Alternate Bearing Research Richard Heere

57 %
43 %
Information about Alternate Bearing Research Richard Heere
Others-Misc

Published on December 18, 2008

Author: aSGuest7105

Source: authorstream.com

Alternate Bearing Research -Implications for Western Pecans- : Alternate Bearing Research -Implications for Western Pecans- What is Alternate Bearing? : What is Alternate Bearing? Alternate Bearing- the tendency for wide cyclical swings in yield ‘On’ and ‘Off’ years. Related terms: Biennial bearing, irregular bearing, masting. Slide 3: Source: Monselise and Goldschmidt, 1982 Alternate Bearing: Who’s Guilty? What does alternate bearing look like? : What does alternate bearing look like? Alternate Bearing Intensity (I) I = 0.07 I = 0.27 I = 0.21 Where n is the number of years and a1, a2, an-1 and an are yield of corresponding years How are CA pecans doing? : How are CA pecans doing? I = 0.34 I = 0.23 How are CA pecans doing? : How are CA pecans doing? I = 0.34 I = 0.23 I = 0.17 Is Alternate Bearing Bad? First an Ecological Perspective : Is Alternate Bearing Bad? First an Ecological Perspective Alternate bearing in the wild: Oak, beech, pine, elm, hickory Reproductive advantage: Pest suppression. The Horticultural Perspective- Is Alternate Bearing a Bad Thing? : The Horticultural Perspective- Is Alternate Bearing a Bad Thing? It Hurts Every Level of the Pecan Industry! Pecan growers Instability of cash flow Freeze damage Limb breakage Tree “collapse” Pecan processors and contract harvesters Facilities/equipment run below capacity in ‘Off’ years. Alternate Bearing Hurts Pecan Markets : Alternate Bearing Hurts Pecan Markets Fluctuations in Quality Small, poorly filled nuts Premature germination Shuck decline Fluctuations in Price What makes the trees alternate? : What makes the trees alternate? Yield (lbs/acre) What makes the trees alternate? : What makes the trees alternate? Yield (lbs/acre) Fruits per Acre Flowers per Acre Percentage Fruit Set (%) * What makes the trees alternate bear? : What makes the trees alternate bear? Yield (lbs/acre) Fruits per Acre Flowers per Acre Percentage Fruit Set (%) * Why are there fewer flowers after an ‘On’ year? : Why are there fewer flowers after an ‘On’ year? Fewer flowering sites in the canopy olive, prune, pecan. Direct inhibition of floral induction apple, pear, hazelnut, prune, citrus, pecan. Source: Wetzstein and Sparks, 1986 Direct inhibition of flower bud initiation : Direct inhibition of flower bud initiation Spring ‘06 Summer ‘06 Fall ‘06 Winter ‘06/’07 Spring ‘07 Summer ‘07 Floral Induction/Differentiation Fruit/Kernel Growth Bloom Bloom Harvest Direct inhibition of flower bud initiation : Spring ‘06 Summer ‘06 Fall ‘06 Winter ‘06/’07 Spring ‘07 Summer ‘07 Floral Induction/Differentiation Fruit/Kernel Growth Bloom Bloom Harvest Current season fruit/seed growth and induction/ differentiation of next year’s flowers overlap. Direct inhibition of flower bud initiation Management: Start with the right varieties : Management: Start with the right varieties Source: Conner and Worley, 2000 http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/carya/ Traits Associated with Alternate Bearing: Fruit size Fruit setting potential Post-harvest foliation period? Management: Fruit Thinning : Management: Fruit Thinning Chemical thinning??? Currently no chemical-thinners are registered for pecan NAA and Ethephon have shown some promise Mechanical thinning Potential trunk damage. “Pecan Crop Load Management” http://www.osuextra.com Source: McGraw, Smith and Reid Management: What Fruit Thinning did for the Apple Industry : 1949 U.S. apple production, 1935-1973. Apple growers began using chemical fruit thinners around 1949. Management: What Fruit Thinning did for the Apple Industry Management: When to thin. : Management: When to thin. Fruiting terminals (%) Pistillate flowers per cluster Julian date of defruiting Source: Wood, 1995 cv ‘Cheyenne’ It is critical to thin before kernel fill (before “Dough Stage”) 50-100% ovule expansion. Source: McGraw et al Management: Pruning : Management: Pruning Light management. Removes flower buds- THINNING! Source: Wood and Stahmann, 2004 Hedging/topping 2 year cycle Hedging/topping 8 year cycle Management: Avoid “triggering events” : Management: Avoid “triggering events” Severe infestations of nut-eating insects Late frosts Hail storms Trigger (e.g. Hail) On On On On On On Off Off Off Off Off Off Promote leaf health all the way to the end of the season. : Promote leaf health all the way to the end of the season. Aphid control Late-season irrigation Zinc nutrition Nitrogen nutrition ‘On’ vs ‘Off’ year rates? Late season application? Source: entoplp.okstate.edu

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Alternate | Definition of Alternate by Merriam-Webster

Alternate shades of wood formed a pattern around the window. ... alternate bearing. alternate consciousness. alternate history. alternate proportion.
Read more

Pecan Varieties for Georgia Orchards | Publications | UGA ...

Pecan Varieties for Georgia Orchards (C 898) ... Research indicates that effective pollination may ... Alternate bearing has been a problem with ‘Kanza ...
Read more

WESTERN PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION - NMSU ACES

Dr. Richard Heerema ... Alternate bearing research in pecan is probably best served by conducting longer ... 46th ANNUAL WESTERN PECAN GROWERS ASSOCIATION
Read more

Home | Alternet

Alternative News and Information. Jump to Navigation. SEARCH . Search form. Search ... Alternet Originals. After the Cologne Attacks, ...
Read more

Energy medicine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

... are not considered "energy medicine" in the terms of alternative medicine. ... Positive findings from research studies can also result from such ...
Read more

ResearchGate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ResearchGate, Berlin, Germany: Created by: Ijad Madisch, Sören Hofmayer, Horst Fickenscher: Launched: May 2008: ... One may "follow" a research interest, ...
Read more

Ethical issues in the use of animals in biomedical research

Ethical Issues in the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. Richard R. Sharp, PhD ... The use of animals in biomedical research has a lengthy history.
Read more

Alternative | Definition of Alternative by Merriam-Webster

... or based on alternative medicine Learn More about alternative. ... alternate bearing. alternate consciousness. alternate history.
Read more

Fruit and Nut Research : Home - USDA

Fruit and Nut Research Research Projects; ... Mitigating Alternate Bearing of Pecan ... Richard Rodriguez ...
Read more

Dr. Richard A. Bartsch | Faculty | Department of Chemistry ...

Dr. Richard A. Bartsch; ... Richard.Bartsch@ttu.edu Research Group. ... arenes Bearing Two Dansyl Fluorophores.", Ű. Ocak, M. Ocak; K ...
Read more