Amakiri NDES

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Published on January 9, 2008

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NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY:  NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY A RELIABLE BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT by Jonathan Amakiri Ph.D (London), DIC, M.Sc., M.Inst.Pet., B.Sc. Executive Director Niger Delta Environmental Survey A PRESENTATION AT THE CONFERENCE ON COASTAL ZONES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AT THE ROYAL SOCIETY, LONDON 28 MAY, 2003 Slide2:  This paper is a highly condensed account of the Niger Delta Environmental Survey distilled from the 53-Volume Phase Two Report for a 25 minute presentation. Details of scientific methodology, findings and recommendations cannot possibly be set out in this short paper. NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY INTRODUCTION: THE REGION:  THE NIGER DELTA a coastal region of global environmental and economic significance one of the world’s largest wetlands the world’s largest mangrove forest Africa’s largest and the world’s third largest delta West and Central Africa’s most extensive freshwater swamp forest a mosaic of diverse and sensitive ecosystems that traverse four vegetation zones Nigeria’s last remaining pristine rain forests one of the continent’s few remaining habitats of unique biological species one of the world’s major hydrocarbon provinces (intense industry activities coexisting with sensitive ecosystems) INTRODUCTION: THE REGION INTRODUCTION: THE NIGER DELTA:  CONSTRAINTS TO SUSTAINABILITY rapidly deteriorating ecological and economic conditions pervasive poverty endemic instability over resource rights social tensions not adequately addressed by existing policies and attitudes region characterised by its parlous state in the midst of abundant living and hydrocarbon resources paucity and unreliability of data consequent absence of credible basis for addressing problems diverse and conflicting stakeholder views on problems and possible solutions World Bank warned in 1995 of urgent need to protect life and health of people and ecosystems from further deterioration INTRODUCTION: THE NIGER DELTA NDES FORMATION AND INDEPENDENCE:  Under these circumstances, SPDC initiated NDES in February, 1995, for independent and reliable information as basis for understanding and tackling the environmental and economic problems of the region to achieve development that is environmentally sustainable and people-centred OPTS embraced Survey in March, 1996 with limited contribution Conceived and implemented as an independent, participatory, people-centred survey Independent Steering Committee with balanced stakeholder representation NDES FORMATION AND INDEPENDENCE Slide6:  NDES implemented in six sectors: Participatory Rural Appraisal/ Participatory Learning and Action [PRA/PLA] Socio-economics Human Health Biological Environment and Resources Hydrology/Hydrodynamics Pollution in order to address the major concerns of sustainable development in three broad areas of Human, Biological and Physical environments. Information integrated in digital (GIS) database and mapping to provide the region with a dynamic analytical tool and sustainable management/decision support system. Participatory methodology, hub of the survey. NDES: STRUCTURE, SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY Slide7:  The focal strategy was to concentrate on providing a reliable basis to address constraints to sustainability and improvement of quality of life elucidation of interactions between human and biological environments physical environmental changes expected to be evident on state of biological environment. The survey’s six sectors and their relationships as they converge into the Niger Delta Development Priorities and Action Plan is schematically represented in the next slide NDES: STRUCTURE, SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY Slide9:  Contribute to knowledge base through intensive interaction with selected communities, across all socio-ecological zones analyse resource base, social, economic, physical and cultural environment of communities from their own perspective and in local idiom. NDES developed community social maps and inventory on the selected 31 communities covering: Ecosystems and Inventory of natural resources Community Social Structure, Administration and Inheritance Systems Socio-Economic Infra-Structure and Modernisation process/Extent Health and Educational Facilities and Community Development Projects Rural Economy And Community Perceptions Perceptions of Environment, Community Relationships And Impacts Quality Of Life And Developmental Challenges Institutional Framework for Future Intervention Conflict Resolution Processes Areas of Conflicts Between Community and Oil Industry PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL/PARTICIPATORY LEARNING AND ACTION PROGRAMME (PRA/PLA) BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES:  Biological Environment and Resources survey conducted at fifty-nine community-based sites. Report of this sector in following six volumes BIODIVERSITY STUDIES FOREST RESOURCES ANIMAL NTFP (WILDLIFE) INVENTORY FISHERIES RESOURCES ECOLOGICAL ZONATION AND HABITAT CLASSIFICATION BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: SOCIO-ECONOMICS:  Socio-Economic Survey essentially a cross-sectional