Published on March 14, 2014
S Our DIMINISHING tourism environment S Revisiting sustainability PRINCIPLES S 25 year SCAN of a ‘modest’ adaption of sustainability S URGENT NEED: Strengthen all sustainable tourism education S A COMMITTMENT to developing an individual ‘Culture of Sustainability”
ONGOING: Depleting of ALL our natural resources S Excessive water consumption: S Global accommodation onsite demand: 5 trillion liters (5 billion m3) or 1.3 trillion gallons/year (2013) S Global warming (Tourism is 5% of global CO2 emissions) S Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity S Water Degradation: industrial contamination S Desertification and deforestation S loss of topsoil (industrial agriculture) S Toxic chemicals: VOC, cleaners, solvents, glues
S TOURISM GROWTH (Volume) S Double international arrivals by 2030 S 200 million outbound 8+ billion domestic Chinese trips by 2020 S Expansion of BRICS tourism S 35,000 new aircraft (21,000 for fleet expansion) S INCREASED VISITOR EXPECTATIONS S Bigger swimming pools, S More 4 and 5 star properties S Embedded water requirements (food, plastics, etc)
S “there was only one consideration to take into account. Don’t look at the matter from your own point of view. I don’t look at this matter from the way those living in the village now will be affected. Look at it from the point of view of our grandchildren”; ‘The Compassionate Universe’ by Egnath Eswaran, page 53 S “we do not inherit from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children”; Haida Elder/Chief Seattle
S “Humanity has the ability to make (tourism) development sustainable – to ensure that it meets the needs of the present (tourists and tourism businesses) without compromising the ability of future generations (tourists and tourism businesses) to meet their own needs”. -- World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987.
‘Encyclopedia of Tourism and Hospitality’ Chapter 3: Sustainable Tourism, J. MacGregor, Van Norstrand Reinholt, NY, NY, 1993
S PRINCIPLE 1: Limit tourism impact on the planet (global) and the region (local) to a level that is within its carrying-capacity. S Minimize tourist consumption of raw materials and energy S 2 star properties consume less than 3/4/5 star S Water management: can cut water consumption 40% S PRINCIPLE 2: Maintain the stock of biological wealth in the region. S Conserve ‘Life support services and the processes that allow life to be productive and adapt to tourism impacts S Maintain chemical balance, recycle nutrients, water/air pollution free S Manage for Sustainability and Diversity
S PRINCIPLE 3: Minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources. S Tourism is a consumer of plastics, metals, fossil fuels, and water S Integrate recycling and composting into all operations S PRINCIPLE 4: Promote long-term [sustainable] economic development that increases the benefits from a given stock of resources and maintains or grows natural wealth. S Promote new technologies; solar/wind/ batteries/engines S Operations must charge the full price of resource use and damage; consumption tax, surcharge S Integrating value-added products by improving and diversifying product lines
S PRINCIPLE 5: Provide for an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of resource use and sustainable management. S Benefits spread across gender, age [intergenerational], class/ culture and physical/visual ability S Ensure adequate training and access to all required sustainable management skills S PRINCIPLE 6: Provide for effective participation of communities and interest groups in the decisions that most affect them and their environment. S Participation of all community members and special interest groups S Ensure commitment to sustainable planning, development, management and operations
S PRINCIPLE 7: Promote the values that encourage others to achieve sustainability. S Provide leadership, transfer knowledge, create awareness and demonstrate a sustainability ethic S Promote responsibility across the entire tourism supply chain S PRINCIPLE 8: Establish a ‘sustainability code of practice and knowledge’ across all levels of education and training S Integrate environmental awareness and sustainability principles in all tourism CORE curriculum worldwide S Educate for technologies and techniques
S 1990 [March]; Canada’s Policies: ‘An Action Plan for Sustainable Tourism’ S Evening brainstorming session (5 hours, 8 international experts S Areas of Responsibility; i) Government ii) Tourism Industry, iii) NGOs and iv) Tourism Education Institutions S 5 Sustainability Themes: S Integrated planning and management S Social and economic benefits; fair trade, equity, local hiring, SME S Cultural and traditional Heritage conservation and enhancement S Sustainability education and awareness S Biodiversity protection and enhancement; water, energy, waste management, hazardous materials,
S 1994; The Bahamas Sustainable Tourism Development Policies and Implementation Strategy S Issues particular to small island States; inefficient water use, cruise ship dumping, litter and marine debris, high level of imports, illegal fishing S 32 Policies and Action Plan: S Planning, EIA, public consultation, intergenerational and gender equity, local involvement and benefits S Marketing and Green Management, energy and water conservation, hazardous waste, purchasing procedures, etc. S Heritage protection and restoration S Research, audits and monitoring S Marine Debris reduction, enforcement S Winner; Green Globe Achievement Award: WTTC
