Published on February 18, 2014
Alternative Energy Profile of Turkey EEE301 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Termwork Ali AYDIN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
INTRODUCTION 1. What is “alternative energy” ? 2. Common Types of Alternative Energy 2.1 Hydro-Electric Energy 2.1.a Hydro-Electric Energy and Turkey 2.2 Natural Gas 2.2.a Natural Gas and Turkey 2.3 Solar Energy 2.3.a Solar Energy and Turkey 2.4 Nuclear Energy 2.4.a Nuclear Energy and Turkey 2.5 Wind Energy 2.5.a Wind Energy and Turkey 2.6 Geothermal Energy 2.6.a Geothermal Energy and Turkey 2.7 Biofuel and Ethanol 2.7.a Biofuel and Turkey 2.8 Hydrogen 2.8.a Hyrogen and Turkey 2.9 Coal 2.9.a Coal and Turkey 3. Overall Statistics
1. What is “alternative energy” ? Alternative energy is an umbrella term that refers to any source of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of the replaced fuels . 
1. What is “alternative energy” ? Common Definitons For Alternative Energy Source Definiton Material Management Services Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy. Oxford Dictioanry Energy fuelled in ways that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment. Natural Resources Defense Council Energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind energy (as opposed to fossil fuels). 
2.Common Types of Alternative Energy • • • • • • • • • Hydro-Electric Energy Natural Gas Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Wind Energy Geothermal Energy Biofuel and Ethanol Hydrogen Coal 
2.1. Hydro-Electric Energy Hydro-Electric Energy Hydroelectric energy is generated from dammed water that drives a water turbine and generator. The power of the water of a tide creates pressure that will turn either a turbine or a water wheel is able to provide energy to the electric generator. . 
2.1. Hydro-Electric Energy Advantages & Disadvantages • • . Hydroelectric Energy has some advantages. First, water can be held in order to provide for times of less water. This is a difference from the other forms of alternative energy since with hydroelectric energy you have the ability to accumulate the water. This means that the energy can be generated consistently. Hydroelectric power, like wind, solar, and geothermal energy, has no waste or pollution. Additionally, it is renewable because the water can be reused. Disadvantages of hydroelectric energy include that the dams can be rather expensive to build. There also needs to be enough supply of water to create energy, and that supply of water needs to be powerful. 
2.1.a Hydro-Electric Energy and Turkey Because Turkey has really wide water sources and does not have significant oil and gas resources the hydro-electric energy has the main role in the energy activities with the coal. Actually coal has bigger percentage of supporting electricity production but not only with the locas sources , because Turkey also imports coal . There are about 503 hydro-electric power plants in Turkey already created or being structured recently . 
2.1.a. Hydro-Electric Energy and Turkey 
2.2. Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural gas is a fossil fuel. It does, however, have some differences. It does not produce carbon dioxide, which is the main greenhouse gas. This makes natural gas a better option. There is also still a rather large supply of natural gas in the world.  Natural gas is found in areas with other fossil fuels, and can even be created by other organisms. Most of the natural gas in the world is produces in North American and Asia, with several other developed countries producing large amounts :
2.2 Natural Gas Advantages & Disadvantages There are several advantages to using natural gas, including the reduces environmental damage, cost, and ease of use, since many homes and businesses could easily be converted to use natural gas. There are disadvantages, just like anything else. It does still releases greenhouse gases, and the process to isolate methane is quite complex.
2.2.a. Natural Gas and Turkey As of the end of 2009, our remaining exploitable natural gas reserve is 6,2 billion m³. Our installed power in natural gas is 14.576 MW, which corresponds to 32,7% of our total installed power. According to studies on natural gas supply-demand balance, there is no problem until 2011 to meet the annual gas demand. But during winter months, when demand is high, disruptions in source or route countries may create seasonal imbalances of supply and demand. In this context, commissioning in 2007 of Silivri natural gas depot, which has a capacity of 1,6 billion m³, has been very beneficial for ensuring availability of seasonal supply 
2.2.a. Natural Gas and Turkey Turkey has not so big reserves of Natural gas , so the demand for natural gas is being supplied by importing natural gas with the pipelines . In the figure you can see how the reserves of Turkey are going down year by year .
