/5 Where is value as perceived by customer? comm. layer remote system central system comm. layer DM layer DM layer Layers solving customer problem Layers solving customer problem customer pays for this relative sizes of software layers, for a complex system

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 126/141 Middleware – platforms – 5/5 System value as perceived by customer is outside of platform realm Additionally: ● a platform may prevent from using some devices (which do not implement a supported protocol) ● a platform creates a protocol break ● when updating the platform, ALL users are impacted ● developing a communication layer + minimum device management is not complex for an experienced team => Think twice before deciding on using a platform Anyway, using a platform may be very nice, for some (simple) applications, or to test a new service.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 127/141 Application layer So many points here... ● hosting (dedicated hosting, virtual machines, cloud, etc.) ● databases (SQL-type, NoSQL, Big Data, etc.) ● communication between various pieces of running code (concurrency, messaging systems, Remote Procedure Call, publish / subscribe, etc.) ● Geographic Information Systems (GIS) ● Graphical User Interface (GUI) – web technologies, rich clients, etc. ● etc. ... that we won't talk about it.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 128/141 Ecosystem - 1/2 Software editor Middleware editor Application software component editor Embedded equipment manufacturer Positioning technology provider Radio terminal manufacturer Network operator Integrator Installer Geocoded data provider Customer Service provider Embedded OS editor Customer's customers delivers to

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 129/141 Ecosystem - 2/2 Complex ecosystem! Not fully mature yet ● at user requirements level ● at business models level Most of current actors run several different activities The integrator is the unique interface with the client: tough job! An important actor: the installer

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 130/141 Standardization – 1/4 Some “old” standards: ● V.24 ● SPI, I2C ● etc. But that's really far from being enough Let's dream: ● any remote system should be able to communicate with any central system ● any central system should be able to communicate with any central system ● any system receiving a new type of data should be able to know whether it has to process this data, and what it means (semantics, ontology) ● etc. [STA1]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 131/141 Standardization – 2/4 in Europe: ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) ● M2M communications

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 132/141 Standardization – 3/4 Most of ETSI standardization work has been transferred to oneM2M (starting on 2012) oneM2M is a global partnership project (China, Japan, Europe, North America, etc.) OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) is member of oneM2M goal: develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software [STA2]

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 133/141 Standardization – 4/4 Many additional organizations: ● 3GPP ● IETF ● OASIS ● ISO ● IEEE ● CEN ● IEC ● CENELEC ● SGIP ● HGI ● OSGi ● dlna ● uPnP ● etc.

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 134/141 Want to play? Arduino: http://arduino.cc/ Raspberry Pi: http://www.raspberrypi.org/ Embedded Artists: http://www.embeddedartists.com/ cooking hacks: http://www.cooking-hacks.com/ GROVE System: http://www.seeedstudio.com/wiki/GROVE_System OpenMote: http://www.openmote.com/ Eclipse IoT: http://iot.eclipse.org/ and many, many other ones...

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 135/141 Conclusion M2M, IoT: buzzwords. ● understand end user needs ● get experienced in technologies • telecommunications and electronics are important • software is important ● get the global view ● monitor technology evolutions This is a fun domain!

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 136/141 [3GP1] http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/27007.htm [ANF1] http://www.anfr.fr/fr/autorisations-certificats/reseaux-independants/les-reseaux-mobiles-professionnels-pmr/definition-et-contexte.html [ANF2] http://www.anfr.fr/fr/planification-international/tnrbf.html [ARC1] http://www.arcep.fr/?id=8082#c8077 [Arg1] http://www.argos-system.org/ [ASN1] http://www.oss.com/asn1/resources/books-whitepapers-pubs/asn1-books.html#dubuisson [Bei1] http://en.beidou.gov.cn/ [Blu1] http://www.bluetooth.com/ [CoA1] http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-coap-18 [CoA2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constrained_Application_Protocol [COO1] http://www.cooking-hacks.com/blog/tutorial_arduino_quadband_mobile_navigator_pack [Def1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine-to-Machine [Def2] http://www.digi.com/business/ [Def3] http://www.orange.com/en/glossary/M [Def4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things [Def5] http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/trends/iot/overview.html [Def6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city [Def7] http://www2.schneider-electric.com/sites/corporate/en/solutions/sustainable_solutions/smart-cities.page [Dig1] http://ftp1.digi.com/support/documentation/90000958_D.pdf [DMR1] http://dmrassociation.org/ References - 1/5

