amino acid synthesis

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Information about amino acid synthesis

Published on May 27, 2018

Author: Dasanal


WELCOME: WELCOME PRESENTED BY , KIRAN DASANAL ( PALB7319 ) TOPIC NAME: TOPIC NAME SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS. Reduction of N2 to NH4 . Transamination . Synthesis of amino acids by metabolic precursors . INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Amino acids  are organic compounds containing amine (-NH 2 ) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain(R group) specific to each amino acid . CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION Nonpolar /hydrophobic aminoacids glycine,alanine,valine,leucine,methionine,phenyalalanine , proline polar/hydrophilic amino acids serine, cysteine, tyrosine, glutamicacid, asparaticacid , lysine,arginine Sulphur containing amino acids Cystine , methionine , cysteine Slide 5: Nutritionally essential amino acids Nutritionally non-essential amino acids Arginine Alanine Histidine Asparagine Isoleucine Aspartic acid Leucine Cysteine Lysine Glutamic acid Methionine Glutamine Phenylalanine Glycine Threonine Proline Tryptophan Serine Valine Tyrosine List of essential and non essential amino acids SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS: SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS Amino acid synthesis  is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds. STEPS….: STEPS …. Reduction of N2 to NH4. Transamination . Synthesis of amino acids by metabolic precursors. 1) REDUCTION OF N2 TO NH4 : 1) REDUCTION OF N2 TO NH4 It is the first step during synthesis of amino acids. In which reduction of N2 TO NH4 takes place. The conversion of nitrogen to ammonia is a reduction reaction which is exergonic in nature Biological fixation of nitrogen is carried out by a highly conserved complex of proteins called nitrogenase complex. 2) TRANSAMINATION : 2) TRANSAMINATION Transamination , a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a  ketoacid  to form new amino acids. This pathway is responsible for the deamination of most amino acids. This is one of the major degradation pathways which convert essential amino acids to nonessential amino acids (amino acids that can be synthesized de novo by the organism). Transamination in biochemistry is accomplished by enzymes called transaminases or aminotransferases .  Slide 11: FOR EXAMPLE α- ketoglutarate acts as the predominant amino-group acceptor and produces glutamate as the new amino acid. Aminoacid + α- ketoglutarate ↔ α- keto acid + Glutamate Glutamate's amino group, in turn, is transferred to oxaloacetate in a second transamination reaction yielding aspartate . Glutamate+ oxaloacetate ↔ α- ketoglutarate +  aspartate Slide 12: Aminotransfer reaction between an amino acid and an alpha- keto acid Keto acids  (also called  oxo acids  or  oxoacids ) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a  ketone group. 3) SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS BY METABOLIC PRECURSORS : 3) SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS BY METABOLIC PRECURSORS All the 20 protein amino acids are derived from intermediates in glycolysis , citric acid cycle or the pentose phosphate pathway Nitrogen enters these pathways by way of glutamate and glutamine. It is believed that the pathways in higher plants and animals are similar, but comparatively less is known of the enzymes involved. Slide 14: AN OVERVIEW OF AMINO ACID BIOSYNTHESIS Slide 15:   3-phosphoglycerate Serine Cysteine Glycine   Pyruvate Alanine Valine Leucine Ribose-5-phosphate Histidine α-ketoglutarate Glutamate Glutamine Proline Arginine Oxaloacetate Aspartate Asparagine Methionine Threonine Isoleucine Lysine Phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS BY METABOLIC PRECURSORS AMINO ACIDS CHEMICAL STRUCTURES: AMINO ACIDS CHEMICAL STRUCTURES REFERENCES : REFERENCES Baldwin E : An Introduction to Comparative Biochemistry. 4 th ed. Cambridge University Press, New York. 1964. Bender DA: Amino Acid Metabolism. 2nd ed. Wiley- Interscience , New York, 1985 . Wikipedia THANK YOU: THANK YOU

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