2.2.a. Natural Gas and Turkey Natural Gas’s Production Capasity Consumption Capasity 
2.2.a. Natural Gas and Turkey Here you can see the pipelines which provide gas to Turkey : 
2.3. Solar Energy Solar Energy Solar energy is created by trapping the sun's rays into solar cells where the sunlight is changed into electricity. Solar energy is most commonly used for producing electricity, getting the salt out of water, heating, and cooking. The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world. Depending on a geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy is available. 
2.4. Solar Energy Advantages & Disadvantages One advantage is that as long as we have a sun, its energy is renewable. Secondly, like wind power, it does not contribute to pollution and keeps our world clean. Solar energy is a very practical form of energy for lighting and heating. Just like wind power, solar power also has the disadvantage of inconsistency. There are sunny days and of course also cloudy days !
2.4.a. Solar Energy and Turkey • Having a high potential for solar energy due to its geographical position, Turkey's average annual total sunshine duration is calculated as 2.640 hours (daily total is 7,2 hours), and average total radiation pressure as 1.311 kWh/m²-year (daily total is 3,6 kWh/m²). Solar energy potential is calculated as 380 billion kWh/year. • The amount of solar collectors installed in our country is roughly 12 million m² with a technical solar energy potential of 76 TEP, and annual generation volume is 750.000 m², part of which is exported. • In our country, installed solar cell capacity, which is used mostly in public bodies for supplying small amounts of power and for research purposes, has reached 1 MW. 
2.4.a. Solar Energy and Turkey 
2.4. Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is energy created through atoms. By either splitting atoms (fission) or merging them (fusion), it creates energy from the reaction.  Nuclear energy, while it does produce a large amount of power, has several other hazards. Nuclear energy creates dangerous nuclear waste which is difficult to deal with. It must be stored in a secure location until it can be properly dealt with.
2.4. Nuclear Energy Advantages & Disadvantages One of the big advantages of nuclear energy is the amount of power it can produce from one plant, although the cost for building one is quite high. The dangerous effects nuclear power can have on people or the environment have led many of the more developed countries to steer away from the use of nuclear energy until the risks can be eliminated. For example The Chernobyl incident which caused many deaths of people and harm to the environment. 
2.4.a. Nuclear Energy and Turkey Next to global developments that make renewable energy sources more common spread, nuclear energy investment projects are also gaining impetus worldwide. Turkey currently has no nuclear power plant , but the development in both economy and technology we are getting ready to get in the area of nuclear energy . On May 2010, an intergovernmental agreement was signed between Turkey and Russia regarding the construction a nuclear power plant in Mersin-Akkuyu. 
2.4.a. Nuclear Energy and Turkey Also there is another block to work with nuclear energy in Turkey : There is a law which does not let nuclear power plants to be structured . Based on electricity energy supply and demand projections, it is targeted by 2020 that nuclear power plants will have a minimum of 5% share in electricity production. To that end, Law No. 5710 on Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and Law on Sale of Energy (2007) were enacted. Below you can see the nuclear resources of Turkey :
2.5. Wind Energy Wind Energy Wind is a natural energy source. When the wind blows, the blades of the turbine rotate. The rotation is then converted into an electrical current through the use of an electrical generator.  These wind turbines are usually built on wind farms. Electrical currents today are harnessed by large wind farms that are used by national electrical grids. They are also used on a smaller scale for providing electricity to smaller homes or locations.
2.5. Wind Energy Advantages & Disadvantages There are a number of advantages to using wind power. First, it produces no pollution. This means there are no harmful by-products and our environment stays healthy. Secondly, wind energy is a renewable source, so we will never run out of wind. Third, wind turbines can be placed on farms in which livestock are raised. There are also some disadvantages and concerns about wind energy: Once concern is that wind power is not constant. Another concern is that some people believe that the wind turbines are ugly and they do not want them around. 
