'An ecoplan:net 25 Year History Of Sustainable Tourism' delivered at New York University

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Published on March 14, 2014

Author: JamesMacGregor

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Delivered at the 2014 Gossinger Distinguished Lecture Series, at NYU, the presentation focused on the evolutional phases and changes of Sustainable Tourism over the past quarter century. The presentation began with a recognition that the tourism resource base is eroding at a rapid rate. However an overview of the basic principles of sustainable tourism suggests we must greatly accelerate and expand our ST procedures and practices. The timeline begins (Phase 1) with the preparation of broad based ST Policies in the early 1990's (Canada, Bahamas, Palau), and Ecotourism Plans (late 1990"s). The presentation then traced the evolution to greater levels of specificity including ST and Ecotourism Certification Programs (Phase 2: 2000-2010) . More recently (Phase 3: 2010-2015) there has been a shift to Employee ST training and Certification (Bahamas) and the integration of ST standards with Quality Assurance (Morocco, Lesotho, Southern Africa).
Yet despite all these nobel efforts and market concern for the environment relatively little has been accomplished in integrating sustainability into the majority tourism of operations worldwide. This is in part because of the lack of awareness (and interest) of much of tourisms' management teams. Perhaps no more than 2%-3% of senior management of accommodation facilities (worldwide) have received any introduction to ST procedures and practices. The Challenge therefore falls to the current hospitality and tourism management students and recent graduates to develop a professional 'Culture of Sustainability". Furthermore, in this current phase, sustainability must become an integral part of all graduate and undergraduate tourism and hospitality management educational programs. The resources upon which the industry is built are diminishing at a remarkable rate with the vast majority of current tourism professionals lacking both the technical skills and awareness to implement responsible tourism practices.

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  S  Our DIMINISHING tourism environment S  Revisiting sustainability PRINCIPLES S  25 year SCAN of a ‘modest’ adaption of sustainability S  URGENT NEED: Strengthen all sustainable tourism education S  A COMMITTMENT to developing an individual ‘Culture of Sustainability”

ONGOING: Depleting of ALL our natural resources S  Excessive water consumption: S  Global accommodation onsite demand: 5 trillion liters (5 billion m3) or 1.3 trillion gallons/year (2013) S  Global warming (Tourism is 5% of global CO2 emissions) S  Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity S  Water Degradation: industrial contamination S  Desertification and deforestation S  loss of topsoil (industrial agriculture) S  Toxic chemicals: VOC, cleaners, solvents, glues

S  TOURISM GROWTH (Volume) S  Double international arrivals by 2030 S  200 million outbound 8+ billion domestic Chinese trips by 2020 S  Expansion of BRICS tourism S  35,000 new aircraft (21,000 for fleet expansion) S  INCREASED VISITOR EXPECTATIONS S  Bigger swimming pools, S  More 4 and 5 star properties S  Embedded water requirements (food, plastics, etc)

S  “there was only one consideration to take into account. Don’t look at the matter from your own point of view. I don’t look at this matter from the way those living in the village now will be affected. Look at it from the point of view of our grandchildren”; ‘The Compassionate Universe’ by Egnath Eswaran, page 53 S  “we do not inherit from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children”; Haida Elder/Chief Seattle

S  “Humanity has the ability to make (tourism) development sustainable – to ensure that it meets the needs of the present (tourists and tourism businesses) without compromising the ability of future generations (tourists and tourism businesses) to meet their own needs”. -- World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987.