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 137/141 [dPM1] http://www.dpmr-mou.org/index.htm [eCo1] http://ecos.sourceware.org/ [End1] http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/sum2003/cmsc311/Notes/Data/endian.html [Exa1] http://www.logisticsarena.eu/real-time-container-tracking-is-ready-to-take-off/ [Exa1] http://www.shippingcontainers24.com/tracking/nyk-tracking/ [Exa1] http://www.profittools.net/products/order-management/trackandtrace/ [Exa2] http://www.environment.ucla.edu/reportcard/article.asp?parentid=1506 [Exa3] http://www.mobitex.com/pdf/PT_brochure_2004.pdf [Exa4] http://broadwin.com/SCADA.htm [Exa5] http://hammer.net/template.asp?nav_id=110 [Exa6] http://m2mworldnews.com/2011/11/15/83994-cinterion-enables-remote-monitoring-of-100000-konica-minolta-office-machines-worldwide/ [Exa7] http://globaltelematicsltd.com/taxi-tracking.htm [Exa8] http://blog.nxp.com/home-automation-smart-lighting-gets-you-in-the-door/ [Exa9] http://gridpocket.com/Welcome.html [FAR1] http://fr.farnell.com/jsp/search/browse.jsp?N=2014+203438&Ntk=gensearch&Ntt=db-9&Ntx=mode+matchallpartial [Fre1] http://www.freertos.org/ [Fre1] http://free-electrons.com/ [Gal1] http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Navigation/The_future_-_Galileo/What_is_Galileo [GLO1] http://glonass-iac.ru/en/ [Glo1] http://eu.globalstar.com/en/ References - 2/5

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 138/141 [GNS1] http://www.gnss.asia/ [GPS1] http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/space/ [GS11] http://www.gs1.org/ [I2C1] http://www.nxp.com/documents/other/UM10204_v5.pdf [Ind1] http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/navspark-arduino-compatible-with-gps-gnss-receiver [Inm1] http://www.inmarsat.com/service-group/m2m/ [Iri1] http://www.iridium.com/default.aspx [JSO1] http://json.org/ [Lea1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leased_line [LoR1] http://semtech.com/wireless-rf/lora.html [MQT1] http://mosquitto.org/ [MQT2] http://www.eclipse.org/paho/ [NME1] http://www.nmea.org/ [NME2] http://www.gpsinformation.org/dale/nmea.htm [OMA1] http://openmobilealliance.org/ [OMA2] http://openmobilealliance.org/about-oma/work-program/device-management/ [OMA3] http://www.eclipse.org/proposals/technology.liblwm2m/ [Orb1] http://www.orbcomm.com/ [PDM1] http://www.sierrawireless.com/en/productsandservices/AirLink_Gateways_Modems/Programmable_modems/Device_Management.aspx [PDM2] http://www.mobile-devices.com/our-services/#cloudConnect References - 3/5

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 139/141 [PLA1] http://www.sierrawireless.com/en/productsandservices/AirVantage_M2M_Cloud.aspx [PLA2] http://www.mobile-devices.com/our-services/#cloudConnect [PLA3] http://www.axeda.com/node/811 [PLA4] http://www.etherios.com/products/devicecloud/ [PLA5] https://xively.com/whats_xively/ [PLA6] http://www.thingworx.com/platform/ [PLA7] http://www.eurotech.com/en/products/software+services/everyware+cloud+m2m+platform [Pro1] https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers/docs/overview?hl=fr [RTO1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_real-time_operating_systems [Sie1] http://www.sierrawireless.com/en/productsandservices/AirLink_Gateways_Modems/Programmable_modems/FX_Series.aspx [SIG1] http://sigfox.com/#!/technology [SiR1] http://www.element14.com/community/docs/DOC-13409/l/sirf-binary-protocol-reference-manual [Sky1] http://www.skytraq.com.tw/index.html [SPI1] http://cache.freescale.com/files/microcontrollers/doc/data_sheet/MC68HC08AB16A.pdf [SPI2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus [STA1] http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/m2m [STA2] http://www.onem2m.org/ [TET1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrestrial_Trunked_Radio [Thr1] http://rtos.com/products/threadx/ [Thu1] http://www.thuraya.com/ References - 4/5

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 140/141 [TIA1] http://www.tiaonline.org/standards/buy-tia-standards [Tra1] http://www.orange-business.com/fr/produits/transfix [ubl1] http://www.u-blox.com/images/downloads/Product_Docs/u-blox7-V14_ReceiverDescriptionProtocolSpec_Public_%28GPS.G7-SW-12001%29.pdf [V241] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-V.24-200002-I/en [V241] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-V.24-200002-I/en [VxW1] http://www.windriver.com/products/vxworks.html [WiF1] http://www.wi-fi.org/ [Zig1] https://www.zigbee.org/ [Zig2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zigbee [ZWa1] http://www.z-wavealliance.org/ [ZWa2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z-wave cliparts: https://openclipart.org/ References - 5/5

15-Mar-2014 V1.0 M2M / IoT / devices 141/141 License Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) You are free to ● Share — copy and redistribute this material in any medium or format ● Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon this material for any purpose, even commercially. Under the following terms ● Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. ● ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

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