2.5.a. Wind Energy and Turkey • World's wind resource is estimated as 53 TWh/year, and presently the total installed wind energy power is 40.301 MW. One third of this power is in Germany • With Turkey Wind Energy Potential Atlas (REPA), which was realized in 2007, it is calculated that our country has a minimum wind energy potential of 5.000 MW in regions with annual wind speed of 8,5 m/s and higher, and 48.000 MW with wind speed higher than 7,0 m/s. • Our installed power for wind energy reached the level of 802,8 MW as of the end of 2009. Upon taking effect of the Renewable Energy Law, licenses were granted to 93 new wind projects which deliver a total installed power of 3.363 MW. Out of these projects, powers plants which correspond to an installed power of 1.100 MW are presently under construction. 
2.5.a. Wind Energy and Turkey Installed power development via wind power . 
2.5.a. Wind Energy and Turkey 
2.6. Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is the natural energy formed by the earth. The hot rocks that are under the ground heat the water to produce steam. Then you can drill holes in this area, causing the steam to shoot up and drive turbines. The turbines then power electric generators. 
2.6. Geothermal Energy Advantages & Disadvantages Just as wind and solar power, geothermal energy does not pollute or cause harmful by-products. A geothermal plant is a very self-sufficient energy source once it has been built. These plants are typically rather small and do not have much affect on the beauty of the landscape. As usual, there are always some negatives. If the geothermal plant is not produced correctly, there can be pollutants. Also, if the drilling is not done correctly, there will be hazardous minerals and gases released into the air. 
2.6.a. Geothermal Energy and Turkey Since Turkey is located on the Alpine-Himalayan belt, it holds a substantially high geothermal potential. Geothermal potential of our country is 31.500 MW. Areas with potential are concentrated in Western Anatolia (77,9%). By this day, 13% of said potential (4.000 MW) has been made available by MTA General Directorate of our Ministry. While 1.500 MW of our geothermal energy potential is assessed to be suitable for electricity generation, finalized data is so far 600 MW. As of the end of 2009, our installed power Denizli Kizildere Geothermal Power plant of geothermal energy reached around 77,2 MW. 
2.6.a. Geothermal Energy and Turkey 
2.7. Biofuels and Ethanol Biofuels and Ethanol Biofuels are fuels that are made from animals or plants. They may include methane from animal waste, wood chippings, or wood. Today ethanol has been getting a lot of attention for its use in combination with gasoline for transportation use.  There are various types of biofuels, mainly being used to power machines, for cooking, and to heat homes. The technology used to create and utilize biofuels is still fairly new, but is gaining popularity in Europe, Asia, and America.
2.7. Biofuels and Ethanol
2.7. Biofuels and Ethanol Advantages & Disadvantages One of the big advantages of biofuels is the fact that they can be renewable. Ethanol, which is made from corn, can be made as long as there is a steady supply of corn. Biofuels are also less hazardous on the environment One of the disadvantages is the amount of resources it takes to make a biofuel. It costs more and takes more resources to make a gallon of ethanol than it takes to make a gallon of gas. It also takes fossil fuels to grow and harvest the corn to make the biofuel. 
2.7.a. Biofuels and Turkey • There are currently four bio-ethanol production facilities established in Turkey. However, only one of them actively operates. This facility uses mostly corn and very rarely wheat as a raw material. • The total capacity of the sector is currently 160,000 MT and the total production in 2009 was 40,000 MT and it is predicted to continue to remain at this level through 2010 and 2011. Approximately 150,000 MT of corn was used to produce 40,000 MT bio-ethanol in 2009.  • The Turkish public and commercial transportation sector uses only diesel for fuel. Turkish regulations do not allow bio-diesel producers to sell biodiesel directly to users. • Since the producers do not have direct sales licenses, they must sell products to petroleum distribution companies whose licenses give them authority to sell bio-diesel to gas stations or to consumers. 
2.7.a. Biofuels and Turkey Bifuel acitivites of Turkey 
2.8. Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen fuel is used primarily in batteries, and while it hasn't been profitable yet, it is promising. This type of alternative energy is used primarily in batteries, by combining oxygen and hydrogen to create power. The only by-product is water vapor, instead of dangerous and damaging carbon dioxide.