‘Encyclopedia of Tourism and Hospitality’ Chapter 3: Sustainable Tourism, J. MacGregor, Van Norstrand Reinholt, NY, NY, 1993

S  PRINCIPLE 1: Limit tourism impact on the planet (global) and the region (local) to a level that is within its carrying-capacity. S  Minimize tourist consumption of raw materials and energy S  2 star properties consume less than 3/4/5 star S  Water management: can cut water consumption 40% S  PRINCIPLE 2: Maintain the stock of biological wealth in the region. S  Conserve ‘Life support services and the processes that allow life to be productive and adapt to tourism impacts S  Maintain chemical balance, recycle nutrients, water/air pollution free S  Manage for Sustainability and Diversity

S  PRINCIPLE 3: Minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources. S  Tourism is a consumer of plastics, metals, fossil fuels, and water S  Integrate recycling and composting into all operations S  PRINCIPLE 4: Promote long-term [sustainable] economic development that increases the benefits from a given stock of resources and maintains or grows natural wealth. S  Promote new technologies; solar/wind/ batteries/engines S  Operations must charge the full price of resource use and damage; consumption tax, surcharge S  Integrating value-added products by improving and diversifying product lines

S  PRINCIPLE 5: Provide for an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of resource use and sustainable management. S  Benefits spread across gender, age [intergenerational], class/ culture and physical/visual ability S  Ensure adequate training and access to all required sustainable management skills S  PRINCIPLE 6: Provide for effective participation of communities and interest groups in the decisions that most affect them and their environment. S  Participation of all community members and special interest groups S  Ensure commitment to sustainable planning, development, management and operations

S  PRINCIPLE 7: Promote the values that encourage others to achieve sustainability. S  Provide leadership, transfer knowledge, create awareness and demonstrate a sustainability ethic S  Promote responsibility across the entire tourism supply chain S  PRINCIPLE 8: Establish a ‘sustainability code of practice and knowledge’ across all levels of education and training S  Integrate environmental awareness and sustainability principles in all tourism CORE curriculum worldwide S  Educate for technologies and techniques

S  1990 [March]; Canada’s Policies: ‘An Action Plan for Sustainable Tourism’ S  Evening brainstorming session (5 hours, 8 international experts S  Areas of Responsibility; i) Government ii) Tourism Industry, iii) NGOs and iv) Tourism Education Institutions S  5 Sustainability Themes: S  Integrated planning and management S  Social and economic benefits; fair trade, equity, local hiring, SME S  Cultural and traditional Heritage conservation and enhancement S  Sustainability education and awareness S  Biodiversity protection and enhancement; water, energy, waste management, hazardous materials,

S  1994; The Bahamas Sustainable Tourism Development Policies and Implementation Strategy S  Issues particular to small island States; inefficient water use, cruise ship dumping, litter and marine debris, high level of imports, illegal fishing S  32 Policies and Action Plan: S  Planning, EIA, public consultation, intergenerational and gender equity, local involvement and benefits S  Marketing and Green Management, energy and water conservation, hazardous waste, purchasing procedures, etc. S  Heritage protection and restoration S  Research, audits and monitoring S  Marine Debris reduction, enforcement S  Winner; Green Globe Achievement Award: WTTC

S  1996: Republic of Palau Sustainable Tourism Policies S  1992; Clayoquot Sound (BC) Area Sustainable Tourism Development Master Plan (Canada’s First) S  1995-2002: a) National Ecotourism Master Plans S  Australia (1994), Botswana (2002), Bulgarie (2002), Philippines (2005) S  Laos, Bhutan, Vietnam (1999 - 2004), Ecuador (2002) S  b) Regional/State Strategies and National Parks S  Province of Saskatchewan (1996) S  Brasov County (Agrotourism): USAID/Romania S  Retezat National Park Sustainable Tourism, Romania) S  Province de Chtouka Aït Baha (Morocco)

S  1992-96: Ecotourism Planning + Marketing Workshop: Banff Center for Management/ecoplan:net S  1994 Commonwealth Caribbean Sustainable Tourism + Green Management Workshop Series, Commonwealth Secretariat, Bahamas Ministry of Tourism/ecoplan:net S  1994-1996 Brazil Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Workshop Series, Conservation International/ecoplan:net S  2002 Morocco Sustainable Rural Tourism Workshops, USAID