study of relevant sample populations in 40 communities. Six study domains produced the following six volumes: SETTLEMENTS AND INFRASTRUCTURE INSTITUTIONS AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK WOMEN AS AGENTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE NIGER DELTA LAND ACQUISITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES VALUATION OIL COMPANIES AND COMMUNITIES OF THE NIGER DELTA INDIGENOUS/APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: SOCIO-ECONOMICS HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HUMAN HEALTH ASSESSMENT:  Human Health Assessment in two phases: Human Health Status in the region Nutritional survey in 33 communities, morbidity/ mortality and health facility surveys in 83 communities. The Human Health report is covered under the following titles : Health Profile of the Inhabitants of the Niger Delta Health Facilities and Health Manpower Status Alternative Health Care System General Human Health Issues HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HUMAN HEALTH ASSESSMENT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: POLLUTION SURVEY:  Pollution survey was in two phases: Pollution status of the Niger Delta compared with data from previous studies. (covering physico-chemical and biological characteristics of more than 20 river systems in the region). Sampling and analysis of sediments from all polluted sites and region-wide determination of groundwater vulnerability. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: POLLUTION SURVEY PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: HYDROLOGY/HYDRODYNAMICS STUDIES:  Mostly desk study limited field work because of funding constraints. Hydrological processes dominant driving mechanism of the region’s ecological concerns and also resource/capital stock to be sustainably managed. Need for full-fledged hydrological survey, last study 40 years old cannot be used as the basis of our understanding considering many upstream and downstream developments. Hydrology/Hydrodynamics report in two volumes covering: Hydrological Characteristics of the Niger Delta Hydrological Resources Partial Hydrodynamic Model of Eastern Niger Delta Modeling Applied to a selected Shipping Channel PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: HYDROLOGY/HYDRODYNAMICS STUDIES PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: HYDROLOGY/HYDRODYNAMICS STUDIES:  Hydrological Problems Flooding Erosion Sea Level Rise And Impacts Hydrological Impacts of Human Intervention Impact Of Dams And Reservoirs Impact Of Hydrology On Road And Building Infrastructure Impacts Of Canalisation and Land Reclamation PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: HYDROLOGY/HYDRODYNAMICS STUDIES GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING:  Aims and Objectives To map and analyze the land use and vegetation of the Niger Delta over time using the available analogue and digital data sources, digitize the results and develop a geographical information system for environmental monitoring and management. In order to achieve this aim, the specific objectives of the project are to: compile and digitize the topographical map of the area to provide the base map; analyze, map and digitize land use and vegetation of the region over three time periods; carry out a land use change detection analysis between the three time periods; develop a geographical information system based on the data generated in the above three activities and other sources for environmental monitoring and resource management. Specific tasks performed: Seamless digital conversion of the topographical basemap at scale of 1:50,000 Seamless landuse and vegetation mapping and change detection analysis of the 1960s, 1980s and 1990s to generate change distribution and trend statistics . GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING Slide17:  Cartographic design and production of atlas. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING Slide18:  Epoch1 Coverage - Interpreted Using Aerial Photograph (1960’s) GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING Slide19:  Epoch2 Coverage - Interpreted Using Landsat TM Imageries (1980’s) GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING Slide20:  Epoch3 Coverage - Interpreted Using SPOT XS Imageries 1990’s) GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM DATABASE AND MAPPING Slide21:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY NDES report embodied in 53 volumes. Four, representing a fair summary of and covering most of the core concerns of the survey are briefly described: Atlas of Environmental Change in the Niger Delta (Volume 1, NDES Report) Assemblage of digital maps at a scale of 1:50,000 with statistical and graphical illustrations. Depicting landuse and vegetation patterns over three time periods (“epochs”) Exhibiting quantum, nature and spatial pattern of environmental changes from 1950s to 1999. By this, the Niger Delta now has a versatile tool and spatial decision support system. A solid basis for continuous monitoring, evaluation, planning and management of sustainable development. Slide22:  The significant achievements and findings of the mapping and environmental change detection project are as follows: Creation of a composite digital database which can serve for developing an environmental management information system (EMIS) Knowledge of changes would assist re-orientation