2.8. Hydrogen Advantages & Disadvantages If there was an easier way to produce the hydrogen needed for the reaction in the batteries, hydrogen would be a great energy source Hydrogen so far has not proven to be a very profitable energy source since it takes “more energy to manufacture than the hydrogen actually produces.” It is, however, a very good fuel for the environment and has turned out to be a good energy source for vehicles. 
2.8.a. Hydrogen and Turkey Turkey is not well-known with hydrogen energy , but in last few years hydrogen energy is one the target energy area of it . The first project of its kind in Turkey, the Bozcaada Hydrogen Island project was installed in Bozcaada Governor's building by the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET), a United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) project supported by the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) in 07 October 2011.  Turkey’s first step into the Hydrogen world !
2.9. Coal Lignite Reserve Regions in Turkey Reserve Amount Afsin-Elbistan* 1.915 million tons Elbistan* 420 million tons Konya-Karapinar 1.280 million tons Thrace 498 million tons Manisa-Soma-Eynez 170 million tons Eskişehir-Alpu As shown in the table, total reserves of newfound lignite is 4,138 billion tons. Together with the newfound reserves our country's total lignite reserves increased from 8,3 tons to 12,4 tons. 275 million tons Out of total electricity energy produced by the end of August 2009, around 29% was from imported and domestic coal. Out of coal fired electricity production by the end of August, 27% comes hard coal and imported coal, while 73% comes from domestic lignite coal. *Lignite from Afsin-Elbistan is within a lower heating value of 1000 to 1500 kcal/kg. About half of the total lignite reserve of our country is in this region. 
2.9.a. Coal and Turkey  Young coal sources Old coal sources
3. Overall Statistics Energy Intensity of Turkey comparing with the other countries 
3. Overall Statistics Inverstment costs figure 
3. Overall Statistics Renewablehydro,solar, wind… %4 Renewablehydro,solar, wind… %17 coal Natural gas Natural gas coal oil forestry oil forestry  Production Capasity Consumption Capasity So %75 of our energy is imported
3. Overall Statistics Installed power development via sources .  h y r o e l e c t r Lingite i c hyroelectric Natural gas coal
3. Overall Statistics Change in Electricity Production of Turkey Per Year with Several Sources Natural Gas Coal Lignte Nafta Fuel - oil Lpg Diesel 
3. Overall Statistics Hydro + Geothermal Natural gas Wind coal Lignite Oil Ratios of the Alternatife Energy Sources in electricity production (2006) In 2011 there is also about 1.5 % ratio for the wind power 
References        ^ On site renewable energy options (http://www.icax.co.uk/alternative_energy.html) ^ MMS. Definitions / Material and Management Services ^ Oxford Dictioanry / Concise OED Alternative Energy ^ NRDC. Glossary / Natural Resources Defence Council ^ Alternative Energy Links / http://www.iowajatc.org/Alternate%20Energy.html ^ Types of Alternative Energy /website / http://typesofalternativeenergy.com/ ^ Republic of Turkey Ministry Energy and Natural Resources - webpage http://www.enerji.gov.tr/index.php?dil=en&sf=webpages&b=enerji_EN&bn=215&hn=&nm=40717&i d=40717  ^ Energy Efficiency : The Shortest Route to a Stronger Future , Southeast Europe and Caucaus / June 3-4 2010 / Hilton / Istanbul / TURKEY - Zorlu Energy  ^Unido-Ichet Bozcaada Hyrogen Island Porject /The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (ICHET) is a project of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) , Oktober 2011 [10 ^ World Energy Council – Turkish National Commitee , 2007-2008 Turkish Energy Report , December 2008  ^ "Darmstadt University of Technology solar decathlon home design". Darmstadt University of Technology -2007  ^ Tukey Electric Energy Market and 2010-2011,Expectations and Developments,July 2010  ^Turkey Bio-fuels Annual Report 2010 , Policy and Programs
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