S  (A) Generated more than 120 Ecotourism/Green Certification Programs S  Costa Rican Tourism Board (ICT): Certification for Sustainable Tourism Program - CST S  Quebec Marine Ecotourism Certification (2001), MoT S  Australia Nature Tourism and Ecotourism Accreditation Program (2002) S  Romania Ecotourism Standards and Certification (2003-5) USAID S  Egypt Ministry of Tourism: Green Star Hotel Certification Programme S  Ecotourism Ireland S  Chile: National System for Distinction in Sustainable tourism

S  (B) Organization or Association Programs S  STEP Eco-Certification: Sustainable Tourism International S  Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria S  European Ecotourism Labeling Standard (EETLS) S  Rainforest Alliance Standard for Tourism Operations S  Green Globe, S  Green Key, S  EarthCheck S  Center for Ecotourism and Sustainable Development S  Japan Ecolodge Association

S  Botswana Green, Green Plus and Ecotourism certification Program, ecoplan:net Maroc S  Based on Ecotourism Certification Feasibility Study S  Expansion of a proposed ‘ecotourism certification program’ to include Green and Green + standards S  Ecotourism Best Practices Guidelines Manual and Technical Standards Manual S  Accommodation Operator Handbook S  Validation by 350 accommodation suppliers S  WINNER: 2010 Tourism for Tomorrow Award

S  1.1 Bahamas National Guide Sustainable Tourism Certification Program (2010) ecoplan:net Morocco S  3 tier Guide Certification (entry, premiere and master) S  Birdwatching, Sea Kayaking, Fly-fishing S  Sustainable tourism standards, technical knowledge S  Training Manuals and Workshops S  Assessor Training Workshop and Support Materials S  On Island Guide Train-the Trainer Program S  1.2 The Knowledge, Network, Education, and Training (KNET) Working Group S  Identifying educational materials

Star Grading Programs Quality Assurance Responsible Tourism Universal Accessibility

S  Morocco Rural Tourism (Accommodation and Restaurant) Quality Assurance and Ecotourism Certification Program S  Local operator awareness program S  Training of local assessors S  Marketing support (web site, FAM Trips, etc.) S  Winner: 2009 Tourism for Tomorrow Award S  Southern Africa Harmonized Accommodation Star Grading Program (2009 – 2011) ecoplan:net Morocco S  250 Quality Assurance, 60 responsible tourism, 40 accessible/ inclusive tourism standards S  Mandatory by 2016 S  Cooperative Management Structure and Marketing program (RETOSA and Member states) S  Endorsed by 14 Ministers of Tourism

S  Kingdom of Lesotho QUALStar Accommodation Grading Program ecoplan:net Morocco S  Revised Minimum Requirements for a business license S  Composting, linen policy, low flow restrictors, CFL’s S  Accessible parking and entrance, trained staff S  Stakeholder Sensitization Workshops (95% attendance) S  15 day Assessor + 3 day Master assessor training program S  350 standards across 6 accommodation categories S  Website and Communication Strategy S  I2 Pilot Assessments S  Awards Committee Training

S  CURRENT GLOBAL SITUATION: S  Despite 25 years of policies, plans, and certification programs; 65% of North American and 80% of worldwide hotels have little or no sustainability initiatives. S  1 trillion gallons of water untreated/year (2015) S  80% accommodation managers have little knowledge of sustainability practices S  URGENT GLOBAL SOLUTION S  Worldwide expansion of compulsory sustainability in ALL tourism and hospitality management programs

S  All Technical, College and Universities S  Shift from elective courses to core program S  Respond to current and future demand for sustainable awareness and knowledge S  Policies, Programs, Practices, Processes S  In house training for current hospitality managers and tourism planners S  Create International Tourism Educators Sustainability Task Force

Beyond sustainable tourism training and certification: ‘Develop a Culture of Sustainability in your life, your home and your workplace’

Go Sustainably….but Create Ripples

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