of development towards desired goal. In carrying out the mapping exercise, this project has come up with a classification scheme for land use and vegetation which can be modified and upgraded as knowledge on the environment improves. Such a classification scheme is crucial for regional planning purposes so that data and information and experiences gained in one part of the Niger Delta can be easily transferred to other parts with similar problems and environmental attributes. Specifically, the analysis done in this study has shown the significant impact of oil production activities on the landscape of the Niger Delta. Many land use categories that were not there in 1960 increasingly gained prominence on the landscape over time: e.g. dredged canals, flare sites, burrow pits, pipelines. The significant environmental impact of oil production activities is also highlighted by the emergence on the landscape of such land use categories as, saltwater impacted forest, submerged mangrove, dredge spoil, and open bare surfaces. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide23:  Over time, the built-up area has increased many fold obviously with the rapid growth in the rate of urbanization. The increase in the built-up area has been achieved at the expense of arable cultivation, secondary forests, high forests, rubber plantations, and mangrove swamps. In other words, mangrove swamps have been drained, and rubber plantations, forests and secondary forests cleared to make way for buildings and other man-made structures. Although, arable cultivation lost out to built-up areas in many areas, it made up for the loss by taking over land from high forest, mangrove swamps, freshwater swamps and marshlands, secondary forests and palm bush. Another subtle evidence of land degradation in the Niger Delta is the increase in the extent of the land use category tagged beach/mudflat/riverbed sand. This is evidence of a high rate of sedimentation in this wet environment arising probably from increased erosion of the land and river banks. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide24:  Additionally, this composite digital products could provide flexible and powerful support in management activities of the following sectors: Agriculture Rural development Land use planning Population census base Natural resource management Oil and gas activities Deforestation monitoring Air pollution assessment Clean water protection Polluted areas reclamation Coastal protection, monitoring and management Forest/Wildlife management Endangered species management Disaster planning and recovery e.g. ESI mapping and modelling Conservation SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide25:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide26:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide27:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide28:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide29:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide30:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide31:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide32:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide33:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Baseline Landuse/Vegetation Vectors over 1986 Landsat TM Slide34:  The Niger Delta Development Priorities and Action Plan (Volume 2, NDES Report) Achieving sustainability through the participatory and holistic approach. Past development initiatives for this region and the nation in general, have failed because they were top-down, fragmented and sectoral in their approach, instead of being bottom-up, participatory and integrated. Environmental degradation, economic decline, social and political instability in the Niger Delta are either a direct consequence of the failure of these previous development approaches or were aggravated by them. There is clearly an urgent need for a new policy thrust that is holistic, participatory and cross-sectoral, integrating the region’s environmental and developmental imperatives into an implementable programme of actions hinged on social justice, transparency and public accountability, if sustainable development is to be achieved. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide35:  Meeting the challenges of the delta’s heterogeneous ecozones The focal strategy for the formulation of the development priorities, policies, programmes and projects in this management plan was predicated on the heterogeneous nature and peculiar characteristics of Niger Delta’s ecological zones. Dissimilar environmental and socio-economic attributes present varied constraints, challenges and opportunities, which determine appropriate policy responses, development programmes and projects. One critical and common challenge though, is the difficult terrain that characterises most of the Niger Delta and which has been a major constraint to economic activities even before oil became the dominant issue. This “difficult terrain” provided a ready but unacceptable alibi for the gross neglect by successive governments, particularly since independence, of the region, which for more than a quarter of a century has accounted for some 95% of Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings. The key challenge now is to reverse the backwardness and instability of this economically strategic region by building the confidence of its peoples through transparent and sustained infrastructure development and socio-economic transformation. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide36:  Critical Issues of a New Policy Thrust To rapidly redress the region’s neglect, ensure sustainable development, assuage the trauma and widespread anger of its peoples and promote its return to stability, this three-year Action Plan has been drawn up to provide policies, programmes and projects that are designed for immediately confronting the following critical issues: Environmental Management; Poverty Alleviation; Infrastructure Development; and Social Justice and Conflict Resolution. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide37:  Volume 3: Atlas of Social Infrastructure in the Niger Delta This is a compendium of digital maps derived from the NDES GIS database, depicting the spatial pattern of available social infrastructure against the background of land use and vegetation (terrain and ecozone) information for each Local Government Area. This document provides a flexible opportunity and the potential for an easy appreciation, evaluation and analysis of the current status of social infrastructure at the State, Local Government Area and Ward levels, while also being a sound management support system. Particularly suitable for meeting the developmental challenges of the region’s heterogenous ecozones as it integrates environmental and socio-economic attributes. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide38:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide39:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide40:  SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide41:  Summary Volume: The Summary and Recommendations volume captures the essence of the entire 53-volume NDES Phase Two Report in a well-illustrated and user-friendly style, highlighting and cross-referencing a selection of key findings and interrelationships, designed for a general, non-technical readership. This volume provides the scientific basis for the recommendations set out in the Niger Delta Development Priorities and Action Plan. The first two of these four documents, designed for use in tandem, provides planners, developers and managers of the delta a crucial state-of-the-art tool for sustainable development. SUMMARY OF SOME MAJOR PRODUCTS (RESULTS) OF THE NIGER DELTA ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY Slide42:  As collaborating agencies on the Gulf of Guinea Large Marine Ecosystems Project, the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have jointly recognised the Niger Delta Environmental Survey as a model and generic prototype for all developing coastal economies in the world. Following a technical assessment visit to NDES, Professor Michael Watts, a consultant to both the Ford and McArthur Foundations, made the following remarks: “I was deeply impressed by the quality of the GIS platform, and the sorts of cartographic and other information that has been generated. It is a world class project, and there is probably no comparable project (in terms of depth and coverage) of any delta in the world. The demand for, and utility of, the data generated is extraordinary; government, the NGO community, and the private sector obviously have pressing needs for the sorts of information you have generated.” CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS Slide43:  “It is imperative that this information be circulated both to reveal to government and funders the quality and significance of the data generated but also to place such a valuable resource in the hand of those, and it is a substantial community, who need it most as soon as possible.” The cream of Nigeria’s distinguished scholars, experts and peer reviewers described the NDES report as an excellent job, a comprehensive and reliable information base and decision support system that should form the basis of the current government development initiative in the Niger Delta. Yet, nearly three years after survey completion, report preparation, several rounds of international and local reviews and report finalisation, NDES report has still not been published, ostensibly for lack of funds. CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS Slide44:  In the meantime, major developmental initiatives from government, industry, bilateral and multilateral agencies are proceeding, post-NDES, using the failed top-down, fragmented, contract-driven approach of the past that had left the region parlous, short-changed by benefit captors and socio-economically unstable. The oil industry, especially The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited that conceived and mid-wifed NDES, is on the threshold of missing a historic opportunity. It will be a tragedy if the credit and benefit of what is perhaps industry’s most meaningful and enduring contribution to the sustainable development and enhancement of quality of life in Africa’s largest and most richly endowed delta is either lost in the dust of time or allowed to have its immense value degraded by long bureaucratic delays. We believe it should be speedily published for the benefit of all stakeholders, especially the managers of the region, development agencies and the very people of the Niger Delta, the improvement of whose quality of life is central to the Survey’s Mission. CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS

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