S 1996: Republic of Palau Sustainable Tourism Policies S 1992; Clayoquot Sound (BC) Area Sustainable Tourism Development Master Plan (Canada’s First) S 1995-2002: a) National Ecotourism Master Plans S Australia (1994), Botswana (2002), Bulgarie (2002), Philippines (2005) S Laos, Bhutan, Vietnam (1999 - 2004), Ecuador (2002) S b) Regional/State Strategies and National Parks S Province of Saskatchewan (1996) S Brasov County (Agrotourism): USAID/Romania S Retezat National Park Sustainable Tourism, Romania) S Province de Chtouka Aït Baha (Morocco)
S 1992-96: Ecotourism Planning + Marketing Workshop: Banff Center for Management/ecoplan:net S 1994 Commonwealth Caribbean Sustainable Tourism + Green Management Workshop Series, Commonwealth Secretariat, Bahamas Ministry of Tourism/ecoplan:net S 1994-1996 Brazil Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Workshop Series, Conservation International/ecoplan:net S 2002 Morocco Sustainable Rural Tourism Workshops, USAID
S (A) Generated more than 120 Ecotourism/Green Certification Programs S Costa Rican Tourism Board (ICT): Certification for Sustainable Tourism Program - CST S Quebec Marine Ecotourism Certification (2001), MoT S Australia Nature Tourism and Ecotourism Accreditation Program (2002) S Romania Ecotourism Standards and Certification (2003-5) USAID S Egypt Ministry of Tourism: Green Star Hotel Certification Programme S Ecotourism Ireland S Chile: National System for Distinction in Sustainable tourism
S (B) Organization or Association Programs S STEP Eco-Certification: Sustainable Tourism International S Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria S European Ecotourism Labeling Standard (EETLS) S Rainforest Alliance Standard for Tourism Operations S Green Globe, S Green Key, S EarthCheck S Center for Ecotourism and Sustainable Development S Japan Ecolodge Association
S Botswana Green, Green Plus and Ecotourism certification Program, ecoplan:net Maroc S Based on Ecotourism Certification Feasibility Study S Expansion of a proposed ‘ecotourism certification program’ to include Green and Green + standards S Ecotourism Best Practices Guidelines Manual and Technical Standards Manual S Accommodation Operator Handbook S Validation by 350 accommodation suppliers S WINNER: 2010 Tourism for Tomorrow Award
S 1.1 Bahamas National Guide Sustainable Tourism Certification Program (2010) ecoplan:net Morocco S 3 tier Guide Certification (entry, premiere and master) S Birdwatching, Sea Kayaking, Fly-fishing S Sustainable tourism standards, technical knowledge S Training Manuals and Workshops S Assessor Training Workshop and Support Materials S On Island Guide Train-the Trainer Program S 1.2 The Knowledge, Network, Education, and Training (KNET) Working Group S Identifying educational materials
Star Grading Programs Quality Assurance Responsible Tourism Universal Accessibility
S Morocco Rural Tourism (Accommodation and Restaurant) Quality Assurance and Ecotourism Certification Program S Local operator awareness program S Training of local assessors S Marketing support (web site, FAM Trips, etc.) S Winner: 2009 Tourism for Tomorrow Award S Southern Africa Harmonized Accommodation Star Grading Program (2009 – 2011) ecoplan:net Morocco S 250 Quality Assurance, 60 responsible tourism, 40 accessible/ inclusive tourism standards S Mandatory by 2016 S Cooperative Management Structure and Marketing program (RETOSA and Member states) S Endorsed by 14 Ministers of Tourism
S Kingdom of Lesotho QUALStar Accommodation Grading Program ecoplan:net Morocco S Revised Minimum Requirements for a business license S Composting, linen policy, low flow restrictors, CFL’s S Accessible parking and entrance, trained staff S Stakeholder Sensitization Workshops (95% attendance) S 15 day Assessor + 3 day Master assessor training program S 350 standards across 6 accommodation categories S Website and Communication Strategy S I2 Pilot Assessments S Awards Committee Training
S CURRENT GLOBAL SITUATION: S Despite 25 years of policies, plans, and certification programs; 65% of North American and 80% of worldwide hotels have little or no sustainability initiatives. S 1 trillion gallons of water untreated/year (2015) S 80% accommodation managers have little knowledge of sustainability practices S URGENT GLOBAL SOLUTION S Worldwide expansion of compulsory sustainability in ALL tourism and hospitality management programs
S All Technical, College and Universities S Shift from elective courses to core program S Respond to current and future demand for sustainable awareness and knowledge S Policies, Programs, Practices, Processes S In house training for current hospitality managers and tourism planners S Create International Tourism Educators Sustainability Task Force
Beyond sustainable tourism training and certification: ‘Develop a Culture of Sustainability in your life, your home and your workplace’
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