Published on April 26, 2014
PAS DE TROIS An intervention model for teenagers with learning disabilities and insecure attachment EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
OUR CLIENTS Adolescents and pre-adolescents (11 - 19) With A family history that may lead to insecure attachment School difficulties or risk of drop-out involving: Learning disabilities Attention lacks Oppositional behaviours EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
WHY THEM? Adolescence: a period of strong changes for The body Feelings and emotions Self-perception How the others look at us The expectations in, from and toward the context The “adult” self-image (“I’ll never be like you”) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
κρίσις Choices, Changes: nothing will be the same The need to explore new solutions, new ways, new identities becomes imperative. The adolescent tries to test them OR The need of protection, the search of a shelter from the risk of going through new frustrations becomes the first priority: the adolescent needs to avoid new failures and the separation from Child Self-image Family and others relations and bonds EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK LIOTTI’S MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS Attachment System and Exploratory System: Dialectic Relation Between the two systems Attachment System ON (Alerted) Exploratory System OFF Exploratory System ON Attachment System OFF (idle) Predominance Attachment System predominance over Exploratory System Service Function The Exploratory System SERVE the others Motivational Systems To SEEK protection and care To trigger off the Caregiving System in the Caregiver EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK LIOTTI’S MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS Distress signals mobilize attachment behaviours that re-establish proximity to attachment figures. Under optimal conditions children are able to return to exploratory activities with confidence, knowing attachment figures will be available when needed. The use of attachment figures as a base for exploration was described and named by Mary Ainsworth, one of Bowlby's closest collaborators, as the secure base phenomenon. (Cortina, M., Liotti, G., Building on Attachment Theory: Toward a Multi-motivational and Intersubjective Model of Human Nature, Paper presented on June 11, 2005, at the Annual Meeting of the Rapaport-Klein Study Group) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK LIOTTI’S MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS Children use a secure base for exploring the world with confidence. Besides the establishment of a secure base, other basic functions regulated directly or indirectly through attachment relationship, include: A basic feeling of confidence in relation to the world (Erikson's basic trust; Bowlby's and Ainsworth's concept of a secure base The regulation of emotion, stimulation, tension and impulse control (Shore, 1994, 2003; Sroufe, 1996) Conscious and unconscious appraisals of others and of the world (that are interwoven with emotional content) Social and emotional development. The capacity of the infant to explore the world with confidence has direct (and indirect) effects on the capacity to feel effective and competent in the interpersonal world (Sroufe et al., 2005; Weinfield et al., 1999). (Cortina, Liotti, 2005, op. cit.) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ATTACHMENT THEORY: P. CRITTENDEN The Adolescent Have to figure himself out as a symmetric caregiver to the partner while as a child he gets cares from the attachment figure in asymmetrical relationship To do that: need of Self-esteem Self-efficacy Trusting Relationships Reorganization of strategies, new strategies EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THEORETICAL FRAME: SYSTEMIC “A phenomenon cannot be understood until the observation field gets wide enough to include the elements related to it” Importance of the relational field: Parents / Caregivers School and Teachers Peer groups and self-perception EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
OUR HYPOTHESIS Link between attachment and LD Attachment holds Exploratory in check Failure of self-esteem because of Comparison with peers LD diagnosis→ labeling→ perspectives about the future Need to receive help and get special needs “treatment” EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
OUR MODEL Secure Base vs. Exploratory: Two Operators for Two Motivational Systems Empathy, Authenticity, Curiosity Reflective Function EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
MONICA TERUZZI Video 1: The Secure Base Operator’s experience 26/04/2014EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI
WHY TWO OPERATORS Attachment “quiet” Freedom of the Exploratory System Strengthening of the self Freedom to develop, use and improve the Mentalizing abilities Exploratory System in action Increased risk of frustration, disappointment, anxiety Allows to test and find out effective strategies EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
DIALECTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS DIALECTIC BETWEEN OPERATORS When attachment raises the volume, the exploratory calm down and lead to secure base When exploratory takes the wheel, the “secure base” counselor provides support and a safe place Mutual support to mentalization between operators, even in high arousal conditions (that’s unavoidable ← adolescent’s very effective strategies!) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
PAS DE DEUX The “Secure Base” Counselor Contains Listens to Goes hand-in-hand Co-constructs meanings and stories The “Exploratory” Counselor Listens to Goes hand-in-hand Explore together Co-constructs strategies and outlooks EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
PAS DE TROIS The adolescent with the two operators Bounds to each operator in a different way To Secure Base, to elaborate their past (personal history and attachment relationship) and their frustrations (including the need to ask for help and the anger towards the Exploratory) To the exploratory, to face here-and-now challenges (perceived injustices locus of control, self-esteem work acknowledgement beyond results, not feeling alone facing a task (cost = shared merits; benefits = shared frustrations and possible anger against the operator) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
PAS DE TROIS The adolescent with the two operators Co-constructs both relationship and personal path Asks for more attention and presence to one of the operators Capitalizes with one operator what had been done/achieved with the other (working on one’s personal history self-esteem and self-image metacognitive awareness) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
PAS DE TROIS TOWARD RESILIENCE Detect and activate Resources and processes Individual resources Aptitudes, talents, «intelligences» visual-spatial, musical… Metacognition, reflectiveness (cognitive, emotional…), Self-esteem and self-image Awareness, self-awareness, emotional regulation and mentalizing abilities Family, relatives resources Parents, other “dormant” agents in the family Social and relational resources Teachers, classmates, other people with LD (importance of not to be alone, but also acknowledgment of the differences) Groups and relations not too narrowed neither unaffordable or inaccessible Online services, books, PDFs, technology exploitable in learning processes EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
WHAT SHOULD NOT HAPPEN EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
WHEN THINGS ARE GOING BETTER EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THE RELATIONSHIP CONTEXT Working with the parents To avoid the labelling support positive outlooks and reasonable expectations To prevent drop-out To facilitate the parent’s understanding and support of their son’s uniqueness To foster the talents of the adolescent To co-construct outlooks and perspectives EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THE RELATIONSHIP CONTEXT The School To balance the support actions (special measures) little as possible impact on: Self esteem and self image Peer relationship: need to limit risks of discrimination and exclusion To prevent drop-out EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THE RELATIONSHIP CONTEXT Social and leisure circles To enhance Resiliency Resources Self-esteem and self-image peers relationships: interaction opportunities that do not involve LD to encourage physical activities and sports arousal control, coping EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THE MODEL IN ACTION Who provides Secure Base High availability and emotional mirroring Building together with Sofia new strategies Planned sessions (but not too often) Second operator presentification of second operator Who provides Exploratory High availability and frequent proves of reality Self-esteem booster and acknowledgment of current strategies legitimation Presentification of the other operator soon after path-related themes arise, validating and welcoming feelings, mirroring, empathy but «selective issues exchange» (i.e. “map” of the differences between friendship, simple acquaintance, familiar relationships) EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
CURRENT SITUATION Zero “debts” High School Degree (Languages) in June 2014 Passion for arts and photography Active socialization Autonomy Self-esteem social relationship, perspectives, future EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
OUR OBJECTIVES To speak about people, not about disturbs To work with people, not with disturbs To challenge the self-realizing prophecy in young people’s life To keep on supporting the effort needed by the “gift” To support these young people and reduce their bad feelings about: STIGMA and diversity they wouldn’t have or experience Mark of Cain (positive or negative meanings) A deep sense of inadequacy EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
THANK YOU! EDOARDO BRACAGLIA - MONICA TERUZZI 26/04/2014
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