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Alvaro Carmo Vaz Ppt

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Information about Alvaro Carmo Vaz Ppt
Education

Published on October 7, 2008

Author: water.in.africa

Source: slideshare.net

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WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN MOZAMIBQUE IN A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ÁLVARO CARMO VAZ Professor, Eduardo Mondlane University Director, CONSULTEC Lda.

Distribution of mean annual rainfall

Main river basins / shared river basins

Importance to Mozambique of shared river basins 50% of the country is included within shared river basins More than 50% of the natural flows are cross-border flows Mozambique is involved in 9 shared river basins; in 8 it is at the downstream end – less water, more pollution Critical situation in the South region – semi-arid, some large rivers intensively used upstream, large water uses in Mozambique (Maputo urban, irrigation, industries)

50% of the country is included within shared river basins

More than 50% of the natural flows are cross-border flows

Mozambique is involved in 9 shared river basins; in 8 it is at the downstream end – less water, more pollution

Critical situation in the South region – semi-arid, some large rivers intensively used upstream, large water uses in Mozambique (Maputo urban, irrigation, industries)

Main areas for water development Rural water supply Urban water supply Domestic Industrial Public and commercial Irrigation Hydropower

Rural water supply

Urban water supply

Domestic

Industrial

Public and commercial

Irrigation

Hydropower

Rural water supply Still far from achieving the MDGs Mostly based on groundwater Main problems: Community involvement and organisation Investment Maintenance capacity

Still far from achieving the MDGs

Mostly based on groundwater

Main problems:

Community involvement and organisation

Investment

Maintenance capacity

Urban water supply Large investments being made with external support Main cities – concession or contract management to private operators; regulator Main problems Cost of water in peri-urban areas High water losses Still not enough investment

Large investments being made with external support

Main cities – concession or contract management to private operators; regulator

Main problems

Cost of water in peri-urban areas

High water losses

Still not enough investment

Maputo water supply Largest urban consumer (domestic and industrial) Looking for new water sources – a regional negotiation (South Africa, Swaziland); perspectives for the near future Potential conflict between the main operator (concessionaire) and small private operators in peri-urban areas

Largest urban consumer (domestic and industrial)

Looking for new water sources – a regional negotiation (South Africa, Swaziland); perspectives for the near future

Potential conflict between the main operator (concessionaire) and small private operators in peri-urban areas

Irrigation By far the major water user in Mozambique Large potential (soil, water, climatic conditions) in the center and north of the country Commercial farming: sugar cane, food crops, bio-fuels (new developments) Present irrigated area still quite small (about 100,000 ha)

By far the major water user in Mozambique

Large potential (soil, water, climatic conditions) in the center and north of the country

Commercial farming: sugar cane, food crops, bio-fuels (new developments)

Present irrigated area still quite small (about 100,000 ha)

Irrigation – 2 Most irrigated areas located in the south (close to Maputo and South Africa) The south region has the most difficult conditions for expansion of irrigation Low rainfall Intensive water use in major rivers (Limpopo, Incomati, Umbeluzi) in upstream countries (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland)

Most irrigated areas located in the south (close to Maputo and South Africa)

The south region has the most difficult conditions for expansion of irrigation

Low rainfall

Intensive water use in major rivers (Limpopo, Incomati, Umbeluzi) in upstream countries (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Swaziland)

Hydropower Mozambique – good potential for hydropower, particularly Zambezi basin Cahora Bassa 2075 MW, potential more 1250 Mpanda Uncua 1500 MW (ready 2016) Total in Mozambique about 13,000 MW Linked to large coal and natural gas reserves, thermal power stations Mozambique – net exporter of electricity, main consumer – South Africa Southern Africa Power Pool

Mozambique – good potential for hydropower, particularly Zambezi basin

Cahora Bassa 2075 MW, potential more 1250

Mpanda Uncua 1500 MW (ready 2016)

Total in Mozambique about 13,000 MW

Linked to large coal and natural gas reserves, thermal power stations

Mozambique – net exporter of electricity, main consumer – South Africa

Southern Africa Power Pool

Large water transfers Electricity is (relatively) easy to move around – what about water? South Africa is increasingly water stressed Situation of water stress spreading to other countries (Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland) besides Botswana, Namibia (arid) Mega-projects for water transfers to the south from the Zambezi and Congo rivers – what impacts?

Electricity is (relatively) easy to move around – what about water?

South Africa is increasingly water stressed

Situation of water stress spreading to other countries (Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland) besides Botswana, Namibia (arid)

Mega-projects for water transfers to the south from the Zambezi and Congo rivers – what impacts?

Sharing water in international river basins Equitable allocation of water in international river basins – difficult when water resources are scarce to satisfy growing demand (Limpopo, Incomati, Umbeluzi in Mozambique) SADC Protocol on shared watercourse systems – excellent principles and guidelines, what results after 13 (8) years?

Equitable allocation of water in international river basins – difficult when water resources are scarce to satisfy growing demand (Limpopo, Incomati, Umbeluzi in Mozambique)

SADC Protocol on shared watercourse systems – excellent principles and guidelines, what results after 13 (8) years?

Mozambique shared river basins IncoMaputo agreement signed in 2002 – so complex that, after 6 years, still studies on how to implement Joint studies seem a good way forward, create a common objective knowledge base and understanding (Umbeluzi, Pungwe) ...but no agreements yet resulting from it

IncoMaputo agreement signed in 2002 – so complex that, after 6 years, still studies on how to implement

Joint studies seem a good way forward, create a common objective knowledge base and understanding (Umbeluzi, Pungwe)

...but no agreements yet resulting from it

No water conflicts inside Mozambique? Priority to domestic / urban water supply over irrigation in periods of drought Potential conflicts requiring negotiations and compromise: Development of large dams, social and environmental impacts to be mitigated Hydropower vs flood mitigation Flood control vs conservation of wetlands (the case of the Zambezi delta)

Priority to domestic / urban water supply over irrigation in periods of drought

Potential conflicts requiring negotiations and compromise:

Development of large dams, social and environmental impacts to be mitigated

Hydropower vs flood mitigation

Flood control vs conservation of wetlands (the case of the Zambezi delta)

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